Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) An Agroecological Approach toAgricultural Development and Environmental Conservation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) An Agroecological Approach to Agricultural Development and Environmental Conservation

1,929
views

Published on

Presenter: Norman Uphoff

Presenter: Norman Uphoff

Published in: Education, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,929
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
100
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) – An Agroecological Approach to Agricultural Development and Environmental Conservation AEM 6600 – Agroecosystems, Economic Development and the Environment Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
  • 2. Agroecology – a alternative paradigm to the Green Revolution? Inductive approach to agroecology: • Experience in Madagascar • Acquaintance with agroecology • Organization of Bellagio conference, 1999 •Concern with agricultural strategies • Comparison of 20th and 21st century conditions for agricultural development
  • 3. Goals for rice sector in 21st century, acc. to IRRI/DG ( 2004 -- Intl. Year of Rice ) • Increase land productivity-- higher yield • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop • Make technology accessible for the poor • More environmental friendliness • More pest- and disease-resistance • Less susceptibility to climatic stresses • Better grain quality for consumers • Greater profitability for farmers
  • 4. SRI practices, now available, can help us meet all of these needs: • Higher yields -- by 50 to 100%, or more • Water reductions -- by 25 to 50% • Capital expenditure – is not necessary, and neither is use of agrochemical inputs • Resistance to pests and diseases and less vulnerability to drought and lodging • Better grain quality • Lower costs of production = higher income
  • 5. Additional benefits of SRI practice: • Time to maturity -- reduced by 1-2 weeks • Milling outturn (polished rice) ~ 15% higher • Other crops’ performance can also be improved by SRI concepts and practices, e.g., finger millet • Human resource development for farmers, promoted through participatory approaches • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture to improve the economy • Health benefits – less chemicals in food chain; reduced arsenic uptake; mosquito-borne diseases↓
  • 6. System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on right, picture courtesy of PRADAN, Jharkhand
  • 7. SRI Is NOT a Technology = 6 Core Ideas • Use young seedlings to preserve growth potential – although DIRECT SEEDING is becoming an option • Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly, shallow, not inverting root tips which halts growth • Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve “edge effect” everywhere • Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic, not continuously saturated, and • Actively aerate the soil -- as much as possible • Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible First 3 practices stimulate plant growth, while the other practices enhance the growth and
  • 8. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: (a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and (b) Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides • SRI (AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: (a) Promoting the growth of root systems, and (b) Increasing the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits
  • 9. Takeo province, Cambodia ; Rice plant grown from a single seed
  • 10. Nepal, Morang District: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods
  • 11. Rice field in Madagascar grown with SRI methods
  • 12. Farmer in Timbuktu region of Mali showing difference between regular and SRI plants -- first-year yield of 8.98 t/ha
  • 13. SRI field in Cuba – CFA Camilo Cienfuegos, Bahia Honda, 14 t/ha – Los Palacios 9 cv. -- 2003
  • 14. Farmer in Cuba with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  • 15. As of 2009, SRI benefits have been validated in 35 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, 1999-2000: China, Indonesia Pakistan, Vietnam 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Iran, Iraq, Zambia Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Congo, 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Ecuador, Costa Rica Mozambique, Peru > 1 million farmers/acres
  • 16. 300 Ye llow SRI CK leaf and 250 sheath 47.9% 34.7% Panicle Organ dry weight(g/hill) 200 Le af 150 100 Sheath 50 Stem 0 Stage IH H FH MR WR YR IH H FH MR WR YR Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  • 17. Lombok Province, Indonesia: Rice plants same variety and same age
  • 18. Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei, 2002-06 • No. of trials: 12,133 • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%) • Reduction in water requirements: 40% • Reduction in fertilizer use: 50% • Reduction in costs of production: 20% Bali, DS 2006: 24 farmers on 42 hectares:
  • 19. INDONESIA: Rice plants in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
