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Promoting the Adoption of SRI throughParticipatory Research and Outreach in Kenya SRI - Growing More Rice with Less Water …

Promoting the Adoption of SRI throughParticipatory Research and Outreach in Kenya SRI - Growing More Rice with Less Water

April 18, 2012, presentation by Prof. Bancy M. Mati
SRI Projects Coordinator
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT)
Nairobi, Kenya
18th April 2012

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  • 1. Promoting the Adoption of SRI through Participatory Research and Outreach in Kenya SRI - Growing More Rice with Less Water by: Prof. Bancy M. Mati SRI Projects Coordinator Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Nairobi, Kenya 18th April 20124/19/2012 1
  • 2. Contents 1. The Rice Challenge in Kenya (why SRI?) 2. What is SRI? 3. How SRI was Introduced in Kenya 4. Partnerships and Collaboration 5. Participatory Research, Extension, Monitoring & Evaluation (PREME) 6. Results of Research and Farmer Trials 7. Major Challenges Faced 8. Lessons Learnt 9. Way Forward4/19/2012 2
  • 3. Rice Production in Kenya• Huge demand for rice – urbanization & changing dietary habits Key Length of growing period (days) 1-74 75-89• National rice demand-300,000 t/yr 90-119 120-149 150-179 180-209 210-239 240-269 270-299 300-329 KENYA 330-364 Country boundary Lakes• National rice production - 80,000 t/yr• Deficit is imported - Ksh.7 billion /yr 0 100 N 200 Kilom eters• Annual consumption of rice is increasing at 12%, compared to 4% for wheat & 1% for maize• Rice - the most expensive grain in Kenya (retailing at US$ 1.2 – 2.0/kg)• Shortage of land suited to paddy rice production• Rice has highest water consumption
  • 4. Projections of the Production and Consumption of rice in Kenya by 2030 60000000 50000000 40000000 Production (in Kg) 30000000 20000000 10000000 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 Year Estimated Annual National need = Pop.x8 (kg/person/yr) Actual Production (kg) Expected Annual Production (kg) to bridge the gap (9.31% increase) Source: NRDS, MOA, Kenya4/19/2012 Expected Deficit after increasing Annual Production (kg) by 9.31%
  • 5. SRI: Historical background• SRI was developed in Madagascar in the 1980s through efforts of Fr. Henri de Laulaniè• The System was developed slowly through farmer experimentation, changing water application techniques, crop spacings, and seedling age etc.• Rice yields increased from 2 t/ha to 10, 12, even Fr. Henri De Laulanié 14 t/ha.• Prof. Norman Uphoff helped out-scale SRI to other countries• SRI has been grown in Madagascar , India, Philippines, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Sierra Leone, Bangladesh, Gambia, Cuba, Nepal, Myanmar, Prof. Norman Uphoff Thailand, Mali, Rwanda, …..• Kenya was the 37th country in the world to adopt 5 SRI in 2009
  • 6. What is SRI?• SRI is a package of practices especially developed to improve the productivity of rice grown in paddies.• Unlike the conventional method of continuous flooding of paddy fields, SRI involves intermittent wetting and drying of paddies as well as specific soil and agronomic management practices.What SRI is NOT• SRI is not about growing upland rice varieties• SRI is not GMOs• SRI does not modify the genetic 6
  • 7. Components of SRISRI has seven major components (deviating from conventional flooded paddy)1. Transplanting very young seedlings, i.e., at 8 to 12 days old (instead of the conventional 3-4 weeks)2. Raising the seedlings in un-flooded nurseries and well-supplied with organic matter3. Transplanting seedlings at wider spacings and in a square pattern, usually 25x25 cm, giving roots and leaves more space to grow • Transplant seedlings quickly, carefully and shallow – taking care to have minimum trauma to roots,4/19/2012 7
  • 8. Comparing conventional paddy nursery with SRI practice SRI requires less seed SRI dry nursery, and 8-day old seedlingConventional flooded nurseryTransplanting conventional rice seedlings Transplanting SRI young seedling
  • 9. Components of SRI contd…4. Transplanting only one seedling per hill (NOT of clumps of 3-4 seedlings)5. Alternate wetting and drying of the paddy field (do not continuously flood the soil) to ensure aerating of the root zone,6. Weed control is preferably done with a simple mechanical rotary weeder. This aerates the soil as it eliminates weeds, giving better results than either hand weeding or herbicides,7. Providing as much organic matter as possible to the soil.4/19/2012 9
