1181-Evaluation of the Urea Deep Placement (UDP) Technology in Irrigated Lowland, Direct Seeded Rice in Guyana


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PowerPoint by Herman Adams, CARDI, presented at the First Workshop on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Latin America at EARTH University in Costa Rica, Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 2011

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  • It originated from a CIAT accession P4382F3-70 – was selected for high quality grain, drought tolerance, and high yields in upland rainfed conditions
  • This cultivar has been selected and evaluated also for grain quality, milling and eating characters
  • Check on plant height as opposed to panicle length
  • Panoramic view of UDP trials before flowering; note different shades of green colour due to the different rates of N
  • 1181-Evaluation of the Urea Deep Placement (UDP) Technology in Irrigated Lowland, Direct Seeded Rice in Guyana

    1. 1. A CARDI PROJECT Prepared for the First International Workshop on Intensive Rice Production Sponsored by Cornell and EARTH Universities, Las Mercedes, Costa Rica 31 October – 1 November 2011 Evaluation of the Urea Deep Placement (UDP) Technology in Irrigated Lowland, Direct-Seeded Rice in Guyana Herman Adams and Bruce Lauckner, Collaborators: Ghansham Payman (GRDB) and Upendra Singh (IFDC)
    2. 2. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>The objective of the rice trials is t o evaluate the UDP technology in the Caribbean by comparing it with the conventional method of broadcasting urea (UB) fertiliser into the flooded field over the rice transplants. </li></ul>
    5. 5. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) falls within the Cereal and Grain Legumes sub-programme of CARDI’s Crop Programme. </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAMME STRATEGIC FOCI: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Genetic improvement </li></ul><ul><li>The rice variety “CARDI-70” was released in Belize in 1988. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Agronomic improvement </li></ul><ul><li>The innovative UDP technology, the placement of urea briquettes 7-10 cm below the roots of 14-day-old rice seedlings, has raised grain yields by 25% and reduced losses in N from 65% down to almost zero, in Bangladesh and Vietnam (IFDC). </li></ul>
    6. 6. METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Location: Burma Rice Research Station – </li></ul><ul><li>Soils: frontland clays; </li></ul><ul><li>Mean Annual Temperature:19.8°C – 33.5°C; Mean annual rainfall: 2298 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Design: RCB </li></ul><ul><li>7 treatments in a 3*2 factorial (UB and UDP); </li></ul><ul><li>Control = 0 Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Time of application: UDP – 12-14 DAS and UB - conventional 3 split apps </li></ul><ul><li>Replications: 4 </li></ul>
    7. 7. METHODOLOGY (cont’d) Table 1 The treatments 7 field trials were conducted between 2009 – 2010 in Guyana * A single control RATES OF N (kg/ha) METHOD OF UREA APPLICATION UREA BROADCAST (UB) UREA DEEP PLACEMENT (UDP) 57 UB 57 UDP 57 84 UB 84 UDP 84 122 UB 122 UDP 122 0 Control* Control*
    8. 8. METHODOLOGY (cont’d) <ul><li>Plot size: 6 m x 8 m </li></ul><ul><li>Rice variety: G98-22-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Seed rate: 120 kg/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Analyses at harvest from nett plot (2 m x 4 m): </li></ul><ul><li>Number of tillers per m² </li></ul><ul><li>Number of panicles per m² </li></ul><ul><li>Panicle length (cm) </li></ul><ul><li>1000 grain weight (g) </li></ul>
    9. 9. METHODOLOGY (cont’d) <ul><li>Number of filled grains per panicle </li></ul><ul><li>Number of unfilled grains per panicle </li></ul><ul><li>Grain yield per nett plot (kg) </li></ul><ul><li>Total dry matter at 14% moisture content (kg) </li></ul>
    10. 10. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS <ul><li>Table 2 Data on grain yield (kg/ha) combined for all 7 trials </li></ul>LSD 0.05 = 514 Treatment Means Rank UB 84 3,455 I UDP 84 3,400 II UDP 122 3,380 III UB 57 3,287 IV UDP 57 3,144 V UB 122 3,124 VI Control 2,632 VII
    11. 11. Table 3 The best treatments which produced significant differences in the individual trials and for the combined data Parameters which showed significant differences Best treatments 1.Plant height in Trial # 1 UDP 57 and UB 57 2.Grain yield in Trial # 2 UDP 57 and UB 84 3.Grain yield in Trial # 3 UDP 84 and UB 57 4.Straw dry weight in Trial # 4 UDP 57 5.Filled grains in Trial # 6 UDP 57 6.Dry grain yield in Trial # 6 UDP 57 and UB 57 7.Wet grain yield in Trial # 6 UDP 57 8.Dry grain yield in Trial # 7 UDP 57 and UB 84 9.Wet straw weight in Trial # 7 UDP 57 and UB 57 10.Grain yield from combined data from all 7 trials UDP 57 and UB 57
    12. 12. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>The best treatments were UDP 57 and UB 57; they produced the tallest plants, the highest straw weight and yields which were not significantly lower than any other treatments. </li></ul><ul><li>These treatments however had the least input of N but were significantly higher than the Control of no N. This means that these two treatments would produce good yields at a low cost of production, urea being the single most costly input. </li></ul><ul><li>No advantage was demonstrated by UDP 57 over UB 57. </li></ul>
    13. 13. CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES <ul><li>Further work should measure and compare costs of production and the effects of the residual N left in the soil, for the following crop. </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale field trials are required to study costs of production. </li></ul><ul><li>The next phase should evaluate mechanised minimum-till sowing with simultaneous placement of fertiliser briquettes (UDP) with plant nutritional needs during the entire cropping cycle. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Figure 1 Panoramic view of UDP trials before flowering; note difference in green leaf colour between plots
    15. 15. Figure 2: View of plots before harvest
    16. 16. Figure 3: Highest rate of N caused extensive lodging
    17. 17. Thank you