12106 Mali _ Styger SRI presentation for Cornell class IARD4020


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SRI on the System of Rice Intensification in Mali -
Presented by Erika Styger, SRI Rice Director of Programs, Cornell University
to the IARD class at Cornell University, November 16, 2012

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  • Favor early, quick and healthy plant establishment Seed selection Nursery: conducive to fast plant development Reduce age of seedlings – or eventually direct seeding Reduce plant population Optimize the influence of environmental factors for the productivity of the plant (sun, water, nutrients, improved soils) Enrich soils with organic matter – keep soils aerated better substrate for roots, soil microbes, nutrient and water holding capacity Optimum water management for plant development
  • Vietnam: October 2011: Over 1 Mio farmers (70% women) applying SRI on > 185,000 hectares India: 2011: 250,000 farmers Cambodia : 2010: 130,000 farmers; yield increases between 30-150%, Ministry of Agriculture included SRI in national strategy in 2006, SRI Secretariat to coordinate and promote SRI
  • A phyllochron is a regular interval of plant growth, ranging usually between 5 and 8 days for rice. In this period, the plant produces one or more phytomers, each phytomer being a unit of plant growth in which a coordinated set of tiller, leaf and root that grow synchronously upward and downward from the plant's meristematic tissue, as described by Nemoto et al. (1995).
  • 12106 Mali _ Styger SRI presentation for Cornell class IARD4020

    1. 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) – Case study of Mali Erika Styger, PhD SRI-Rice, Cornell UniversityIARD 4020 – Agriculture in Developing Nations Cornell University, November 16, 2012
    2. 2. Importance of rice• Rice is staple for ½ of world population• Agriculture production needs to increase by 47% by 2050 to feed 9 million people (OECD, 2012)• Continuously flooded rice uses 2-3 times more water than other irrigated cereals(Bouman et al, 2007)• Rice paddies contribute to 20% of human Methane emissions (Yan et al, 2009)
    3. 3. World Rice Production 2010 2% 34% 31% 3% 25% 4%World Rice Production (2010), FAO, viewed 9th October, 2012. (by Chartsbin.com)
    4. 4. Total water use by country Water withdrawal for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes by country, includes freshwater as well as groundwater extraction Source: FAO of the United Nations 2010, AQUASTAT online database, (by ChartsBin.com)Irrigated rice uses 1/4 – 1/3 of global fresh water withdrawal(Bouman et al, 2007)
    5. 5. Global methane emissions from rice fields Global Methane emissions from rice fields: 25 million tons/year Mitigation: •Through mid- season drainage, reduced by 4.1 Tg/y •Apply straw in off- season - 4.1 Tg/y, •both by - 7.6 Tg/yEstimated annual methane emission from global rice paddies at a spatial resolution of 5minXiaoyuan Yan et al (2009), Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol 23.
