Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Lesson Overview
5.1 How Populations Grow
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

THINK ABOUT IT
In the 1950s, a fish farmer in
Florida tossed a few plants called
hy...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

THINK ABOUT IT
Meanwhile, people in New England
who fish for a living face a differ...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Describing Populations
How do ecologists study populations?
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Describing Populations
How do ecologists study populations?
Researchers study popul...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Describing Populations
The stories of hydrilla and cod both
involve dramatic change...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Geographic Range
The area inhabited by a
population is called its
geographic range....
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Geographic Range
A bacterial population in a rotting
pumpkin may have a range
small...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Density and Distribution
Population density refers to the number of individuals per...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Density and Distribution
Distribution refers to how individuals in a population are...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Density and Distribution
An example of a population that shows random distribution ...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Density and Distribution
An example of a population that shows uniform distribution...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Density and Distribution
An example of a population that shows clumped distribution...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Growth Rate
A population’s growth rate determines whether the population size
incre...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Age Structure
To fully understand a plant or animal population, researchers need to...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Population Growth
What factors affect population growth?
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Population Growth
What factors affect population growth?
The factors that can affec...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Population Growth
A population will increase or decrease
in size depending on how m...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Birthrate and Death Rate
A population can grow when its
birthrate is higher than it...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Immigration and Emigration
A population may grow if individuals
move into its range...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Exponential Growth
What happens during exponential growth?
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Exponential Growth
What happens during exponential growth?
Under ideal conditions w...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Exponential Growth
If you provide a population with all the food and space it needs...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Organisms That Reproduce Rapidly
In a hypothetical experiment, a single bacterium d...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Organisms That Reproduce Rapidly
Another way to describe the size of the bacteria p...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Organisms That Reproduce Rapidly
If you plot the size of this population on a graph...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Organisms That Reproduce Slowly
Many organisms grow and reproduce much more slowly ...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Organisms in New Environments
Sometimes, when an organism is moved to a new environ...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Logistic Growth
What is logistic growth?
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Logistic Growth
What is logistic growth?
Logistic growth occurs when a population’s...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Logistic Growth
Natural populations don’t grow exponentially for long.
Sooner or la...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Phases of Growth
Suppose that a few individuals are introduced into a real-world
en...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Phase 1: Exponential Growth
After a short time, the population begins to grow expon...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Phase 2: Growth Slows Down.
In real-world populations, exponential growth does not ...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Phase 3: Growth Stops.
At some point, the rate of population growth drops to zero a...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

The Logistic Growth Curve
This curve has an S-shape that represents what is called ...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

The Logistic Growth Curve
Population growth may slow for several reasons.
Growth ma...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Carrying Capacity
When the birthrate and the death rate are the same, and when
immi...
Lesson Overview

