1308- The Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) in India and Beyond
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“More with Less”
The Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) in India and Beyond:
Experience & Future Directions. ...

“More with Less”
The Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) in India and Beyond:
Experience & Future Directions.
Presented by: Dr. Biksham Gujja, bg@agsri.com
Venue: Cornell University
Date: 8th February 2013

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1308- The Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) in India and Beyond 1308- The Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) in India and Beyond Presentation Transcript

  • “More with Less”The Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) in India and Beyond: Experience & Future Directions Dr. Biksham Gujja bg@agsri.com www.agsri.com www.agsri.com Cornell University, 8th February 2013
  • „Modern‟ agriculture is based on one thing -- More ..Farmers need to give more (inputs, water, seeds, etc.) to get more (production).After 5 decades or so of this strategy:Giving more has become so much more that farmers, Governments and ecosystems are not able to give any more .. There is now a crisis in agriculture -- a ‘more crisis’.It is NOT about feeding 9 billion people, www.agsri.com but about feeding the same old research, same thinking, and same results
  • Answer to „More crisis‟ is more technology, control, more money..• Bio technolokgy• GMs• High-tech irrigation• Industrial agriculture• Future: focus on even more complicated even more expensive solutions? www.agsri.com• Conversely: Is More with Less possible??
  • www.agsri.com
  • „More with less‟ is major challenge• First, it is a conceptual challenge, negating assumptions on which our agriculture research and funding are based on so far• It is a management challenge: What will (we) experts do if solutions are simple?• It is resource allocation challenge: now large investments in fertilisers, pesticides, companies, dams. www.agsri.com
  • SSI/ SRI … Back to basics..• It is about raising the productivity of land, labour, water, recognizing that there are limits, costs and trade-offs.• It is not just about how much you produce: How do you produce? With what? For what? For how long? – It is about choices for farmers, consumers – It is about reducing our footprint on the environment – use less water, create less www.agsri.com pollution, fewer negative impacts. – It is about quality of life..
  • Sugarcane: India‟s position.. India Global• Area (m ha): 4.94 (21 %) 23.82• Cane production (m t): 339.17 (20 %) 1685.44• Cane productivity (t/ha): 68.60 (97 %) 70.77• Sugar production (m t): 24.39 (18 %) 135.00**• Consumption (m t): 26.73* (20.5%) 130.00** * Gur & Khandsari included ** Beet sugar excludedSecond largest producer in worldLargest consumer!! ... and increasingProcess of liberalisation is going on … www.agsri.com
  • Comparison of Area, Production and Productivity 10,000 90 9,077 9,000 80 77.67 8,000 79.04 70.10 70 7,000 65.75Area (000 Ha) 59.98 60 Yield (t/ha) 6,000 50 5,000 4,170 40 4,000 30 3,000 1,695 20 2,000 1,000 405 267 10 0 0 Brazil India China Australia South Africa Area Harvested (000 Ha) Yield (t/ha) 800 90 717 700 77.67 80 79.04 70.10 600 70 Production (MT) 65.75 59.98 60 Yield (t/ha) 500 50 400 292 40 300 30 200 www.agsri.com 111 20 100 31 10 16 0 0 Brazil India China Australia South Africa Production (MT) Yield (t/ha)
  • Worlds major sugar consumers www.agsri.comSource::Coop Sugar. Vol 42(4), Dec-2010
  • Distribution of Sugar Mills in India N No. of Sl. No. State Sugar Mills 1 Maharashtra 201 2 Uttar Pradesh 156 3 Karnataka 63 4 Tamil Nadu 44 5 Andhra Pradesh 43 6 Bihar 27 7 Punjab 24 8 Gujarat 23 9 Madhya Pradesh 18 10 Haryana 16 11 Uttarakhand 10 12 Orissa 8 www.agsri.comSource: Department of Food & Public Distributionwww. dfpd.nic.in/fcamin/sites/.../Profile%20of%20sugar%20mills.xls
  • Trends in Area and Productivity of Sugarcane in India www.agsri.comSource: Sugarcane Breeding Institute, India
  • Trends: Sugar Recovery Rate in India www.agsri.comSource: Sugarcane Breeding Institute, India
  • Trends: Indias Export and Import of Sugar www.agsri.comSource: Sugarcane Breeding Institute, India
  • Per capita Consumption of Sugar and Gur & Khandsari in India www.agsri.comSource: Sugarcane Breeding Institute, India
  • Distribution of Sugar Mills (Co-operative & Pvt.) N Maharashtra Total Sugarcane Area: 0.96 Million Ha www.agsri.com Total Sugar Factories Operated: 170 Sugarcane Growing Districts: 26Source: Aug 2012, Commissionerate of Sugar, Maharashtra State, Pune
  • Sugarcane Production: Issues• Water, water & water • High input costs• Climatic change • Absence of• Water-logging & interculture drought • Diseases and pests• Low cane yields • Neglected ratoons• Low rates of sugar • Soil degradation recovery from cane • Lack of micronutrients• Old varieties in use and application of inputs www.agsri.comMost of the sugarcane cultivation area is irrigated!