    6. 6. Our Challenges Improve agricultural productivity Improve food security Reduce povertyEnvironmentally sustainable practicesWithstand changing climate conditions Source page web: http://sririce.org
    7. 7. Climate-Smart Agriculture Triple Winhttp://www.fao.org/climatechange/climatesmart/en/Implemented through agro-ecological approaches:•Conservation agriculture•Agroforestry•System of Rice Intensification•others
    8. 8. What is SRI?• The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a methodology – For increasing the productivity of irrigated rice cultivation – By changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients, while reducing external inputs.• Developed in the 1980s in Madagascar by Father Henri de Laulanié Source page web: http://sririce.org
    9. 9. Main principles of SRI method1. Early, quick and healthy plant establishment1. Reduced plant density1. Organic matter enriched soils– keep soils aerated – favor soil microbial development1. Reduced and controlled water applications – through alternate wetting and drying water management
    10. 10. 6 Main Practices of SRI1. Single plant /hill2. Transplant young seedlings (2 leaf stage)3. Adopt wide spacing - planted in a grid4. Minimum water application during vegetative growth5. Assure soil aeration6. Use organic amendments as base fertilization
    11. 11. SRI practices induce a phenotypical change in riceSRI Conventional SRI Conventional SRI Conventional in IRAQ’s Al-Mishkhab Research Center, Najaf: SRI on left, Non-SRI on the right
    12. 12. Physiological and morphological changes of SRI plants• Tillers are thicker (+38%), Plants are higher (+24%)• More tillers/hill (+100%)• Greater canopy angle (33° vs 18°) SRI Non SRI Thakur, A.K et al (2011) Effects for rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated mgt practices of SRI and their implications for crop performance, PAWE 9:13-
    13. 13. • Roots are deeper, longer, double the volume and weight/ hill Thakur, A.K et al (2011) Effects for rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated mgt practices of SRI and their implications for crop performance, PAWE 9:13- 24 Non SRI - flooded SRI – non flooded Thiyagarajan et al. (2009) Principles and Practices of SRI in Tamil Nadu
    14. 14. Yield performance• More/similar number of panicles/ m2• Longer panicles (20%)• More grains/panicle• Fewer empty grains• 1000 grain weight is heavier Non-SRI SRI ----- Increased Yields (often >50%)
    15. 15. Summary of Benefits • Yield Increase: often >50% • Water savings: 30-50% • Seed reduction: > 90% • Reduced cost/ha, income increase • Improved drought tolerance Mali Reduced chemical inputs • Less chemical fertilizer 20-40% (to 100% = organic SRI) • Improved tolerance towards pests and diseases – Pesticide reduction Sheath blight diseasehttp://sririce.org
    16. 16. Spread of SRI up to 1999 Madagascar
    17. 17. 2012: SRI Phenotype effects have been validated in >50 countries in Asia, Africa , and Latin AmericaBefore 1999: Madagascar 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil, Mali1999/2000: China, Indonesia2000/01: Bangladesh, Cuba, Laos, 2008: Rwanda, Costa Rica,Cambodia, Gambia, India, Nepal, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, JapanMyanmar, Philippines, Sierra Leone, 2009: Malaysia, Timor LesteSri Lanka, Thailand 2010: Kenya, DPRK,Panama, Haiti2002/03: Benin, Guinea, Moz., Peru 2011: Korea, Taiwan, Colombia,2004/05: Senegal, Pakistan, TanzaniaVietnam 2012: Burundi, Dominican2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Republic, Niger, Nigeria, TogoIraq, Zambia
    18. 18. CON 3.6 t/ha SRI 9.5 t/ha CON 5.6 t/ha SRI 9.3 t/ha CON 6.5 t/ha High Altitude, SRI 9.5 t/ha semi-arid climateTropical Climate, Medium Altitude: Tropical Savanna (1700m)Bhutan Climate, Cuba Afghanistan CON: 1.8 t/ha CON: 5.5 t/ha SRI 4.0 t/ha SRI 9.1 t/ha Tropical Climate, Low Altitude Arid Climate, Mali Cambodia – Rainfed SRI
    19. 19. Case Study: Mali, Timbuktu regionSahelo-Saharien and Saharien climate• 150-200 mm rain/yr• Annual mean Temp: 29.1°C (13°- 43°C)Food Security: >70% communes are among most vulnerable in Mali