How Populations Grow

Carrying Capacity
Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals of a parti...
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  1. 1. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Lesson Overview 5.1 How Populations Grow
  2. 2. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow THINK ABOUT IT In the 1950s, a fish farmer in Florida tossed a few plants called hydrilla into a canal. Hydrilla was imported from Asia for use in home aquariums because it is hardy and adaptable. The few plants he tossed in reproduced quickly and kept on reproducing. Today, their tangled stems snag boats in rivers and overtake habitats; native water plants and animals are disappearing. Why did these plants get so out of control? Is there any way to get rid of them?
  3. 3. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow THINK ABOUT IT Meanwhile, people in New England who fish for a living face a different problem. Their catch has dropped dramatically, despite hard work and new equipment. The cod catch in one recent year was 3,048 metric tons. Back in 1982, it was 57,200 metric tons—almost 19 times higher! Where did all the fish go? Can anything be done to increase their numbers?
  4. 4. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Describing Populations How do ecologists study populations?
  5. 5. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Describing Populations How do ecologists study populations? Researchers study populations’ geographic range, density and distribution, growth rate, and age structure.
  6. 6. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Describing Populations The stories of hydrilla and cod both involve dramatic changes in the sizes of populations. A population is a group of organisms of a single species that lives in a given area, such as the hydrilla population represented on this map. Researchers study populations’ geographic range, density and distribution, growth rate, and age structure.
  7. 7. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Geographic Range The area inhabited by a population is called its geographic range. A population’s range can vary enormously in size, depending on the species.
  8. 8. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Geographic Range A bacterial population in a rotting pumpkin may have a range smaller than a cubic meter, whereas the population of cod in the western Atlantic covers a range that stretches from Greenland down to North Carolina. Humans have carried hydrilla to so many places that its range now includes every continent except Antarctica, and it is found in many places in the United States.
  9. 9. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Density and Distribution Population density refers to the number of individuals per unit area. Populations of different species often have very different densities, even in the same environment. A population of ducks in a pond may have a low density, while fish and other animals in the same pond community may have higher densities.
  10. 10. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Density and Distribution Distribution refers to how individuals in a population are spaced out across the range of the population—randomly, uniformly, or mostly concentrated in clumps.
  11. 11. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Density and Distribution An example of a population that shows random distribution is the purple lupine. These wild flowers grow randomly in a field among other wildflowers. The dots in the illustration represent individual members of a population with random distribution.
  12. 12. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Density and Distribution An example of a population that shows uniform distribution is the king penguin. The dots in the illustration represent individual members of a population with uniform distribution.
  13. 13. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Density and Distribution An example of a population that shows clumped distribution is the striped catfish. These fish organize into tight groups. The dots in the illustration represent individual members of a population with clumped distribution.
  14. 14. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Growth Rate A population’s growth rate determines whether the population size increases, decreases, or stays the same. Hydrilla populations in their native habitats tend to stay more or less the same size over time. These populations have a growth rate of around zero; they neither increase nor decrease in size. The hydrilla population in Florida, by contrast, has a high growth rate— which means that it increases in size. Populations can also decrease in size, as cod populations have been doing. The cod population has a negative growth rate.
  15. 15. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Age Structure To fully understand a plant or animal population, researchers need to know the population’s age structure—the number of males and females of each age a population contains. Most plants and animals cannot reproduce until they reach a certain age. Also, among animals, only females can produce offspring.
  16. 16. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Population Growth What factors affect population growth?
  17. 17. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Population Growth What factors affect population growth? The factors that can affect population size are the birthrate, death rate, and the rate at which individuals enter or leave the population.
  18. 18. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Population Growth A population will increase or decrease in size depending on how many individuals are added to it or removed from it. The factors that can affect population size are the birthrate, death rate, and the rate at which individuals enter or leave the population.
  19. 19. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Birthrate and Death Rate A population can grow when its birthrate is higher than its death rate. If the birthrate equals the death rate, the population may stay the same size. If the death rate is greater than the birthrate, the population is likely to shrink.
  20. 20. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Immigration and Emigration A population may grow if individuals move into its range from elsewhere, a process called immigration. A population may decrease in size if individuals move out of the population’s range, a process called emigration.
  21. 21. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Exponential Growth What happens during exponential growth?
  22. 22. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Exponential Growth What happens during exponential growth? Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially.
  23. 23. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Exponential Growth If you provide a population with all the food and space it needs, protect it from predators and disease, and remove its waste products, the population will grow. The population will increase because members of the population will be able to produce offspring, and after a time, those offspring will produce their own offspring. Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially. In exponential growth, the larger a population gets, the faster it grows. The size of each generation of offspring will be larger than the generation before it.
  24. 24. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Organisms That Reproduce Rapidly In a hypothetical experiment, a single bacterium divides to produce two cells every 20 minutes. After 20 minutes, under ideal conditions, the bacterium divides to produce two bacteria. After another 20 minutes, those two bacteria divide to produce four cells. After three 20-minute periods, we have 2×2×2, or 8 cells.
  25. 25. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Organisms That Reproduce Rapidly Another way to describe the size of the bacteria population is to use an exponent: 23 cells (three 20-minute periods). In another hour (six 20-minute periods), there will be 26, or 64 bacteria. In one day, this bacterial population will grow to 4,720,000,000,000,000,000,000 individuals. If this growth continued without slowing down, this bacterial population would cover the planet within a few days!
  26. 26. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Organisms That Reproduce Rapidly If you plot the size of this population on a graph over time, you get a Jshaped curve that rises slowly at first, and then rises faster and faster. If nothing were to stop this kind of growth, the population would become larger and larger, faster and faster, until it approached an infinitely large size.
  27. 27. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Organisms That Reproduce Slowly Many organisms grow and reproduce much more slowly than bacteria. For example, a female elephant can produce a single offspring only every 2 to 4 years. Newborn elephants take about 10 years to mature. If exponential growth continued and all descendants of a single elephant pair survived and reproduced, after 750 years there would be nearly 20 million elephants!
  28. 28. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Organisms in New Environments Sometimes, when an organism is moved to a new environment, its population grows exponentially for a time. When a few European gypsy moths were accidentally released from a laboratory near Boston, these plant-eating pests spread across the northeastern United States within a few years. In peak years, they devoured the leaves of thousands of acres of forest. In some places, they formed a living blanket that covered the ground, sidewalks, and cars.
  29. 29. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Logistic Growth What is logistic growth?
  30. 30. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Logistic Growth What is logistic growth? Logistic growth occurs when a population’s growth slows and then stops, following a period of exponential growth.
  31. 31. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Logistic Growth Natural populations don’t grow exponentially for long. Sooner or later, something stops exponential growth. What happens?
  32. 32. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Phases of Growth Suppose that a few individuals are introduced into a real-world environment. This graph traces the phases of growth that the population goes through.
  33. 33. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Phase 1: Exponential Growth After a short time, the population begins to grow exponentially. During this phase, resources are unlimited, so individuals grow and reproduce rapidly. Few individuals die, and many offspring are produced, so both the population size and the rate of growth increase more and more rapidly.
  34. 34. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Phase 2: Growth Slows Down. In real-world populations, exponential growth does not continue for long. At some point, the rate of population growth begins to slow down. The population still grows, but the rate of growth slows down, so the population size increases more slowly.
  35. 35. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Phase 3: Growth Stops. At some point, the rate of population growth drops to zero and the size of the population levels off. Under some conditions, the population will remain at or near this size indefinitely.
  36. 36. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow The Logistic Growth Curve This curve has an S-shape that represents what is called logistic growth. Logistic growth occurs when a population’s growth slows and then stops, following a period of exponential growth. Many familiar plant and animal populations follow a logistic growth curve.
  37. 37. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow The Logistic Growth Curve Population growth may slow for several reasons. Growth may slow if the population’s birthrate decreases or the death rate increases—or if births fall and deaths rise together. In addition, population growth may slow if the rate of immigration decreases, the rate of emigration increases, or both.
  38. 38. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Carrying Capacity When the birthrate and the death rate are the same, and when immigration equals emigration, population growth stops. There is a dotted, horizontal line through the region of this graph where population growth levels off. The point at which this dotted line intersects the y-axis represents the carrying capacity.
  39. 39. Lesson Overview How Populations Grow Carrying Capacity Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals of a particular species that a particular environment can support. Once a population reaches the carrying capacity of its environment, a variety of factors act to stabilize it at that size.
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