  • Crop water use 3,000- 5,000 1kg = litres water 3,000 – 5,000 1kg = litres water 1,500 - 3,000 1kg = www.agsri.com litres waterSo, we eat, wear and drink .. water…
  • Water Availability: 1975Water Availability: 2025 www.agsri.com Extreme Scarcity Scarcity Stress Adequate Abundant Surplus Ocean/ No Data <500 500-1,000 1,000-1,700 1,700-4,000 4,000-10,000 >10,000 Inland Water m3/person/year
  • SSI: What is it?• Less seed, fertiliser and water• Farm-based method using targeted inputs• Encouragement of inter-crops• Improves productivity of land, water and labor -- all at the same time• Climate-, ecosystem- and socially-friendly• Opens up new business www.agsri.com opportunities
  • The SSI Process: Version 1.0Removing leaves from healthy canes Cutting buds from canes www.agsri.com Cutting buds from canes Bud treatment
  • The SSI Process: Version 1.0Filling buds in gunny bag for pre-sprouting Covering of buds filled in gunny bags for pre-sprouting by cane trash www.agsri.comCovering of buds filled in gunny bags for Pre-sprouted buds (3 days) pre-sprouting by plastic sheet
  • The SSI Process: Version 1.0 Partly filling of coco-pith in the tray Placing the pre-sprouted buds in the tray and covering the buds completely with coco-pith www.agsri.comStacking: placing trays one above the other Stacking (for 5-8 days)
  • The SSI Process: Version 1.0Stacking opened after 5 days) Watering (20-25 days) www.agsri.com Well-maintained nursery Grading
  • The SSI Process: Version 1.0 Transplanting of 25-35 day-old SeedlingsSeedlings ready for transplanting Safe transportation to field www.agsri.com
  • Sugarcane: Seed cane planting • Requires12-15% of annual production • Bulky, cumbersome and costly • Labour-intensive, ineffective • Constrains promotion of new varieties • Seed treatment is impossible • Not possible to fix plant population Result of cane planting: • Poor tillering • Poor yields • More input costs • Pest attacks www.agsri.comAgSri is a sugarcane seed company - opens whole new business!
  • SSI: Experience so far..1• Farmers buy in• One-month-old seedlings are best• Labour is saved• Water is saved in 1st month• Uniform tillering• Yield increase• Better sugar formation www.agsri.com Most difficult part of the work has been done…
  • SSI: Experience so far..2• Seedling cost is higher than seed cane, but planting costs less• Training required• Demand exists; willingness to pay is developing• Mills like it and are willing to promote• Needs considerable process improvement Scaling up, reaching out improving quality… www.agsri.com
  • Case Study 1• Name of farmer: Bastapure Sagar Narsingh• Place: Sakhra, Latur, Maharashtra• Experience in sugarcane farming: 20 years• Experience on SSI: 1 year• Total agricultural land: 13 acres• SSI area: 4 acres• Variety: Co- 86032• No. of seedlings planted: 20,000• Spacing: 5 x 2 ft• Date of transplantation: 06-Nov-2011• Avg. no. of millable canes: 13• Avg. length & girth of canes: 9 feet / 2.6 cm• Date of crop harvested: 17-Nov-2012• Avg. yield: 57 t / acre• Rate for cane sold: Rs. 2500 per ton• Total income: Rs. 142,500 www.agsri.com• Cost of cultivation: Rs. 47,000• Net income: Rs. 95,500• Cane sold: To factory
  • Case Study 2• Name of farmer: Rajkumar Jadhav• Place: Dhanori, Nilangna, Maharashtra• Experience in sugarcane farming: 5 years• Experience on SSI: 1 year• Total agricultural land: 15 acres• SSI area: 6 acres• Variety: Co- 671• No. of seedlings planted: 33,000• Spacing: 6 x 1.5 ft• Date of transplantation: 14-Jan-2012• Avg. no. of millable canes: 8• Avg. length & girth of canes: 8 feet / 2.7 cm• Date of crop harvested: 25-Dec-2012• Avg. yield: 50 t / acre• Rate for cane sold: Rs. 2500 per ton• Total income: Rs. 125,000 www.agsri.com• Cost of cultivation: Rs. 60,000• Net income: Rs. 65,000• Cane sold: To factory