  • 10. Comparing conventional paddy with SRI PracticeOne-week old conventional flooded paddy One-week old SRI paddy fieldWomen weeding conventional rice paddy Weeding SRI paddy with rotary weeder
  • 11. Advantages of SRI - More yield for less inputs1) SRI gives higher rice yields – compared to conventional flooded paddies,2) SRI requires less water, and can save 25-50% water used in irrigation3) SRI uses less seed & farmers save up to 80% of the cost of seed4) SRI rice has a harder grain, thus less breakage during milling, giving better grain quality and higher price.5) Nearly all rice varieties give higher yield with SRI, but some high-yielding varieties respond better than others. 11
  • 12. Introducing SRI in Kenya4/19/2012 12
  • 13. Background to SRI efforts in Kenya• SRI was introduced in Kenya at the Mwea Irrigation Scheme in July 2009• Initial partners: JKUAT, NIB, AICAD, WB, WBI, MoA, MWI, KARI, Cornell University (of USA), Mwea Irrigation Scheme/MIAD, farmers• The first crop season Aug 2009-Jan 2010, only two pioneer farmers accepted to do trials voluntarily & on-station research trials at MIAD – supported by AICAD• Within that time, training & awareness creation was done using the two farmer trials, video conferences, special ladies’ training• Jan-May 2010: farmers were trained by invited trainers from India & Japan supported by World Bank Institute• Since April 2010, JKUAT Innovation Fund has been supporting a 3-year SRI research & capacity building project in Mwea.• From June 2011, National Irrigation Board is supporting a 6-month project to upscale SRI in 4 schemes, i.e., Ahero, West Kano, Bunyala & Mwea.
  • 14. SRI pioneers and adopters in Mwea 14 4/19/2012
  • 15. Objectives of the SRI initiative in KenyaThe main objective is to facilitate the wide-scale adoption of SRI for increased rice productivity, water savings and occupational health.The specific objectives include to:• Promote adoption of SRI for improved rice production• Save water used in irrigation of paddy rice.• Scientifically assess the adaptability of SRI in Mwea and other rice- growing areas in Kenya• Quantify the benefits of up-scaling SRI• Determine the health and environmental impacts of SRI, e.g., effects on mosquito survival• Create awareness/advocacy for SRI among key stakeholders engaged in the rice value chain (farmers, Government staff, private sector)• Build the capacity of important actors (farmers, extension workers, researchers).
  • 16. Major partners in SRI collaboration in Kenya Original and current partners 1. JKUAT (university) 2. IMAWESA/ICRISAT (IFAD funding) – not active currently 3. AICAD 4. MIAD – Mwea research 5. National Irrigation Board 6. Mwea Irrigation Scheme 7. Ahero Irrigation Scheme 8. Ministry of Water and Irrigation 9. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) 10. Ministry of Agriculture 11. World Bank-Kenya 12. World Bank Institute (Washington, DC) 13. Cornell University (USA) 14. Private sector4/19/2012 16
  • 17. Implementing PREME Participatory Research,Extension, Monitoring & Evaluation
  • 18. Setting up the consortium of partners• Contacting Institutions & individuals & invitations• Held SRI planning meetings at MIAD in Mwea• Seeking seed funding from AICAD, JKUAT, NIB for SRI• Joint activity implementation 4/19/2012 18
  • 19. Scientific Research (1 PhD, 4 MSc & MIAD trials)1. PhD student is assessing SRI for up-scaling in Mwea irrigation scheme. - Using AQUACROP model to predict scheme-level grain yields, amounts of water saved, and cost/benefit analysis.2. MSC assessed adaptability of SRI in Mwea - completed Measuring water input in a research plot3. MSC has assessed the effects of SRI on mosquito survival rates.4. MSC has assessed bio-physical characteristics of four schemes; Mwea, Ahero, West Kano and Bunyala for SRI adaptability5. MSC is assessing impacts of SRI on methane gas emissions6. MIAD research on SRI spacings Mosquito trap in research plot
  • 20. Participatory Research (SRI farmer trials) SRI farmer trials Innovations by farmers 4/19/2012
  • 21. Extension (Capacity building)• Classroom training with field visits• Hands-on training• Training of trainers (ToT)• Special training for ladies• Several field days across which are rotated from block to block• Field days according to crop agronomy• Invited trainers supported by WBI trained staff & farmers from India & Japan• Capacity building - 3,000 individuals trained on SRI 21
