Long-term PotentiationLong-term potentiation (LTP)A long-term increase in the excitability of aneuron to a particular synaptic input caused byrepeated high frequency activity of that input.Sensitization
Synaptic strengtheningoccurs when synapsesare active while themembrane of thepostsynaptic cell isdepolarized
Long-term PotentiationAssociative LTPconcurrent stimulationof weak and strongsynapses to a givenneuronstrengthens the weaksynapses
ReceptorsNMDA Receptorglutamate receptor thatcontrols a calciumchannel that is normallyblocked by Mg2+ ionsneurotransmitter- andvoltage-dependent ionchannelAMPA ReceptorAn ionotropic glutamatereceptor that controls asodium channel; whenopen, it producesEPSPs.
Long-term DepressionLong-term depression (LTD)A long-term decrease in the excitability of aneuron to a particular synaptic inputCaused by stimulation of the terminal buttonwhile the postsynaptic membrane ishyperpolarized or only slightly depolarized.
Classical ConditioningCerebellumLateral interpositus(LIP) nucleusTiming of briefintervals>1 second
Instrumental Learning(a.k.a. operant conditioning)Basal GangliaAlso important forimplicit proceduralmemories
Instrumental Learning: RewardNucleus accumbensReceives inputs from VTAVentral tagmental areaDopminergic
Involves memory for current thoughtsDurationRoughly 20 seconds without rehearsalCan be increased by maintenance rehearsalCapacity5-9 itemsCan by increased by chunkingShort-Term/Working Memory
Long-Term Memory (LTM)Relatively permanent memory storageBelieved to have unlimited capacitySeveral systems of organizationEpisodic vs. SemanticNon-declarative vs. Declarative
Semantic and EpisodicMemorySemantic memoryFactsWordsGeneral knowledgeEpisodic memoryExperiencespersonal events
Procedural vs. DeclarativeMemoryProcedural memory: Knowing “how”HabitsMotor skillsBasal GangliaDeclarative memory: Knowing “that”Includes semantic and episodic memory
Declarative vs. Non-declarative MemoryDeclarative memoryConscious, EffortfulIncludes semantic and episodic memoriesNon-declarative memoryAutomatic, HabitualIncludes perceptual, motor, stimulus-responsememoriesDoes not require hippocampal formation
Typical Presentation ofAmnesiaNormal working memorySevere anterograde amnesia for declarativememoryespecially episodic memories.Some degree of retrograde amnesiamainly limited to episodic memories.Better implicit than explicit memory.Nearly intact procedural memory.
The hippocampal formationConsolidation ofmemoriesDeclarative memoriesSpatial MemoryContextual Memorydetail
NeurogenesisNew neurons more amenable to synapticplasticityRelational learning
Korsakoff’s SyndromeWernicky-Korsakoff syndromeSever thiamine deficiencyB1Symptoms similar toprefrontal cortex damage apathy, confusion, and memory loss.hippocampal damage impairment of episodic memory and sparing of implicit memory.Confabulations
Alzheimer’s Disease Plaques & Tangles Cell Death
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