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis of 2 Case Studies SSI vs. Conventional (per acre) SSI vs. Conventional Bastapure Sagar Narsingh Rajkumar Jadhav Particulars SSI Conventional SSI ConventionalLand Cost Own land Own land Own land Own landSeed Cost 10,000 7,000 11000 7,500Land Preparation Cost 2,000 2,000 3,000 6,500Transplantation 500 2,000 1,000 1,500Fertilizer Cost 18,000 18,000 25,000 25,000Weeding/Earthing up 8,000 15,000 9,000 15,000Propping-up NA NA 1,000 1,000Irrigation 8,500 10,000 10,000 15,000Harvesting By factory By factory By factory By factoryTOTAL COST 47,000 54,000 60,000 71,500Output (t/acre) 57 40 50 40Total Income 1,42,500 1,00,000 1,25,000 1,00,000 www.agsri.comNET INCOME 95,500 46,000 65,000 28,500Avg. yield of Latur district: 28 t/acre
  • SSI experiences so far..• Andhra Pradesh – 25 acres (10 ha) in Zaheerabad, A.P., 2009-10 – 40 acres (16 ha) in Zaheerabad, A.P., 2010-11 – 100 acres (40 ha) in Zaheerabad, A.P., 2011-12• Uttar Pradesh – 25 acres (10 ha) in Triveni Sugar factory, 2009-10 – 381 acres (154 ha) in 7 districts of Triveni Sugar units, 2010-11 – 757 acres (305 ha) in 7 districts of Triveni Sugar units, 2011-12• Odisha – 5 acres (2 ha) in Nayagarh, Odisha, 2009-10 – 27 acres (11 ha) in Nayagarh, Odisha, 2009-10 – 60 acres (24 ha) in Nayagarh, Odisha, 2010-11 – 135 acres (55 ha) in Nayagarh, Bargarh, Ganjam, Odisha, 2011-12 – 200 acres (81 ha) in Nayagarh, Bargarh, Ganjam, Odisha, 2012-13• Punjab – 9 acres (3.6 ha) in Gurdaspur, Punjab, 2010-11• Maharashtra www.agsri.com – 124 acres (50 ha) in Latur, Maharashtra, 2011-12 – 422 acres (170 ha) in Sholapur, Maharashtra, 2012-13 – 102 acres (41 ha) in Beed, Maharashtra, 2012-13
  • Increase in Cane Yield---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. 2009 – Zaheerabad, AP (WWF-ICRISAT Project) 25 SSI plots 15 Traditional plots 138 t/ha 115 t/ha (increase of 20%) (Published in Sugtech Journal, Aug, 2012)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------2. 2010 – Demo plots -17 AP, TN, Orissa, UP by AgSri SSI plots Traditional plots 112.4 t/ha 86.6 t/ha (increase of 29.7%)(Published as booklet by AgSri:- www.agsri.comhttp://www.agsri.com/images/documents/ssi/AgSri_SSI%20casestudy%20book_low%20res15-03-12.pdf)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • Other Benefits• Seed cane saving – reduce requirements Conventional 7-10 t/ha; SSI only 1.25 t/ha• Water saving in nursery – 90 % in the first month• Water saving in main field – Use of drip system & wide spacing saves up to 30-60%• Scope for Intercropping… improve soil fertilitySaving in conventional fertilisers and pesticides www.agsri.com due to scope for more targeted doses, with high intake methods
  • Contd..• Faster varietal spread – Conventional 1:6 to 1:8; SSI 1: 100• Water essentially confined to the root zone - Salinity build-up reduced• Healthy growth from the beginning - Pest and disease incidence lower www.agsri.com• Intercropping is possible – Additional/interim income for the farmer
  • SSI: Potential and Market Size• $1-1.5 billion in India alone• SSI will re-define sugarcane cultivation• Once farms switch to SSI, it is difficult to go back because of economic advantage• Other benefits – social, ecological and economic – need to be studied and communicated• Integration and development of www.agsri.com appropriate equipment still not complete
  • Business opportunity in Maharastra… N Maharashtra Total Sugarcane Area: 0.96 Million Ha Total Sugar Factories Operated: 170 Sugarcane Growing Districts: 26 www.agsri.com 10% of the area.. 100,000 ha/ y..Source: Aug 2012, Commissionerate of Sugar, Maharashtra State, Pune
  • SSI: Challenges for V.2• Extending bud life:• Establishing optimal bud size• Improve germination• Storage protocols• Standardization of growth medium and of micro- nutrients www.agsri.com• Nursery protocol for optimal results
  • SSI: Future Direction• Reaching at least 100,000 farmers• Improving the process, V2.0• Quantification of water saving, yields, labour, and other benefits to farmers, ecosystems and society• Integration of appropriate machines in planting & weeding www.agsri.com
  • The business world is very curious..• THE PERFECT HARVEST Outlook Business | Sept. 1, 2012• CANE DONE RIGHT Entrepreneur | Nov. 2012 | Vol. 4 | Issue 3 www.agsri.com http://www.agsri.com/news_events.html
  • Thank Youwww.agsri.com