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  • 1. Chapter 10: Emotion
  • 2. Learning Objectives1. Discuss the behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal components of an emotional response and the role of the amygdala in controlling them.2. Discuss the nature, functions, and neural control of aggressive behavior.3. Discuss the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in anger, aggression, and impulse control.4. Discuss cross-cultural studies on the expression and comprehension of emotions.5. Discuss the neural control of the recognition of emotional expression.6. Discuss the neural control of emotional expression.7. Discuss the James-Lange theory of feelings of emotion and evaluate relevant research.
  • 3. Emotions Emotions consist of patterns of physiological responses and species-typical behaviors Three components  behavioral  autonomic  hormonal
  • 4. Emotions Behavioral component  muscular movements appropriate to the situation Autonomic responses  facilitate the behaviors  provide quick mobilization of energy for vigorous movement. Hormonal responses  reinforce the autonomic responses.
  • 5. Emotion and the Brain Pathways  Thalamus→Cortex→Amygdala  Thalamus→Amygdala Amygdala  Part of limbic system  Fear response
  • 6. Emotion and the Brain Sympathetic Response  Amygdala projects to:  Hypothalamus→Medulla Hormonal Response  Hypothalamus→pituitary gland  Endocrine system
  • 7. The Amygdala Lateral nucleus (LA)  Classical Conditioning Central nucleus (CE)  Emotional behaviors and responses  Aversive stimuli Basal nucleus (BA)
  • 8. Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (vmPFC) The region of the prefrontal cortex Plays an inhibitory role in the expression of emotions Involved in extinction of a conditional emotional response Damage impairs  Behavioral control  Moral Decision making
  • 9. Moral Decision Making Non-moral Impersonal  “borrow” boat to help others Personal  Sinking life boat
  • 10. Phineas Gage
  • 11. Serotonin (5-HT) Low levels of 5-HT  Aggression  Antisocial Behavior 5-HT agonist  Fluoxetine (Prozac)
  • 12. Communication of Emotions Facial Expressions Expression of Emotions Recognition of Emotions
  • 13. Facial Expressions Innate responses  Species typical, not culturally bound Adaptive Behavior
  • 14. Emotional Expression Verbal and non-verbal cues  Tone of voice, word choice, posture, gestures, facial expressions Lateralized  Right hemisphere Facial Paresis  Volitional: impaired voluntary movement of facial muscles  Emotional: impaired movement of facial muscles in response to emotion
  • 15. Emotional Recognition Verbal and non-verbal cues Right Hemisphere Amygdala: fearful faces  shows activity before visual cortex L R
  • 16. James-Lange Theory of Emotion  The theory that emotions arise from the perception of body changes  Feeling are the result of feedback from the muscles and organs
  • 17. James-Lange Theory Sequence  perceive a stimulus  physiological and behavioral changes occur  experience a particular emotion Spinal cord injury Recall
  • 18. Facial-Feedback Feedback from facial muscles Simulated smile vs. simulated frown