1170 System of Rice Intensification SRI - A Global Overview


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PowerPoint presented Erika Styger at the First First Workshop on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Latin America at EARTH University in Costa Rica, Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 2011

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  • Vietnam: October 2011: Over 1 Mio farmers (70% women) applying SRI on > 185,000 hectares India: 2011: 250,000 farmers Cambodia : 2010: 130,000 farmers; yield increases between 30-150%, Ministry of Agriculture included SRI in national strategy in 2006, SRI Secretariat to coordinate and promote SRI
  • A phyllochron is a regular interval of plant growth, ranging usually between 5 and 8 days for rice. In this period, the plant produces one or more phytomers, each phytomer being a unit of plant growth in which a coordinated set of tiller, leaf and root that grow synchronously upward and downward from the plant's meristematic tissue, as described by Nemoto et al. (1995).
  • Picture sent by Prativa Sundaray, staff member with the NGO PRADAN which is introducing SRI in poor communities, especially tribal ones in Orissa, Jhakhand and West Bengal, even where there is no irrigation, adapting SRI concepts to rainfed conditions.
  • Picture from PRADAN – two plants on right have been grown with traditional methods; plant on left was grown with adapted SRI methods; plant on right is traditional local variety; two plants on left are both an improved variety (A-4040.
  • 1170 System of Rice Intensification SRI - A Global Overview

    1. 1. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) A global overview Erika Styger, SRI-Rice Cornell University, USA Earth University – October 31, 2011
    2. 2. SRI-Rice SRI International Network and Resources Center Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development (CIIFAD) Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
    3. 3. SRI-Rice, Cornell University <ul><li>Established in August 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by Better U Foundation, Los Angeles, USA </li></ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advance and share knowledge about SRI and its derived practices and principles, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support networking among interested organizations and individuals around the globe. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Objectives of SRI-Rice <ul><li>Make knowledge about SRI more widely available </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://sririce.org </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Advance knowledge on SRI methodology and practices </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the International SRI Network </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is SRI? <ul><li>The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For increasing the productivity of irrigated rice cultivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients, while reducing external inputs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed in the 1980s in Madagascar by Father Henri de Laulanié </li></ul>Source page web: http://sririce.org
    6. 6. 6 Main Practices of SRI <ul><li>Single plant /hill </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant young seedlings (2 leaf stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt wide spacing - planted in a grid </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum water application during vegetative growth </li></ul><ul><li>Assure soil aeration </li></ul><ul><li>Use organic amendments as base fertilization </li></ul>
    7. 7. in IRAQ’s Al-Mishkhab Research Center, Najaf : SRI on left, Non-SRI on the right SRI practices induce a phenotypical change in rice SRI Conventional SRI SRI Conventional Conventional
    8. 8. Physiological and morphological changes of SRI plants <ul><li>Tillers are thicker (+38%) , Plants are higher (+24%) </li></ul><ul><li>More tillers/hill (+100%) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater canopy angle (33° vs 18°) </li></ul>SRI Non SRI Thakur, A.K et al (2011) Effects for rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated mgt practices of SRI and their implications for crop performance, PAWE 9:13-24
    9. 9. Physiological and morphological changes of SRI plants <ul><li>Leaves are longer (36%), wider (36%), thicker and contain more chlorophyll, </li></ul><ul><li>--- higher LAI (52%) (Leaf area index) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased crop growth rate (after 60 DAG) and photosynthesis rate (esp. reproductive and ripening stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Leave senescence is delayed </li></ul>Thakur, A.K et al (2011) Effects for rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated mgt practices of SRI and their implications for crop performance, PAWE 9:13-24
    10. 10. <ul><li>Roots are deeper, longer, double the volume and weight/ hill </li></ul>Non SRI - flooded SRI – non flooded Thakur, A.K et al (2011) Effects for rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated mgt practices of SRI and their implications for crop performance, PAWE 9:13-24 Thiyagarajan et al. (2009) Principles and Practices of SRI in Tamil Nadu
