BioVision Alexandria 2010 New Life Sciences: Future Prospects Opportunities to Achieve Resource-Conserving Increases in Ag...
Intensification  of some sort will be needed for 21 st  century agriculture <ul><li>Two main strategies for intensificatio...
SRI methods do not require either the introduction of  improved varieties   or the application of  external inputs <ul><li...
CAMBODIA:  Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province
IRAN:   SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in  color  as well as  size
Improvement Is Attainable in Wide Range of Agroclimatic Zones <ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Bhutan </li></ul><ul><li...
INDONESIA:  ‘ Rice Aplenty  in Aceh’ as reported in CARITAS NEWS Australia, Spring 2009 SRI methods were introduced in Ace...
BHUTAN: Report on SRI in Deorali Geog, 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Geog, Dagana Standard practice  3.6...
AFGHANISTAN:  2009 Report from  Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province 2008: 6 farmers got  SRI yields of  10.1 t/ha  vs. ...
AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
SRI field at 30 days
SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
66% average increase across 3 districts (N=42) in 2009
In Baghlan District, only #15 had a reduction in yield; second-year farmers #26 and #28 had yields of 19 and 20 t/ha
MALI: SRI nursery in Timbuktu region –  8-day seedlings ready for transplanting
SRI transplanting in Timbuktu, Mali
Farmer in Timbuktu region showing the difference between regular and SRI rice plants  --  2007: SRI yield  was 8.98 t/ha
<ul><li>* adjusted to 14% grain moisture content </li></ul>MALI: Rice grain yields for SRI plots, control plots, and farme...
SRI Results in Major Rice Countries <ul><li>CHINA:   Sichuan  Zhejiang </li></ul><ul><li>Extension started   2004  (1,120 ...
“ Everyone cites India’s Green Revolution. But I’m even more intrigued by what is known as SRI, or system of rice intensif...
…  our development of farming should shift from the Green Revolution where although harvest production is increased there ...
SRI Involves Only Changes in Practices <ul><li>Transplant  young seedlings   to preserve their growth potential  - but  DI...
47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research I...
Benefits  being seen also with  other crops <ul><li>Initially, SRI concepts and methods were developed for  irrigated rice...
<ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF   Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with:  </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water...
THANK YOU <ul><li>Can check out SRI website:   http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email:   [email_address]  ...
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1040 Opportunities to Achieve Resource-Conserving Increases in Agricultural Production -- derived from Learning from the System of Rice Intensification

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: BioVision Alexandria 2010 New Life Sciences: Future Prospects

Date Presented: 04/15/2010

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  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Figures from a paper presented by Dr. Tao to international rice conference organized by the China National Rice Research Institute for the International Year of Rice and World Food Day, held in Hangzhou, October 15-17, 2004. Dr. Tao has been doing research on SRI since 2001 to evaluate its effects in physiological terms.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language, but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.
  • 1040 Opportunities to Achieve Resource-Conserving Increases in Agricultural Production -- derived from Learning from the System of Rice Intensification

