Learning Objectives1. Discuss the behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal components of an emotional response and the role of the amygdala in controlling them.2. Discuss the nature, functions, and neural control of aggressive behavior.3. Discuss the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in anger, aggression, and impulse control.4. Discuss cross-cultural studies on the expression and comprehension of emotions.5. Discuss the neural control of the recognition of emotional expression.6. Discuss the neural control of emotional expression.7. Discuss the James-Lange theory of feelings of emotion and evaluate relevant research.
Emotions Emotions consist of patterns of physiological responses and species-typical behaviors Three components behavioral autonomic hormonal
Emotions Behavioral component muscular movements appropriate to the situation Autonomic responses facilitate the behaviors provide quick mobilization of energy for vigorous movement. Hormonal responses reinforce the autonomic responses.
Emotion and the Brain Pathways Thalamus→Cortex→Amygdala Thalamus→Amygdala Amygdala Part of limbic system Fear response
Emotion and the Brain Sympathetic Response Amygdala projects to: Hypothalamus→Medulla Hormonal Response Hypothalamus→pituitary gland Endocrine system
The Amygdala Lateral nucleus (LA) Classical Conditioning Central nucleus (CE) Emotional behaviors and responses Aversive stimuli Basal nucleus (BA)
Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (vmPFC) The region of the prefrontal cortex Plays an inhibitory role in the expression of emotions Involved in extinction of a conditional emotional response Damage impairs Behavioral control Moral Decision making
Moral Decision Making Non-moral Impersonal “borrow” boat to help others Personal Sinking life boat
Communication of Emotions Facial Expressions Expression of Emotions Recognition of Emotions
Facial Expressions Innate responses Species typical, not culturally bound Adaptive Behavior
Emotional Expression Verbal and non-verbal cues Tone of voice, word choice, posture, gestures, facial expressions Lateralized Right hemisphere Facial Paresis Volitional: impaired voluntary movement of facial muscles Emotional: impaired movement of facial muscles in response to emotion
Emotional Recognition Verbal and non-verbal cues Right Hemisphere Amygdala: fearful faces shows activity before visual cortex L R
James-Lange Theory of Emotion The theory that emotions arise from the perception of body changes Feeling are the result of feedback from the muscles and organs
James-Lange Theory Sequence perceive a stimulus physiological and behavioral changes occur experience a particular emotion Spinal cord injury Recall
Facial-Feedback Feedback from facial muscles Simulated smile vs. simulated frown