Start-ups, incubators and technology transfer: lessons learned from previous experiences

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SRTD Final Conference
Session 2: Startups & Incubators

Start-ups, incubators and technology transfer: lessons learned from previous experiences

Rigas ARVANITIS , IRD

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Start-ups, incubators and technology transfer: lessons learned from previous experiences

  1. 1. Session 2: Start-ups, incubators and technology transfer: lessons learned from previous experiences Rigas ARVANITIS , IRD
  2. 2. A general move <ul><li>Incubators, clusters, technoparks, networks… </li></ul><ul><li>A general move from the in close relationship with the following phenomena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>growth of ICTs and new technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>importance of new &quot;extension&quot; activities of universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech transfer between research and production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional industrial policies and decentralization </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Variety of forms <ul><li>Technoparks and technopoles </li></ul><ul><li>Technology transfer units in universities, engineering schools, </li></ul><ul><li>Funding start-ups: venture capital, credit schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering networks </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate technical centres </li></ul><ul><li>Business associations related to innovation and tech dev. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fast growing experiences <ul><li>In most European countries and in the USA: </li></ul><ul><li>The Silicon Valley sindrome </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial universities (as a goal) </li></ul><ul><li>Large consensus on the need to trigger new economic sources for employment </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation policy: very much related to large firms </li></ul><ul><li>Need for specific dedicated programs for SMEs </li></ul>
  5. 5. In the developing world <ul><li>Brazil, China, Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Very diverse experiences (examples) </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller countries have emphasized : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICTs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technoparks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger countries: close relation to industrial policy </li></ul>
  6. 6. In the Mediterranean <ul><li>Many experiences in MENA countries </li></ul><ul><li>Two opposite examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunisia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morocco </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When comparing experiences, differences rather due to policy and industrial background rather than ‘cultural’ aspects </li></ul>
  7. 7. At least two differences (1/2° <ul><li>FIRST MAJOR DIFFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Start-ups, companies related to tech transfers from large universities and R&D centres </li></ul><ul><li>Companies incubated under a common roof, sharing common services (fair, support centre, infrastructure, legal & other services) </li></ul>
  8. 8. At least two differences (2/2) <ul><li>SECOND MAJOR DIFFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-existing geographical proximity and industrial localization (‘marshalian district’) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Clustering’ created de novo from scrath (usually as a technopark, university incubator or policy-oriented localized grouping). </li></ul>
  9. 9. A management and policy issue <ul><li>‘ Incubators’ are among other things: </li></ul><ul><li>A management issue related to innovation and entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>A policy issue related to the institutional environment </li></ul><ul><li>Both are different when seen from the eyes of an entreprise or a policy-maker </li></ul>
  10. 10. Technological learning of companies <ul><li>Incubators and clusters are related to the capacity of entreprises to adopt, adapt, and develop technologies </li></ul><ul><li>‘ technological learning’ rather than innovation should be the main focus </li></ul><ul><li>‘ localizing’ competence seems of paramount experience (‘root the experience locally’) </li></ul><ul><li>Never forget: innovation is not only a local affaire! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Thank you !

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