1030 Overview of SRI application and adoption in Cambodia

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Presentation by Ngin Chhay, Director of the Department of Rice Crop, MAFF,

Presented at the Workshop on Consolidation of SRI Experiences, Lessons and Networking, a national SRI workshop convened in Hanoi, Vietnam, January 21-22, 2010

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1030 Overview of SRI application and adoption in Cambodia

  1. 1. Overview of SRI application and adoption in Cambodia WORKSHOP ON CONSOLIDATION OF SRI EXPERIENCES, LESSONS AND NETWORKING Hanoi, Vietnam, 21-22 January 20 10 Mr. Ngin Chhay, Director of the Department of Rice Crop, MAFF
  2. 2. Background of SRI <ul><li>Some elements of SRI tried in Cambodia in 1980s and 1990s: row planting, dapog (young seedlings), draining paddy fields during vegetative stage </li></ul><ul><li>First experiments with SRI were with 28 farmers encouraged and trained by CEDAC in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>GTZ conducted independent evaluation in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Officially endorsed and promoted by MAFF and Provincial Departments of Agriculture in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>In January 2005, a Permanent Secretariat of SRI was established under Department of Agronomy and Agricultural Land Improvement (now GDA). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background of SRI (con’t) <ul><li>Key role of the SRI Secretariat is to coordinate, disseminate, document and facilitate information and knowledge management with regard to SRI, also promote networking among stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>In early 2006, SRI was integrated into the National Development Plan and into policy frameworks to reduce food insecurity and poverty of rural households. </li></ul><ul><li>2009: 110,530 farmers use SRI in more than 4,534 villages with cultivated area of 59,785 ha, and average yield is 3.48 t/ha. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definition of SRI <ul><li>What is System of Rice Intensification? </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is a set of sustainable rice farming pracgtices that can help small farmers to significantly increase their rice yields. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a low-input technology, which should be flexibly applied based on the enabling factors and farm conditions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. SRI Vision in Cambodia <ul><li>Promoting sustainable rice production and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>via the application of SRI in ecologically sound and economically efficient way with consideration of climate change mitigation and adoption </li></ul><ul><li>leading to rural livelihood improvement and national economy development in Cambodia. </li></ul>
  6. 6. SRI Mission in Cambodia <ul><li>Building capacity of human resources with competence. knowledge and skills to implement SRI at all levels -- from national to farm community, </li></ul><ul><li>Developing all required documents and disseminating to all relevant stakeholders to be used as basis for SRI implementation, </li></ul><ul><li>Raising awareness on the benefits and the importance of SRI to policy makers, government institutions, development partners, and farmers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SRI Approach in Cambodia <ul><li>Using learning-by-practicing method to build human capacity in response to local needs and addressing local problems, </li></ul><ul><li>Applying ecological-based crop production and protection in the spirit of preserving ecosystem functions and biodiversity balance, </li></ul><ul><li>Working in close partnership with all relevant stakeholders at all levels to build synergy to implement SRI. </li></ul>
  8. 8. SRI Dissemination Methodology <ul><li>Training of extension workers and farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Field demonstrations and experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer-to-farmer extension </li></ul><ul><li>SRI working groups establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Learning materials production and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Information-sharing through website </li></ul><ul><li>Field visits and technical backstopping </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-provincial and national workshops </li></ul>
  9. 9. Understanding and promotion of SRI <ul><li>SRI as ideas, not a fixed technology </li></ul><ul><li>Helping farmers to understand about rice growth potential, and how farmers can utilize this potential by changing their thinking and practices </li></ul><ul><li>Best SRI practice is to optimize the environment for maximal growth of healthy roots </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure soil biological activity based on the concept “to grow the soil and the soil will grow the plants” </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem function and interactions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Best practices of SRI <ul><li>Improve and/change the ways to manage seeds and rice plants from seedbed until harvest, </li></ul><ul><li>Change the ways to prepare the seedbed to produce healthy seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Change the ways to better manage water in the rice field </li></ul><ul><li>Take care of our top soil and the humus in our soil to maintain fertility and good structure </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally-friendly pest management </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is the combination of the methods and ways to better manage seeds, rice plants, pests, soil/nutrients and water </li></ul>
  11. 11. Key benefits of SRI <ul><li>Farmers adopting SRI methods can save seeds (less by 70-80%), reduce time and labor, and lower their costs of rice production, </li></ul><ul><li>Higher yield (raise from 2.7 to 4.2 T/ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, but increased skillful management, </li></ul><ul><li>Help sustain ecosystem balance, production and incomes </li></ul><ul><li>SRI brings much benefit to farmers, especially making changes in their social and economic conditions </li></ul>
