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Learning &MemoryChapter 12
LearningLearningthe process by which experiences change thenervous system resulting in changes in behaviorMemoriesChan...
LearningPerceptual learningStimulus-response learningMotor learningRelational learning
Hebbian LearningHebb ruleLearning involves thestrengthening of asynapse that isrepeatedly active whenthe post synapticne...
Classical vs. Operant ConditioningClassical ConditioningUnconditioned Stimuli(US)UnconditionedResponse (UR)Neutral Stim...
Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
Long-term PotentiationLong-term potentiation (LTP)A long-term increase in the excitability of aneuron to a particular sy...
Long-term PotentiationHippocampal formation
Synaptic strengtheningoccurs when synapsesare active while themembrane of thepostsynaptic cell isdepolarized
Long-term PotentiationAssociative LTPconcurrent stimulationof weak and strongsynapses to a givenneuronstrengthens the w...
ReceptorsNMDA Receptorglutamate receptor thatcontrols a calciumchannel that is normallyblocked by Mg2+ ionsneurotransmit...
Long-term DepressionLong-term depression (LTD)A long-term decrease in the excitability of aneuron to a particular synapt...
Classical ConditioningConditionedemotionalresponsesAmygdalaLateral nucleus
Classical ConditioningCerebellumLateral interpositus(LIP) nucleusTiming of briefintervals>1 second
Instrumental Learning(a.k.a. operant conditioning)Basal GangliaAlso important forimplicit proceduralmemories
Instrumental Learning: RewardNucleus accumbensReceives inputs from VTAVentral tagmental areaDopminergic
Involves memory for current thoughtsDurationRoughly 20 seconds without rehearsalCan be increased by maintenance rehear...
Long-Term Memory (LTM)Relatively permanent memory storageBelieved to have unlimited capacitySeveral systems of organiza...
Semantic and EpisodicMemorySemantic memoryFactsWordsGeneral knowledgeEpisodic memoryExperiencespersonal events
Procedural vs. DeclarativeMemoryProcedural memory: Knowing “how”HabitsMotor skillsBasal GangliaDeclarative memory: Kn...
Declarative vs. Non-declarative MemoryDeclarative memoryConscious, EffortfulIncludes semantic and episodic memoriesNon...
Amnesia
Typical Presentation ofAmnesiaNormal working memorySevere anterograde amnesia for declarativememoryespecially episodic ...
The hippocampal formationConsolidation ofmemoriesDeclarative memoriesSpatial MemoryContextual Memorydetail
NeurogenesisNew neurons more amenable to synapticplasticityRelational learning
Korsakoff’s SyndromeWernicky-Korsakoff syndromeSever thiamine deficiencyB1Symptoms similar toprefrontal cortex damage...
Alzheimer’s Disease Plaques & Tangles Cell Death
Chapter12
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Chapter12

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Transcript of "Chapter12"

  1. 1. Learning &MemoryChapter 12
  2. 2. LearningLearningthe process by which experiences change thenervous system resulting in changes in behaviorMemoriesChanges in the nervous system and behaviorNetworksSynaptic plasticity
  3. 3. LearningPerceptual learningStimulus-response learningMotor learningRelational learning
  4. 4. Hebbian LearningHebb ruleLearning involves thestrengthening of asynapse that isrepeatedly active whenthe post synapticneuron fires
  5. 5. Classical vs. Operant ConditioningClassical ConditioningUnconditioned Stimuli(US)UnconditionedResponse (UR)Neutral Stimuli (NS)Conditioned Stimuli(CS)ConditionedResponse (CR)Operant ConditioningTarget behaviorConsequenceThe stimuliEffect on behaviorReinforcePunish
  6. 6. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
  7. 7. Long-term PotentiationLong-term potentiation (LTP)A long-term increase in the excitability of aneuron to a particular synaptic input caused byrepeated high frequency activity of that input.Sensitization
  8. 8. Long-term PotentiationHippocampal formation
  9. 9. Synaptic strengtheningoccurs when synapsesare active while themembrane of thepostsynaptic cell isdepolarized
  10. 10. Long-term PotentiationAssociative LTPconcurrent stimulationof weak and strongsynapses to a givenneuronstrengthens the weaksynapses
  11. 11. ReceptorsNMDA Receptorglutamate receptor thatcontrols a calciumchannel that is normallyblocked by Mg2+ ionsneurotransmitter- andvoltage-dependent ionchannelAMPA ReceptorAn ionotropic glutamatereceptor that controls asodium channel; whenopen, it producesEPSPs.
  12. 12. Long-term DepressionLong-term depression (LTD)A long-term decrease in the excitability of aneuron to a particular synaptic inputCaused by stimulation of the terminal buttonwhile the postsynaptic membrane ishyperpolarized or only slightly depolarized.
  13. 13. Classical ConditioningConditionedemotionalresponsesAmygdalaLateral nucleus
  14. 14. Classical ConditioningCerebellumLateral interpositus(LIP) nucleusTiming of briefintervals>1 second
  15. 15. Instrumental Learning(a.k.a. operant conditioning)Basal GangliaAlso important forimplicit proceduralmemories
  16. 16. Instrumental Learning: RewardNucleus accumbensReceives inputs from VTAVentral tagmental areaDopminergic
  17. 17. Involves memory for current thoughtsDurationRoughly 20 seconds without rehearsalCan be increased by maintenance rehearsalCapacity5-9 itemsCan by increased by chunkingShort-Term/Working Memory
  18. 18. Long-Term Memory (LTM)Relatively permanent memory storageBelieved to have unlimited capacitySeveral systems of organizationEpisodic vs. SemanticNon-declarative vs. Declarative
  19. 19. Semantic and EpisodicMemorySemantic memoryFactsWordsGeneral knowledgeEpisodic memoryExperiencespersonal events
  20. 20. Procedural vs. DeclarativeMemoryProcedural memory: Knowing “how”HabitsMotor skillsBasal GangliaDeclarative memory: Knowing “that”Includes semantic and episodic memory
  21. 21. Declarative vs. Non-declarative MemoryDeclarative memoryConscious, EffortfulIncludes semantic and episodic memoriesNon-declarative memoryAutomatic, HabitualIncludes perceptual, motor, stimulus-responsememoriesDoes not require hippocampal formation
  22. 22. Amnesia
  23. 23. Typical Presentation ofAmnesiaNormal working memorySevere anterograde amnesia for declarativememoryespecially episodic memories.Some degree of retrograde amnesiamainly limited to episodic memories.Better implicit than explicit memory.Nearly intact procedural memory.
  24. 24. The hippocampal formationConsolidation ofmemoriesDeclarative memoriesSpatial MemoryContextual Memorydetail
  25. 25. NeurogenesisNew neurons more amenable to synapticplasticityRelational learning
  26. 26. Korsakoff’s SyndromeWernicky-Korsakoff syndromeSever thiamine deficiencyB1Symptoms similar toprefrontal cortex damage apathy, confusion, and memory loss.hippocampal damage impairment of episodic memory and sparing of implicit memory.Confabulations
  27. 27. Alzheimer’s Disease Plaques & Tangles Cell Death
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