    11. 11. Yield performance <ul><li>More/similar number of panicles/ m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Longer panicles (+20%) </li></ul><ul><li>More grains/panicle (+40%) </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer empty grains </li></ul><ul><li>1000 grain weight is same/ slightly heavier </li></ul>Non-SRI SRI ----- Increased Yields (often >50%)
    12. 12. Additional Benefits of SRI <ul><li>Reduced inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds by 80-90% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water by 30-50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical inputs: significantly or eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costs (vary from -40% to +20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Income increase >30-100% </li></ul><ul><li>Improved resistance to biotic/abiotic stresses </li></ul>
    13. 13. Spread of SRI up to 1999 Madagascar
    14. 14. Before 1999: Madagascar 1999/2000: China, Indonesia 2000/01: Bangladesh, Cuba, Laos, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002/03: Benin, Guinea, Moz., Peru 2004/05: Senegal, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil, Mali 2008: Rwanda, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Japan 2009: Malaysia, Timor Leste 2010: Kenya, DPRK, Panama, Haiti 2011 : Korea, Taiwan 2011: Benefits of SRI management now validated in 44 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
    15. 15. Bhutan Cuba Afghanistan Mali Cambodia – Rainfed SRI CON 3.6 t/ha SRI 9.5 t/ha CON 6.5 t/ha SRI 9.5 t/ha CON 5.6 t/ha SRI 9.3 t/ha CON: 5.5 t/ha SRI 9.1 t/ha CON: 1.8 t/ha SRI 4.0 t/ha
    16. 16. Main Ideas of SRI method <ul><li>Favor early, quick and healthy plant establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce plant population </li></ul><ul><li>Enrich soils with organic matter – keep soils aerated – favor soil microbial development </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce water applications – through alternate wetting and drying water management </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Raised beds, water 1-2x/day </li></ul><ul><li>Good soil texture and fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds not densely sown </li></ul><ul><li>Remove plants with soil to protect roots </li></ul>SRI Nursery conducive to fast plant development
    18. 18. Favor early, quick and healthy plant establishment <ul><li>Reduce seedling age : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two leaf stage (8-12 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One leaf stage (4 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct seeding (China, Cambodia, Cuba, Sri Lanka and India ) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 4 day seedlings, Indonesia
    20. 20. High tiller production when planted early SRI plants complete greater number of phyllochrons -- reaching 10 th phyllochron with SRI management vs. 8 th phyllochron with Traditional Practices (Thakur, 2010) A phyllochron is a regular interval of plant growth, ranging usually between 5 and 8 days for rice, when plant produces a unit of plant growth that induces tiller and root formation) SRI FP
    21. 21. Transplanting Careful and fast transplanting, shallow transplanting
    22. 22. Mechanization with SRI Transplanter for 1 seedling/hill (Tamil Nadu, India)
    23. 24. SRI Irrigation <ul><li>During Vegetative period: Alternate Wetting and Drying </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce 1-2 cm of water – let plot dry until soil cracks – Introduce another thin layer a water etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Water productivity (grain yield (kg/ha)/ water consumed in m3/ha) </li></ul><ul><li>India: SRI: 0.53 kg rice produced/ m3 water, flooded: 0.27kg/m3 (Viyajakumar et al, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>The Gambia : SRI: 0.62 – flooded: 0.1 (Ceesay, 2006) </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Incorporates weeds into soil </li></ul><ul><li>Aerates soil - Stimulates root growth </li></ul><ul><li>Redistributes water across the plot </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical weeding more economical then hand weeding - </li></ul><ul><li>To replace herbicides – location specific analysis to be done </li></ul>Mechanical weeding
    25. 26. Motorized weeder
    26. 27. Fields de Asseydou Alhassane, Hara-Hara, Mali 30 days after nursery establishment SRI Control plot
    27. 28. Plant development I <ul><li>Higher tiller number per hill in SRI </li></ul>SRI Control
    28. 29. Faster growth - shorter crop cycle (10 days) Control SRI Plant development II SRI SRI Control Control
    29. 30. Adaptation to Climate Change <ul><li>Improved water use efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to drought, strong winds </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter cropping cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul>India Mali Vietnam SRI non-SRI
    30. 31. Reducing chemical inputs <ul><li>Organic fertilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in SOM, microbial life, symbiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved nutrient and water holding capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic rice production (India, Indonesia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreased use of pesticides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less fungal disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less pest pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthier environment </li></ul></ul>Sheath blight disease
