1309 - The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the Context of ‘Sustainable Crop Production Intensification’  and Adaptation to Climate Change
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1309 - The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the Context of ‘Sustainable Crop Production Intensification’ and Adaptation to Climate Change



Title: The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the Context of ‘Sustainable Crop Production Intensification’ and Adaptation to Climate Change ...

Title: The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the Context of ‘Sustainable Crop Production Intensification’ and Adaptation to Climate Change
Presenter: Norman Uphoff
Presented at the FAO's Asia Regional Office
Date: April 11, 2013



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1309 - The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the Context of ‘Sustainable Crop Production Intensification’ and Adaptation to Climate Change Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The System of Rice Intensification(SRI) in the Context of ‘Sustainable Crop Production Intensification’and Adaptation to Climate Change Norman Uphoff, Cornell UniversityFAO/Bangkok seminar, AIT, April 11, 2013
  • 2. SRI has been unfortunately and unnecessarily controversialNo ‘magic’ – simply good agronomySRI is ideas rather than a technology; it is more a matter of learning and experimentation than of ‘transfer’SRI is more appropriately viewed as a MENU than as a RECIPESRI is a work in progress, not finishedNow SRI ideas are being extended and extrapolated to many other crops
  • 3. Need to Change the Concepts and the Practices of ‘Intensification’So far this strategy has been based on:• Intensification of ENERGY inputs – increased mechanization . . .• Intensification of CHEMICAL inputs -- inorganic fertilizer and agrochemical crop protection . . .• Intensification of WATER inputs – widespread irrigation . . .• Intensification of CAPITAL inputs – ever-increasing investment . . .
  • 4. In the 21st Century, We Face GreatlyChanging Conditions for Agriculture • Costs of ENERGY inputs are now higher, and availability is less certain -- also see negative environmental externalities • Costs of fossil-fuel-based CHEMICAL inputs are rising -- and we see their adverse effects on soil and water quality • The amounts and reliability of WATER for agriculture are becoming more problematic, more limiting, more costly • Climate change presents many hazards incl. increase in pest & disease problems
  • 5. The World -- and particularly Asia -- Needs ‘a New Intensification’• Instead of continuing with a strategy of achieving MORE OUTPUT form MORE INPUTS• We should learn how we can produce MORE OUTPUT with REDUCED INPUTS – relying more on nature’s processes than on our own• Not considered possible with a MECHANICAL mindset – zero-sum, even negative-sum• It is possible within a BIOLOGICAL framework -- positive-sum, by capitalizing on sun’s energy• This points to a major shift in paradigms
  • 6. What has been the greatest paradigm shift for humankind?• Arguably the shift from a Ptolemaic (geocentric) understanding of the universe, to a Copernican (heliocentric) conception• The ‘new intensification’ will redirect our thinking and actions in agriculture from their current EGOCENTRIC orientation, that regards us humans as the primary actors• To a more HELIOCENTRIC orientation that appreciates the power and productivity of natural systems which give rise to the processes and potentials of biology
  • 7. We humans are part of nature and need to learn to cooperate with it• The supposedly impossible challenge of producing more from less has been shown to be possible from our experience with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar and now being used increasingly widely around the world• SRI increases yields and provides other advantages not by increasing external inputs but by changing the management of existing resources: plants, soil, water and nutrients• Can elaborate on this if there are questions
  • 8. 2013: >50 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America where benefits of SRI management have been seenBefore 1999: Madagascar 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil, Mali1999 China, Indonesia 2008: Rwanda, Costa Rica, Egypt,2000-02: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cuba, Ecuador, Ghana, JapanGambia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, 2009: Malaysia, Timor LestePhilippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, 2010: Kenya, DPRK, Panama, HaitiThailand (15 at Sanya conference, 2002) 2011: Colombia, Korea, Taiwan,2003: Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru Tanzania2004-05: Senegal, Pakistan, Vietnam 2012: Burundi, Dominican Republic,2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Niger, Nigeria, Togo (total of 51)Zambia
  • 9. OVER 1 MILLION VIETNAMESE FARMERS BENEFIT FROM SRI Tuesday, October 18, 2011 20:48 (GMT +7) PANO – Vietnam celebrated over a million small-scale farmers who are embracing a technique that grows more rice with less seeds, fertilizer, water, and pesticides in an event at Thai Nguyen University on October 18th.The technique is called ‘system of rice intensification’ or SRI for short, whichis a package of agricultural techniques for hand-planted rice that helpsfarmers reduce their costs while increasing their production. The Ministry ofAgriculture and Rural Development reported that by the summer-autumncrop this year, there are 1,070,384 farmers using SRI on 185,065 hectares(457,110 acres) in their rice fields. The number of farmers using SRI practicesin Vietnam has tripled since 2009. . . .