    1. 1. BioVision Alexandria 2010 New Life Sciences: Future Prospects Opportunities to Achieve Resource-Conserving Increases in Agricultural Production -- derived from Learning from the System of Rice Intensification Norman Uphoff, Cornell University, USA April 15, 2010
    2. 2. Intensification of some sort will be needed for 21 st century agriculture <ul><li>Two main strategies for intensification: </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of INPUTS , made more productive by improvement in genotypes achieved through breeding programs </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of MANAGEMENT , to provide more favorable environment for the expression of genetic potentials, resulting in improved PHENOTYPES </li></ul><ul><li>Both are needed acc.to equation: G x E = P </li></ul>
    3. 3. SRI methods do not require either the introduction of improved varieties or the application of external inputs <ul><li>SRI changes the way that plants , soil , water and nutrients are managed  </li></ul><ul><li>To get more productive PHENOTYPES from practically all rice GENOTYPES </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in plant morphology – numbers of tillers, root system growth, leaf area, angle of tillers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in plant physiology – water-use efficiency, root exudation, rates of photosynthesis, delayed senescence, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Epigenetic changes remain to be explored – possible contributions from plant-microbial interaction ? </li></ul>
    4. 4. CAMBODIA: Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province
    5. 5. IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
    6. 6. Improvement Is Attainable in Wide Range of Agroclimatic Zones <ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Bhutan </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>Mali (Timbuktu region on edge of the Sahara Desert) </li></ul>
    7. 7. INDONESIA: ‘ Rice Aplenty in Aceh’ as reported in CARITAS NEWS Australia, Spring 2009 SRI methods were introduced in Aceh in 2005 by CARITAS after tsunami had devastated the area. New methods raised local rice yields from 2 t/ha to 8.5 t/ha: “Using less rice seed, less water and organic compost, farmers in Aceh have quadrupled their crop production.”
    8. 8. BHUTAN: Report on SRI in Deorali Geog, 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Geog, Dagana Standard practice 3.6 t/ha SRI @ 25x25cm 9.5 t/ha SRI random spacing 6.0 t/ha SRI @ 30x30cm 10.0 t/ha
    9. 9. AFGHANISTAN: 2009 Report from Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province 2008: 6 farmers got SRI yields of 10.1 t/ha vs. 5.4 t/ha regular 2009: 42 farmers got SRI yields of 9.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha regular 2 nd -year SRI farmers got 13.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha 1 st -year SRI farmers got 8.7 t/ha vs. 5.5 t/ha
    10. 10. AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
    11. 11. SRI field at 30 days
    12. 12. SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
    13. 13. 66% average increase across 3 districts (N=42) in 2009
    14. 14. In Baghlan District, only #15 had a reduction in yield; second-year farmers #26 and #28 had yields of 19 and 20 t/ha
    15. 15. MALI: SRI nursery in Timbuktu region – 8-day seedlings ready for transplanting
    16. 16. SRI transplanting in Timbuktu, Mali
    17. 17. Farmer in Timbuktu region showing the difference between regular and SRI rice plants -- 2007: SRI yield was 8.98 t/ha
    18. 18. <ul><li>* adjusted to 14% grain moisture content </li></ul>MALI: Rice grain yields for SRI plots, control plots, and farmer-practice plots, Goundam circle, Timbuktu region, 2008   SRI Control Farmer Practice Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86 Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18 % Change compared to Control + 66 100 - 11 % Change compared to Farmer Practice + 87 + 13 100 Number of Farmers 53 53 60
    19. 19. SRI Results in Major Rice Countries <ul><li>CHINA: Sichuan Zhejiang </li></ul><ul><li>Extension started 2004 (1,120 ha) 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Area through 2009 637,000 ha 688,000 ha </li></ul><ul><li>Average yield increase 1.63 t/ha 1.25 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Increment due to SRI 1,040,000 tons 862,000 tons </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA: </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil Nadu: 750,000 ha in 2008-09 season; Minister of Agriculture credited SRI methods with enabling the state to raise its paddy production on a smaller area, reduced by failure of monsoon ( The Hindu 12/1/09) </li></ul><ul><li>Tripura: started with 44 farmers (8.8 ha) in 2002-03; 880 farmers (352 ha, 0.14% of area) in 2005-06; 250,000 farmers (50,000 ha, 21.2%) in 2008-09 (in 2007-08, average yield increase was 1.78 t/ha) </li></ul>
    20. 20. “ Everyone cites India’s Green Revolution. But I’m even more intrigued by what is known as SRI, or system of rice intensification, and I know this is also an area of interest for [Prime Minister] Manmohan Singh. Using smart water management and planting practices, farmers in Tamil Nadu have increased rice yields between 30 and 80 per cent, reduced water use by 30 per cent, and now require significantly less fertilizer. This emerging technology not only addresses food security, but also the water scarcity challenge that climate change is making all the more dangerous. These are all lessons for our world.” Robert Zoellick, President, World Bank Hindustan Times , December 2, 2009
    21. 21. … our development of farming should shift from the Green Revolution where although harvest production is increased there is also the introduction of damage in many sectors of the environment. We should instead apply methods of increasing the productivity [that are] friendly to the environment. … this SRI method is a proven example where the agriculture is sustained … together with other efforts for preserving the ecosystem, among others, this SRI method of rice farming will really contribute towards saving our planet, our world, and our country. Dr. S. B. Yudhoyono, President, Republic of Indonesia, SRI Harvest Festival, Cianjur, West Java, 7/30/07
    22. 22. SRI Involves Only Changes in Practices <ul><li>Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential - but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid trauma to the roots - transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips which halts growth </li></ul><ul><li>Give plants wider spacing - one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve “edge effect” everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded - soil should be mostly aerobic , not continuously saturated – but SRI methods also extrapolated for rainfed cropping </li></ul><ul><li>Actively aerate the soil as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible – fertilizer can be used with other SRI methods, but best results have come from compost applications </li></ul><ul><li>These methods work with practically all rice cultivars – also give buffering against drought, storm damage , etc. </li></ul>
    23. 23. 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
    24. 24. Benefits being seen also with other crops <ul><li>Initially, SRI concepts and methods were developed for irrigated rice – then used for rainfed rice in Myanmar, India, Philippines – with yields averaging even 7 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Then extended/adapted to other gramineae species: wheat , finger millet , sugar cane , teff </li></ul><ul><li>Now Indian NGOs and farmers are extending the concepts and methods to some legumes and vegetables – kidney beans, soyabean, black gram, aubergine – not just monocots </li></ul><ul><li>So, this is promising subject and hopeful time – more favorable opportunities than imagined? </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with: </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water, and </li></ul><ul><li>25% reduction in chemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>“ The inspiration for putting </li></ul><ul><li>this package together is </li></ul><ul><li>from the successful </li></ul><ul><li>approach of SRI – System </li></ul><ul><li>of Rice Intensification.” </li></ul>
    26. 26. THANK YOU <ul><li>Can check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] or [email_address] </li></ul>
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