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Chapter15

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  • 1.  Class of psychotic disorders withdysfunction in› Perception› Language› Thought› Affect› Behavior http://www.janssen.com/janssen/mindstorm_video.html
  • 2.  Types of symptoms› Positive: added behaviors› Negative: absent behaviors› Cognitive
  • 3.  Neurotransmitters› Dopamine Brain Differences› Ventricles› Overall grey matter
  • 4.  Decreased cellularorganization
  • 5.  Stressors› Diathesis stressmodel Family Environment
  • 6.  Deficient activity in frontal cortex believed tobe related to both cognitive and negativesymptoms
  • 7.  Characterized by persistent, extremedisturbances in emotional states causingpsychological discomfort, impairedability to function, or both› a.k.a. affective disorders› Major Depressive Disorder› Bipolar Disorder
  • 8.  Depression› approximately 3 percent in menand 7 percent in women,› fourth leading cause of disability
  • 9. Major Depressive Disorder Long lasting depressed moodthat interferes with the ability to› function, feel pleasure ormaintain interest in lifeBipolar Disorder Repeated episodes of maniaand depression› Mania: unreasonable elationand hyperactivity
  • 10. Psychosocial Stressors Relationships Learned helplessness› Feeling that is is impossible to escapesomething painful› Unable to improve› Suggests a cognitive component
  • 11. Biological Brain Differences› Medial Prefrontal Cortex Subgenual anteriorcingulate cortex(subgenual ACC) Neurotransmitters› Serotonin› Norepinephrine Genetic Factors
  • 12.  Psychopharmacology› 5-HT and NE Tricyclic antidepressant Serotonin andnorepinephrine reuptakeinhibitor (SNRI)› 5-HT Specific serotoninreuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Surgical› ElectroconvulsiveTherapy› Deep brainstimulation (DBS)
  • 13.  Biological› Stress and arousal› Genetic predisposition› Amygdala: fear response› Frontal Lobes: faulty cognition› Serotonin (5-HT) Psychological› Faulty cognition: hypervigilant› Maladaptive learning: conditioning Sociocultural› Cultural Differences› Anxiety reflects culture and vice versaVideo
  • 14.  Psychopharmacology› 5-HT Specific serotoninreuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Surgical› Cingulotomy› Severs connectionsbetween prefrontalcortex and the limbicsystem obsessive-compulsivedisorder.
  • 15. Disorder Neurotransmitter(s) Brain AreaAnxiety Disorders Serotonin Frontal LobesAmygdalaMood Disorders SerotoninNorepinephrineFrontal LobesSchizophrenia Dopamine VentriclesGrey matterFrontal Lobes