  • 10. CHINA: SRI extension/impact in Sichuan Province, 2004-10 Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 TotalSRI area (ha) 1,133 7,267 57,400 117,267 204,467 252,467 301,067 941,068SRI yield (kg/ha) 9,105 9,435 8,805 9,075 9,300 9,495 9,555 9,252Non-SRI yield (kg/ha) 7,740 7,650 7,005 7,395 7,575 7,710 7,740 7,545SRI increment (t/ha) * 1,365 1,785 1,800# 1,680 1,725 1,785 1,815# 1,708SRI yield increase (%) * 17.6% 23.3% 25.7% 22.7% 22.8% 23.2% 23.5% 22.7%Grain increase (tons) 1,547 12,971 103,320 197,008 352,705 450,653 546,436 1.66 millAdded net income from 1.28 11.64 106.5 205.1 450.8 571.7 704.3 2,051SRI use (million RMB) * (>$300 mill) * Comparison is with Sichuan provincial average for paddy yield and SRI returns # Drought years: SRI yields were relatively better than with conventional methods Source: Data are from the Sichuan Provincial Department of Agriculture.
  • 11. , INDIA: Results from Bihar state, 2007-2012 SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION -- state average yield: 2.3 t/ha 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 Climatic Normal 2 times Drought + Complete Good conditions rainfall flooding rain in Sept. drought rainfallNo. of smallholders 128 5,146 8,367 19,911 NRArea under SRI (ha) 30 544 786 1,412 335,000SRI yield (t/ha) 10.0 7.75 6.5 3.22* 8.08Conv. yield (t/ha) 2.7 2.36 2.02 1.66* 2.9 SYSTEM OF WHEAT INTENSIFICATION -- state average yield: 2.4 t/ha 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2011-12No. of smallholders 415 25,235 48,521 NRArea under SWI (ha) 16 1,200 2,536 183,085SWI yield (t/ha) 3.6 4.5 NR 5.1Conv. yield (t/ha) 1.6 1.6 NR 2.7 * Results from measurements of yield on 74 farmers’ SRI and conventional fields
  • 12. SRI benefits are more than an increase in yield: • Water saving • More tolerance of climate stresses • Resistance to pests and disease • Reduced costs of production • Higher farmer income • More environmentally-friendly• Grain quality, shorter crop cycle, etc.
  • 13. Other Benefits from Changes in Practices 1. Water saving – major concern in many places, also now have ‘rainfed’ version with similar results 2. Greater resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses – less damage from pests and diseases, drought, typhoons, flooding, cold spells [discuss tomorrow] 3. Shorter crop cycle – same varieties are harvested by 1-3 weeks sooner, save water, less crop risk 4. High milling output – by about 15%, due to fewer unfilled grains (less chaff) and fewer broken grains 5. Reductions in labor requirements – widely reported incentive for changing practices in India and China; Drought-resistance: Rice fields in Sri Lanka,many places also, mechanization is being introduced same variety 6. Reductions in costs of production – greater farmerand same soil 3 weeks after irrigation had stopped because of drought and profitability, also health benefits (right) income – conventional rice field (left) and SRI
  • 14. Storm resistance: Dông Trù village, Ha Noi province, Vietnam, after fields were hit by a tropical stormRight: conventional field and plant; Left: SRI field and plant Same variety used in both fields: serious lodging seen on right --no lodging on left
  • 15. Disease and pest resistance: Evaluation by the Vietnam National IPM Program, 2005-06 – averages of data from on-farm trials in 8 provinces Spring season Summer season SRI Farmer Differ- SRI Farmer Differ- plots plots ence plots plots enceSheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7%Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5%Small leaf 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5%folder *Brown plant 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0%hopper *AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7% * Insects/m2