    20. 20. 2007 - Year 1: Exploratory test• Africare, Timbuktu region• 1 farmer• Farmers from surrounding villages participate in a field visit• Farmers’ recommendations: To evaluate SRI at larger scale in 2008• Yield: SRI : 9 t/ha, Control: 6.7 t/ha
    21. 21. 2008 - Year 2: Adapting SRI practices• Africare and Government agriculture extension service• 60 farmers in 12 villages in the Timbuktu region
    22. 22. Objectives and approaches 2008• Adapt SRI principles to local conditions in Timbuktu• Communities take ownership of SRI evaluation through selected volunteer farmers• Close technical back-stopping, good data collection, develop locally adapted SRI manual• Side by side plot tests• Exchange visits: farmers representatives from Ministries, technical programs, donors etc
    23. 23. Irrigated Rice in the Timbuktu region Village Irrigation Perimeter 30-35 ha - 1 motor pump Shared among 100 farmers 0.33 ha / farmers
    24. 24. Soil preparation1. Application of manure (10-15 t/ha) 3. Breaking up chunks of soil2. Soil tilling by hand or tractor 4 Land leveling
    25. 25. SRI (dry) Nursery Conventional nursery: flooded condition• Mix clay, sand and manure• Sow after soaking seeds for 24h• Seedlings appear after 2 days• Transplanting after 8 to 12 days (2 leaf-stage)
    26. 26. Why plant early?Traditional transplanting SRI transplantingSeedling age 30-60 days 8-12 days (2 leaf stage)
    27. 27. Why plant early? High tiller production when planted early 35 30 SRI 25 20 15 FP 10 m h b u n T e r / l i 5 0 12 21 30 40 50 60 70 Days after seed germinationA phyllochron is a regular interval of plant growth, rangingusually between 5 and 8 days for rice, when plant produces aunit of plant growth that induces tiller and root formationSRI plants complete greater number of phyllochrons -- reaching 10thphyllochron with SRI management vs. 8th phyllochron with TraditionalPractices (Thakur, 2010)
    28. 28. SRI TransplantingIncrease spacing between plants Shallow planting Root protection
    29. 29. Conventional Transplanting3-4 plants/hill, closer spacing, 30-45 day old seedlings
    30. 30. SRI Irrigation During vegetative period Alternate Wetting and Drying • Introducing 1-2 cm of water • Let the plot dry until cracks become visible • Introducing another thin layer a water etc.
    31. 31. Cono-weeding• First weeding at 20 days after transplanting, repeat every 7 to 10 days• Incorporates weeds into soil• Aerates soil• Stimulates root growth• Redistributes water across the plot
    32. 32. Fields de Asseydou Alhassane, Hara-Hara 30 days after nursery establishment SRI Control plot
    33. 33. Plant development IHigher tiller number per plant in SRI SRI Control
    34. 34. Results: Timbuktu 60 farmers 2008• Yield increase: from 5.5 t/ha to 9.1 t/ha (+66%)• Less seed required: 85% à 90% Quantity used for SRI: 6.1 kg/ha Quantity used under usual farmer practice: 40-60 kg/ha• Reduced fertilizer use: 30%• Reduced irrigation water use: 10%• Reduced production costs / kg paddy: 30%• Increased revenue per hectare: more than double(Styger et al, 2011)
    35. 35. Field VisitsFarmersGovernment extension serviceResearchersNGOs and development programsDonors, program developers and policy makers
    36. 36. Outputs of Year 2 activities Blog: maintained during cropping season Field guide Manual: adapted to local conditions of Timbuktu, in French Technical season reporthttp://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/mali/index.html
    37. 37. 2009 – Year 3: Scaling up3 SRI Projects – NGO Africare, funded by USAID and Better U Foundation – IICEM project (Initiatives Intégrées pour la Croissance Economique au Mali), funded by USAID – IER (Institut d’Economie Rurale, the National Research Institution), funded by Syngenta Foundation in collaboration with the government agricultural extension and research servicesObjectives for 2009 1. Scaling up SRI practices in zones where SRI is already known 2. Introducing SRI practices into new zones 3. Innovation development associated with SRI practices
