Rice scenario in Tamil Nadu Rice consumes 53 % of the state’s total water resources Source : 2007-08 (Estimate) by Govt. of Tamil Nadu Total area 1.98 million ha Total production 7.40 million tons Productivity 3.75 t ha -1 Water consumption 0.013 Mm 3 ha -1 Total water use per year in rice 25,400 Mm 3
2. Reductions in cost of cultivation <ul><li>Reduction in seed cost, nursery area and duration; nursery costs reduced by 68% </li></ul><ul><li>Seedling-pulling cost reduced from Rs. 800 to Rs. 150 </li></ul><ul><li>Labour requirement for planting reduced from 60 to 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Labour requirement for weeding reduced by 50 % </li></ul><ul><li>No need for herbicide </li></ul><ul><li>Saving in electricity for pumping and labour for irrigation </li></ul>Conventional SRI Saving Rs. 2,369/ha
Conventional methods (1,100 mm) SRI methods (700 mm) <ul><li>Water saving – 400 mm </li></ul>
Water saving irrigation Root zone is not kept continuously saturated <ul><li>36% saving in irrigation water </li></ul>
SRI Conventional <ul><li>Better functional root system </li></ul><ul><li>Non-lodging even during aberrant weather </li></ul>
Th. Murugesan – s small farmer of Chinnar dub-basin who realized higher productivity of 12.5 t/ha has become a spokesperson for SRI in the area Raised green manure dhaincha as pre-season crop. Family labourers alone involved in the adoption of technology. 6. Scope for organic manures
Performance of SRI (2007-2010) Year Yield (kg ha -1 ) % increase over conven-tional Area total (ha) No. of benefi-ciaries SRI Conventional 2007-08 5,709 4,465 28.3 1,311 5,446 2008-09 6,710 5,035 33.3 2,581 2,634 2009-10 7,058 5,139 37.3 4,000 5,245
Planting of younger seedlings Growth rate in SRI plants is accelerated as these are able to complete more phyllochrons before entering into their reproductive phase (Nemoto et al., 1995; Berkelaar, 2001). This leads to both higher number of tillers per hill and enhanced production of effective tillers. Younger seedlings have improved root characteristics, like root length density and root weight, after transplanting compared to older seedlings (Mishra and Salokhe, 2008)
Wider spacing Open plant structure of SRI rice covers more ground area and is able to intercept more light. This results in higher LAI and greater leaf size that leads to vigorous root system which has more adequate room to grow. At closer spacing between rice plants, the number of panicles per unit area increases, but the shorter panicles contain lesser grains, thereby resulting in the lower yield with conventional rice cultivation methods (Thakur et al., 2010).
Alternate wetting and drying Rice grown under conventional system encounters hypoxic soil conditions and its roots degenerate under flooding; plants lose three-fourth of their roots by the time they reach the flowering stage (Kar et al., 1974). Alternate wetting and drying combined with mechanical weeding results in more air in the soil and in greater root growth which gives better access to nutrients as compared to conventional planting. SRI plants have deeper and stronger root systems, supported by intermittent irrigation practiced on soils without physical barriers to root growth (Stoop et al., 2002).
CHALLENGES <ul><li>Farmers’ traditional mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of awareness of SRI opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Skill upgrading of labourers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of regulated irrigation distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Timely availability of implements: markers & weeders </li></ul>
Workshop on SRI and NADP programmes at Coimbatore (25.07.08) Workshop on SRI and NADP programmes at Madurai (11.08.08) Awareness creation
Visit of the Secretary to the Hon. CM, Tamil Nadu, to a SRI field at Azhiyur, Varaganadhi VIPs’ participation in Field Days Hon. Agricultural Minister’s visit to a SRI field at Pallathathanoor, Upper Vellar Legislative members of Estimate Committee visiting a SRI field at Vikravandi
Newspaper publications on SRI techniques Popularization of Technologies Tamil Book on self-learning mode CD on SRI
SRI beneficiaries addressing the SRI Workshop organized at Thanjavore SRI beneficiaries as resource persons