  • 16. Modern Traditional improved aromatic variety variety(Ciherang) – (Sintanur) no yield - 8 t/ha Resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses:fields in East Java, Indonesia hit by both brown planthopper (BPH) and by storm damage (typhoon): the rice field on the left was managed with standard practices; organic SRI is seen on right
  • 17. % lodging of rice as affected by irrigation practices when combined with different ages of seedlings and different spacings in trials done in Chiba, Japan (Chapagain and Yamaji, Paddy and Water Environment, 2009) Irrigation Seedling Spacing Plant lodging (in percent) method age (cm2) Partial Complete Total 30x30 6.67 0 6.67 Inter- 14 mittent 30x18 40.00 6.67 46.67 irrigation 30x30 26.67 20 46.67 (AWDI) 21 30x18 13.33 13.33 26.67 30x30 16.67 33.33 50.00 Ordinary 14 irrigation 30x18 26.67 53.33 80.00(continuous 30x30 20 76.67 96.67 flooding) 21 30x18 13.33 80 93.33
  • 18. Resistance to cold temperatures: Yield and meteorological data from ANGRAU, A.P., India Season Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha)Kharif 2006 0.21* 4.16Rabi 2005-06 2.25 3.47 * Low yield was due to cold injury to plants (see below) Period Mean max. Mean min. No. of sunshine temp. 0C temp. 0C hrs 1 – 15 Nov 27.7 19.2 4.9 16–30 Nov 29.6 17.9 7.5 1 – 15 Dec 29.1 14.6 8.6 16–31 Dec 28.1 12.2# 8.6# Sudden drop in minimum temp. for 5 days (16–21 Dec = 9.2-9.9o C )
  • 19. Comparison of methane and nitrous oxide emissions (GHGs) 1000 840.1 800 kg CH4 / ha 600 72 % 400 237.6 200 0 CT SRI Emission (kg/ha) CO2 ton/ha Treatment CH4 N2 O equivalent CT 840.1 0 17.6 SRI 237.6 0.074 5.0
  • 20. SRI practices are being used beyond RICE:Farmer-led innovations -- with CSO help -- in:• Wheat (SWI) -- India, Nepal, Ethiopia, Mali• Sugarcane (SSI) -- India, Cuba• Finger millet (SFMI) -- India, Ethiopia• Mustard/rapeseed/canola (SMI) -- India• Teff (STI) -- Ethiopia• Sorghum (SSI2) – Ethiopia• Turmeric (STI2) -- IndiaSystem of Crop Intensification (SCI): maize, blackgram, green gram, red gram, tomatoes, chillies,eggplant, sesame, etc. -- India, Ethiopia
  • 21. WHEAT: SWI (left) vs. conventional plants in Bihar, India
  • 22. Phenotypical differences in wheat panicleswith SWI practice seen in Nepal
  • 23. TEF: Application of SRI concepts andpractices to growingtef (STI) in Ethiopia, most popular grainLeft: transplanted tefRight: broadcasted tef Conventional yieldusually only 1 t/ha, STI = 3 to 5 t/ha;with micronutrientamendments, yields 6 t/ha and higher
  • 24. Good STI tef crop in Tigray province of Ethiopia
  • 25. ICRISAT-WWFSugarcane Initiative: • 20-100% more cane yield, with • 30% reduction in water, and • 25% reduction in chemical inputs“The inspiration for putting this package together is from the successful approach of SRI – System of Rice Intensification.”
  • 26. SUGARCANE: SSI cane plants seen in India – SSI is now getting started in Cuba, known as SiCAS
  • 27. What is creating these changes? • Growth and health of ROOT systems • Greater abundance, activity and diversity of beneficial SOIL ORGANISMS SRI practices promote theLIFE IN THE SOIL and this life, in turn, can nurture us and feed us!
  • 28. SRI is ‘not finished’ • We see learning, modification, adaptation and further expansion – with continuous farmer innovation• SRI mobilizes biological potentials and processes, rather than depend so much on costly chemical inputs or requiring new varieties • Most important, SRI is farmer- friendly and environmentally-friendly – resistant to climate change and even helping to mitigate this