  • 22. Field days & open days for SRI trainingSRI field day in Mwea-5th August 2010 SRI field day in Mwea- 7th December 2010 22 22 4/19/2012 SRI Open Day- 4th November 2010 SRI field day (transplanting) -21 July 2011
  • 23. Knowledge Management, Monitoring & Evaluation• Opened SRI Resource Center at MIAD• Recruitment of two SRI- dedicated extension workers• Database of farmers, their activities, yields set up• Designed a format for data record by farmers• Scientific publications• Radio broadcasts on SRI in vernacular stations for all schemes• Scientific papers & forums 4/19/2012
  • 24. Awareness Creation & Outreach• Open days with invited guests• Video conferencing• Displays in the Nairobi International Show• Exchange visits for farmers & staff• Media outings• Radio broadcast/adverts• Engaging private sector, e.g., Numerical Machining Complex, compost- making NGOs• Over 10,000 individuals reached with SRI message
  • 25. Extending SRI to Western Kenya• SRI project launched in Ahero, West Kano and Bunyala• SRI Training of Trainers in MIAD for all schemes• Video conferencing for Western Kenya farmers linking with India, Philipines, Mali (WBI)• Exchange visits between the four groups of farmers• This project is set to expand to SW Kano (5 schemes this year)
  • 26. SRI results have been good
  • 27. Results show that SRI works! Key findings – based on Research & SRI farmer crop of Dec. 2011Conventional paddy SRI Rice1. Basmati yields : 4 – 5 t/ha 1. Basmati yields : 7 – 10 t/ha (Mwea) 2. BW rice yields: 11 - 20 t/ha2. BW rice yields : 7 - 10 t/ha 3. Bag of paddy weighs 100-110 kg3. A bag of paddy weighs 80-90 kg 4. Harder, not easily broken on4. Water to grow 1 kg of rice: milling 3,000-5,000 litres 5. Uses 25-33% less water5. Grain easily breaks during milling 6. SRI has strong stems that resist6. Flooded paddies suffer lodging damage from windy storms from windy storms 7. Wedding can be by men or7. Weeding flooded paddies is done women by women 8. Higher returns (30-50% increase8. Lower return on investment in net income)
  • 28. Growth pattern for the tillers under SRI and CF 90 80 70 60Number of tillers per hill 50 40 SRI CF 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Weeks after transplanting 4/19/2012 Jackline, PhD progress report 28
  • 29. Water savings comparing conventional with SRI Savings on Water productivity irrigation water (kg/m3) (%) VARIETY SRI CFBasmati 370 0.7 0.4 27.5 BW 196 0.5 0.2 26.2IR 2793-80-1 1.0 0.5 31.0 Jackline Ndiiri PhD progress report 29
  • 30. Results of soil characterization for Mwea, Ahero, Bunyala and West Kano Mean toatal organic carbon (%)6543 Mean toatal organic carbon (%)210 Mwea Ahero West Kano Bunyala Wycliffe Nyangau MSc research progress report 30
  • 31. Challenges faced• Farmers’ traditional mindset, addressing skepticism and thus, resistance• The crop was not weeded with rotary weeders• The planting calendar affects rice yields• Shortage of SRI extension workers• A higher incidence of weeds• Some farmers applying half- SRI measures
  • 32. Lessons Learnt• The scientific basis for adoption of SRI has been proven• Aggressive awareness creation and hands-on training has resulted in good adoption rates.• SRI message is now accepted in all 4 schemes• There are many spin-off innovations, e.g., 3 local people have fabricated rotary weeders• Farmer behaviour has changed – most use less water• Collaborative efforts & cost-sharing helped push the project success• Need to engage the private sector - interest by Numerical Machining Complex to support developing rotary weeders• Policy support helps – extending SRI to Ahero, West Kano & Bunyala with NIB support
  • 33. Way Forward• Train extension workers to support SRI farmers• Build capacity of farmers to do full SRI• Develop rotary weeders suited to local conditions• Raise funds to support farmers & the value chain• Manage pests and diseases (preventive measures)• Expand SRI to all rice-growing areas in Kenya and hopefully, Africa.• Collaborative research & outreach with other partners• Achieve 100% adoption of SRI to grow more rice with less water! 33 4/19/2012
  • 34. THANK YOU“Rice is nice….it is eaten with a spoon…” A nursery rhyme 34 4/19/2012
  • 35. Acknowledgements • Dr. Raphael Wanjogu • Dr. Patrick Home • Dr. Benson Odongo • Mr. Laban Kiplagat • Mr. Joel Tanui • Ms. Jackline Ndiiri • Mr. Kepha Omwenga • Mr. Nyamai Matolo • Mr. Wycliffe Nyangau • Mr. Moses Kareithi • Mr. Joseph Njeru • Prof. Norman Uphoff • Dr. Mei Xie