    31. 32. Seed production and multiplication by farmers <ul><li>1 plant/hill eliminates danger of mixing varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Best plants selected by farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Only 6kg/ha of seeds required </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction of varieties / purification of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining local varieties </li></ul>Cambodia Cambodia
    32. 33. Improved Soil Management <ul><li>Conservation agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal soil disturbance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero tillage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent soil cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation and increased diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permanent raised beds </li></ul>Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, yield of 13.4 t/ha SRI methods combine easily with new soil management approaches
    33. 34. <ul><li>Fully mechanized - no-till, permanent raised beds – organic fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Yields: >10t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Water productivity: 0.92 kg/m3 </li></ul>MSRI: Mechanized SRI Asif Sharif, FarmAll Technology Ltd, Pakistan
    34. 36. Some challenges when adopting SRI <ul><li>Change in labor allocation during cropping season </li></ul><ul><li>Water control is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation water distribution may change </li></ul><ul><li>Access to biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Land preparation (land leveling, switch to minimal tillage, conservation agriculture) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate tools, Mechanization </li></ul>
    35. 37. Mahto Oraon, Gumla district, Jharkhand state, India, with SRI plant having 65 tillers (Khandagiri, 110-day variety) RAINFED SRI: Adapting SRI principals to rainfed rice and other crops 50,000 farmers in Myanmar 130,000 farmers in Cambodia Central eastern States India
    36. 38. <ul><li>Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single plant/hill yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young seedlings – direct seeding yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased spacing yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting in line, grid pattern yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical weeding dryland weeder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving soils with organic matter method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled water management no </li></ul></ul>Rainfed SRI Southern Mali Yields SRI : 4.2 t/ha Control: 3.0 t/ha = 40% increase
    37. 39. System of Finger Millet Intensification PRADAN, Jharkand, India
    38. 40. SRI principles for other crops System of Crop Intensification (SCI) <ul><li>Wheat (SWI) : since 2006 in India, Ethiopia and Mali </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India : Bihar: Yield: 3.6-4.5 t/ha vs 1.6t/ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>330,000 ha for 2012 (Jeevika, 2011) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mali : Timbuktu: SWI 5-5.5t/h vs. 2t/ha (Styger and Ibrahim, unpublished) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teff, Finger Millet, Mustard etc. </li></ul>Timbuktu, Mali SWI Traditional Bihar, India SWI TR
    39. 41. Ethiopia – “Planting with Space” <ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Barley </li></ul><ul><li>Teff </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Onion </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato </li></ul><ul><li>Chili </li></ul><ul><li>Cabbage </li></ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul>
    40. 42. Sugarcane With SRI method Yields are by 20-50% improved 30% reduction in water use 25% reduction in chemical fertilizer Developed in India
    41. 43. SRI in Latin America and the Caribbean <ul><li>Highly diverse region </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale – medium scale – large scale </li></ul><ul><li>Uplands – Lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>Different importance of rice for country economies </li></ul><ul><li>SICA in LAC </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba: 2000/2001 Peru: 2002/2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil: 2007 Costa Rica: 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Ecuador: Panama: 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti: 2011 </li></ul>
    42. 44. Climate change impact on crop productivity Productivity trends for crops: Red: declining productivity Blue : increasing productivity Conditions for rice production will become more favorable in LAC compared to major rice producers in Asia – and compared to wheat, corn and soya
    43. 45. Conclusions <ul><li>SRI is not a fixed technology </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is an approach, a methodology providing guidelines and ideas – to be adapted to local environment </li></ul><ul><li>Improving agriculture is a process – innovations are always needed </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas from SRI are now used to innovate with other crops and at level of agricultural systems </li></ul>
    44. 46. Muchas gracias! SRI farmers from the village of Donghoi, Timbuktu, Mali SRI-Rice : http://sririce.org Email : [email_address] , [email_address]