  • 20. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS • Natural ecosystems benefit from a lower water requirement for rice (WWF) • Water quality better (less NO3) from reductions in application of N fertilizer • Soil quality and water quality are better with less use of agrochemicals • Less methane (major GHG) results from not flooding –still assessing effects on N2O
  • 21. Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: Spring season Summer season SRI Farmer Differ- SRI Farmer Differ- Plots Plots ence Plots Plots ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% folder * Brown plant 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% hopper * AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7% * Insects/m2
  • 22. Sri Lanka: rice fields same variety, same irrigation system, & same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
  • 23. Vietnam: FFS farmer in Dông Trù village – after typhoon
  • 24. Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conventional SRI Methods Characteristic Methods (3 spacings) Difference Chalky kernels 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 ↓30.7% (%) General 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 ↓65.7% chalkiness (%) Milled rice 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 ↑16.1% outturn (%) Head milled 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 ↑17.5% rice (%) Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004
  • 25. Use of wooden rake to mark square pattern on field
  • 26. Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced
  • 27. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations
  • 28. Use of roller-marker in Punjab state of India
  • 29. Cono-weeder re-designed by H. M. Premaratna, Sri Lanka, locally manufactured for $10
  • 30. Weeding with rotary hoe in Madagascar
  • 31. Weeder designed by Nong Sovann, Kampong Spreu province, Cambodia; built for $3, gets $20 increase in value of rice
  • 32. Simplest weeder -- made by Govinda Dhakal, Indrapura, in Morang District, Nepal, costing about 25¢ -- 4 persons can weed 1 acre in the time that 10-12 persons can weed an acre by hand
  • 33. SRI direct-seeder designed and built by L. Romero in Cuba; with transplanting he has gotten 14 t/ha; 40x40 cm spacing was too wide; neighbor built 12-row seeder to be ox-drawn
  • 34. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha; SRI yield of 16 t/ha in 2001 set yield record for Sichuan
  • 35. AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
  • 36. SRI field at 30 days
  • 37. SRI plant 72 days after Yield calculated transplanting – 133 tillers at 11.56 tons/ha
  • 38. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
  • 39. Head of Agronomy Dept. at Amol research station, Bahman Larijani – plans to include SRI in a new $150 million World Bank project
  • 40. IRAN: SRI roots and normal, flooded rice roots: note difference in color as well as size
  • 41. Miyatty Jannah, Crawak village, East Java, Indonesia
  • 42. 4-day seedling used by Miyatty, West Java, Indonesia
  • 43. Planting 4-day seedlings in West Java, Indonesia
  • 44. Miyatty Jannah, Crawak village, East Java, Indonesia
  • 45. Agroecology – a alternative paradigm to the Green Revolution •Different conditions in 21st century: • Land per capita is reducing • Water becoming less and less reliable • Energy costs continue to rise, along with costs of production •Environmental impacts to be mitigated •Need to address poverty more directly
  • 46. Post-modern agriculture: successor to the Green Revolution? • Differs from ‘post-modernism’ in the humanities and social sciences • Not hostile to science • Draws on the most contemporary scientific work in soil biology, soil ecology, epigenetics • Post-modern agriculture should
  • 47. Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields Standard Rice Mgmt New Rice Mgmt (SRI) • 30-day seedlings • 20-day seedlings • 20x20 cm spacing • 30x30 cm spacing • Continuous flooding • Alternate wetting • Fertilization: and drying (AWD) – 100% chemical • Fertilization: – 50% chemical, – 50% organic
  • 48. Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha-1 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 NRM 3000 SRM 2000 1000 0 150,000 180,000 210,000
  • 49. ‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ Rhizo- Total plant Shoot dry Net photo- Water Area (cm2) Grain bium test root weight/ synthetic utilization of flag leaf yield/ strain volume/ pot (g) rate efficiency pot (g) pot (cm ) 3 (μmol-2 s-1) Ac-ORS571 16.42 ± 1.39A 3.62 ± 0.17BC 17.64 ± 4.94ABC 210 ± 36A 63 ± 2A 86 ± 5A SM-1021 180 ± 26A 67 ± 5A 14.99 ± 1.64B 4.02 ± 0.19AB 20.03 ± 3.92A 86 ± 4A SM-1002 168 ± 8AB 52 ± 4BC 13.70 ± 0.73B 4.15 ± 0.32A 19.58 ± 4.47AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23A 61 ± 8AB 13.85 ± 0.38B 3.36 ± 0.41C 18.98 ± 4.49AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16A 67 ± 4A 13.86 ± 0.76B 3.18 ± 0.25CD 16.79 ± 3.43BC 77 ± 5A Control 130 ± 10B 47 ± 6C 10.23 ± 1.03C 2.77 ± 0.69D 15.24 ± 4.0C 51 ± 4C Feng Chi et al.,Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278
  • 50. • Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ • Email: ciifad@cornell.edu or ntu1@cornell.edu or • Email: tefysaina.tnr@simicro.mg