  12. 12. 12 Principles of SRI in Cambodia <ul><li>Use pure, full-sized grains as seeds for sowing, </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a raised-bed nursery and sow lower density of seeds to produce healthy seedlings, </li></ul><ul><li>Select only healthy seedlings for transplanting, uproot the seedlings gently and carefully to avoid damage, and transplant them quickly, </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant young seedlings, preferably less than 15 days old </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant fewer seedling per clump, preferably one seeding per clump </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant carefully and with shallow rooting </li></ul>
  13. 13. 12 Principles of SRI in Cambodia <ul><li>7. Transplant in square/row pattern </li></ul><ul><li>8. Transplant with wide spacing based on soil type, </li></ul><ul><li>9. Avoid permanent flooding of the rice field during the vegetative growth stage, preferably keeping only a minimum of water in the field </li></ul><ul><li>10. Punctual and frequent weeding to improve soil aeration and to remove weed competition </li></ul><ul><li>11. Rice field should be leveled with raised small dykes around plot to guarantee a good water management </li></ul><ul><li>12. Use natural fertilizer, especially organic compost, as much as possible </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers should select only purified and dense seeds for planting nursery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers prepare seedling nursery like vegetable bed, and use low seed density. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><ul><li>F </li></ul></ul></ul>Farmers select healthy seedlings with age less than 15 days and uproot them with care
  17. 17. Farmers transplant seedlings in the field immediately after uprooting
  18. 18. Farmers level the paddy field properly for transplanting
  19. 19. Farmers transplant only 1 to 2 seedlings per clump with care, at shallow depth and keeping roots horizontal.
  20. 20. Farmers transplant wide spacing, with 20 to 30 cm distance, depending on soil fertility
  21. 21. Farmers keep only minimal water in the field
  22. 22. Use organic fertilizer/compost in field
  23. 23. Farmers do weeding 2 to 4 times to kill weeds and improve soil aeration
  24. 24. Farmers regularly monitor field and keep record of the progress of rice plants
  25. 25. Higher yield
  26. 26. Results of experimentation <ul><li>Traditional methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Grow more slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Have less tillers </li></ul><ul><li>Shallower root system </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller panicles </li></ul><ul><li>Average yield: 2.7 T/ha </li></ul><ul><li>SRI methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Grow very fast </li></ul><ul><li>Have more tillers </li></ul><ul><li>Larger and deeper root system </li></ul><ul><li>Larger panicle </li></ul><ul><li>Higher quality grain, and often higher grain weight </li></ul><ul><li>Average yield: 4.2 T/ha </li></ul>
  27. 27. Comparison of number of tillers of traditional rice and SRI rice
  28. 28. Comparison of root systems of traditional rice & SRI rice
  29. 29. Progress in number of SRI farmers
  30. 30. Constraints of SRI in Cambodia <ul><li>Animal manure and organic farm resources for plant nutrition are not sufficiently available </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding requires labor (farmers not used to) </li></ul><ul><li>Apply SRI only on small portions in the farm </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to achieve the alternation of flooding and drying the field </li></ul><ul><li>Most farmers still lack confidence in applying and adapting SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Different understandings and interpretation of SRI concepts among stakeholders </li></ul>
  31. 31. Future Directions <ul><li>Refine SRI training manuals for the national use suitable to Cambodia rice cultivation situation </li></ul><ul><li>Establish National SRI Board involving relevant stakeholders and upgrade SRI Secretariat to have broader roles and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Rice Crop with SRI Secretariat will actively and broadly promote SRI application </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Agricultural Extension promotes the publications of technical documents and draws best practices to disseminate to farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Promote SRI application and adaptation through IPM-FFS alumni </li></ul>
  32. 32. Future Directions (cont) <ul><li>State research institutions and academic institutions to conduct more research to acquire new techniques and best practices </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs and private sector are heavily involved in support and extension of SRI, in close cooperation with the SRI Secretariat, </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonize the understanding of SRI for common purpose by determining core priorities, good complementary technologies, and barriers to adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Bring all parties together to map current and planned extension activities, identifying gaps and overlaps, preferred priorities, and gain agreement </li></ul>
  33. 33. Concluding Remarks <ul><li>Positive field results with increased yield and incomes obtained consistently since 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI definitely contributes to eliminate food insecurity via enhanced rice productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Government supports and promotes the extension of SRI to farmers through PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>SRI movement is growing very fast, with increasing number of farmers and supporters </li></ul><ul><li>However, there are some remaining constraints and challenges that require more thought, effort and resources. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Thank You sUmGrKuN

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