    38. 38. 2009 - Year 3: Introducing SRI into new zonesMultiple partners at different levels: Africare (Better U Foundation), USAIDfunded project IICEM, Syngenta Foundation, National Research,National Extension Service, WBI videoconference, WB Ag project design• Timbuktu – 17 villages, 92 farmers – Africare, IICEM• Gao – 8 villages, 39 farmers – IICEM• Mopti – 6 villages, 44 farmers – IICEM, IER• Segou – 2 villages, 37 farmers – IER, Syngenta foundation• Sikasso – 3 villages, 10 farmers – IICEMTotal: 5 regions, 36 villages, 222 farmers
    39. 39. 2009 Year 3: Scaling up SRI practices Timbuktu region, Africare and Ministry of Agriculture• Focus on socio-organization of communities around SRI implementations• From 60 to 270 farmers (2008 to 2009)• From 12 to 21 villages in same region (improve area coverage)• Regroup SRI plots within irrigation area: for learning, for coordinated irrigation, weed management etc• Technical support reduced, more farmer-to-farmer learning• Focus on innovative ideas
    40. 40. Natural Experiments (monitoring farmers’ fields) Yields in relation to date of nursery seeding (n=130) Kg/ha 14000 SRI Control 12000 Linear (Control) Linear (SRI) 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 --------- June --------- | ---------- July ------------ | --------7 1 2 3 4 5 6 August 8 ---------- 9 --- Sept --- | 10 11 Seeding date
    41. 41. SRI test with Oryza glaberrima varieties 3 Reasons: 1) Food security 2) Taste 3) Biodiversity 8 7 6 7.4 t/ha Moy 4.2 t/ha Moy 4.4 t/ha 2.6t/ha 5 4 3 2 1 0 ou na r E o 14 u n bo be w TR bo a ga ul em ys Ba KA am be Bo Pa na DD Ko D G ue iq at PrDeep water Deep water SRI Rainfed SRI Traditional improved SRI rainfed
    42. 42. System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) SWI Traditionel
    43. 43. Rainfed SRI Southern MaliYields SRI : 4.2 t/ha Control: 3.0 t/ha = 40% increase Practices – Single plant/hill yes – Young seedlings – direct seeding yes – Increased spacing yes – Planting in line, grid pattern yes – Mechanical weeding dryland weeder – Improving soils with organic matter method – Controlled water management no
    44. 44. SRI in 2010, 2011 and 2012 in Mali and beyond • In 2010: First National workshop on SRI in Mali • More than 50 well trained technicians in Mali • Funding and coordination problems • In 2011 (Year 5) – Irrigated Rice: 340 ha, 3250 farmers, average yields 8.4 t/ha, – Rainfed rice: 235 ha, 820 farmers, average yields 2.5 t/ha • Since 2010: Regional SRI trainings organized from Mali by IICEM project, NGO Africare, Regional Project E-ATP, Burkina): Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Niger, Togo, Senegal.
    45. 45. SRI West Africa Initiative• July 2012 First West Africa Workshop: 13 ECOWAS countries to develop a West Africa SRI Network http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/news/featured08.html• Organized by National Center of Specialization on Rice, Mali (under World Bank WAAPP program), SRI-Rice Cornell University, CORAF/WECARD, Oxfam America• Proposal under development for World Bank WAAPP funding
    46. 46. Conclusions on Mali Case Study 1• Agro-ecological methods need to be developed in farmers’ fields• ‘Volunteer’ participation in the adoption and scaling up process is more sustainable (but less predictable)• Good technical back-stopping, data collection and reporting is essential for success
    47. 47. Conclusions on Mali Case Study II• Drawback: Development programs can often not respond well to bottom-up initiatives, are often too short term oriented, and output oriented• Funding becomes a big challenge• Coordination is necessary with growing number of stakeholders (needs funding)• Success depends also on leadership and individuals
    48. 48. Web-based resources atSRI-Rice Cornell University http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu or http://sririce.org •Information on 50 countries •Practical Manuals on SRI •Research site •Daily news, blog, twitter, facebook •Photo, Video, Powerpoint collections Contact: Erika Styger, eds8@cornell.edu; sririce@cornell.edu