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Diario  Judicial  Inglés  Jurídico
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Diario Judicial Inglés Jurídico

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Transcript

  • 1. Inglés Jurídico Nivel Inicial
  • 2. Sentence Structure Syntax = the study of the sentence Word Order is at the heart of syntax and it is essential for meaning
  • 3. Patterns
    • Most sentences can be analysed into one of only seven basic clause types
    • S + V
    • S + V + O
    • S + V + C
    • S + V + A
    • S+ V + O + O
    • S + V + O + C
    • S + V + O + A
  • 4. Elements
    • I ) Subject:
    • II) Verb
    • III) Object
    • IV) Complements
    • V) Adverbials
  • 5. I) Subject
          • It controls whether the verb is singular or plural.
          • The witness work s with the plaintiff .
          • Subjects are generally: nouns, noun phrases and pronouns.
            • He works with the plaintiff
  • 6. II) Verb
    • The verb can never be omitted.
    • A sentence may contain a single verb or a cluster of verbs (verb phrase)
    • There are three types of verbs: Full, modal and primary verbs.
    • Forms of Verbs:
    • A) Finite verbs (they refer to a particular number, tense, person or mood)
    • B) Non finite : -ing participle, -ed participle and the infinitive.
  • 7. III) Object
    • It usually follows the subject and verb in a clause.
    • There are two types: a)Direct b)Indirect
    • A) Direct: person or thing directly affected by the action expressed by the verb.
    • B) Indirect: animate being which is the recipient of the action.
    • Objects are generally nouns or objective pronouns
  • 8. IV) Complements
    • Subjective Complement: It refers to the subject
      • The secretary looked worried
    • Objective Complement: It refers to the object
      • The secretary left the door ajar
  • 9. v) Adverbials
    • They are not always necessary within the sentence. (additional information)
    • They are usually adverbs, prepositional phrases, noun phrases.
    • There may be more than one in a sentence
    • They are used to express: Time, place, manner.
  • 10. Questions and Negatives
    • Questions
    • Aux + Subject+Verb ?
    • Do they work ?
    • Wh-+aux+Subj+Verb ?
    • Where do they work ?
    • Negatives
    • Subj + Aux + NOT + V
    • They do not work
  • 11. Word Classes
    • 1. Nouns
    • 2. Adjectives
    • 3. Verbs
    • 4. Adverbs
  • 12. Nouns
    • TYPES:
    • Proper : e.g. names : Michigan, Steve
    • Common: Countable : book
    • (Abstract/Concrete) Uncountable : justice
  • 13. Nouns: Gender
    • There is no grammatical gender but there are ways of expressing whether they are male or female or whether they are people or things.
      • Prince/princess it/he/she fiancé/fiancée
      • Bride/groom husband/wife
    • Some words have dual gender:
    • -cousin president student
  • 14. Nouns: Number
    • 1) In general, there are singular and plural nouns. The most common plural form is: singular noun + “s”= house/houses, car/cars
    • 2) Irregular Plurals :
    • Old English or Germanic: foot/feet, woman/women,
    • Greek/Latin words: formula/formulae, thesis/theses
    • Invariable Plurals : aircraft,deer, sheep