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1039 Opportunities Created by the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) for Improvements in Soil, Water & Environmental Quality

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, Cornell University...

Presented by: Norman Uphoff, Cornell University

Presented at: Workshop on Carbon Markets: Expanding Opportunities & Valuing Co-Benefits, organized by the Soil & Water Conservation Society and the National Wildlife Federation

Presented on: July 21, 2010

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  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez. These two rice plants are ‘twins’ in that they were planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52 nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.

1039 Opportunities Created by the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) for Improvements in Soil, Water & Environmental Quality 1039 Opportunities Created by the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) for Improvements in Soil, Water & Environmental Quality Presentation Transcript

  • Opportunities Created by the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) for Improvements in Soil, Water & Environmental Quality   Norman Uphoff, Cornell University Workshop - July 21 - on Carbon Markets: Expanding Opportunities & Valuing Co-Benefits , organized by the Soil & Water Conservation Society and the National Wildlife Federation
    • The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
    • developed in Madagascar in the 1980s –
    • modifies standard rice-growing practices. By changing the management of plants, soil, water, and nutrients , SRI methods:
    • Support larger, better-functioning root systems , and
    • Promote the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil biota .
    • Such agroecological management improves the growing environment (E) to yield a better phenotype (P) from any genotype (G)
  • Examples of phenotypical change: Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province CAMBODIA
  • CUBA: Farmer showing two rice plants of same age (52 d) and same variety (VN 2084); both are same genotype
  • INDONESIA: Single SRI rice plant (variety: Cv. Ciherang) with 223 fertile tillers Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
  • IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf, same varieties, SRI management on left, standard management on right
  • IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size Comparison picture sent by Haraz Technology Research Center, Amol, Mazandaran
  • BHUTAN: Report on SRI in Deorali Geog, 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Geog, Dagana Standard practice 3.6 t/ha SRI @ 25x25cm 9.5 t/ha SRI random spacing 6.0 t/ha SRI @ 30x30cm 10.0 t/ha
  • 2008: 6 farmers got SRI yields of 10.1 t/ha vs. 5.4 t/ha regular 2009: 42 farmers got SRI yields of 9.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha regular 2 nd -year SRI farmers got 13.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha 1 st -year SRI farmers got 8.7 t/ha vs. 5.5 t/ha AFGHANISTAN: 2009 Report from Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province
  • MALI: Farmer in the Timbuktu region showing the difference between regular and SRI rice plants -- 2007: SRI yield was 8.98 t/ha -- Program managed by Africare and supported by the Better U Foundation
    • * adjusted to 14% grain moisture content
    MALI: 2008 results, rice grain yields for SRI plots, control plots, and farmer-practice plots, Goundam, Timbuktu region   SRI Control Farmer Practice Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86 Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18 % Change compared to Control + 66 100 - 11 % Change compared to Farmer Practice + 87 + 13 100 Number of Farmers 53 53 60
  • SRI shows the power of E in the equation: P = ƒ x [G x E] – How do we improve E ?
    • Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential (altho direct seeding is becoming an option)
    • Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips, which halts growth
    • Give plants wide spacing -- one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve “edge effect” everywhere
    • Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded -- soil should be mostly aerobic -- never continuously saturated
    • Actively aerate the soil -- as much as possible
    • Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible
    • These practices stimulate root growth and the abundance and diversity of soil biota – raising productivity of land, labor, capital and water
  • Various Benefits from SRI Practices:
    • Increased yield – 50-100%, and often even more
    • Saving of water – rice production is feasible with less water; also rainfed versions are developing
    • Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses – less damage from pests and diseases and from extremes (either way) in rainfall or temperature
    • Shorter crop cycle – crop matures in 1-3 weeks less time; so less exposure to climate and pest hazards
    • Higher milling outturn – about 15% more rice per bushel of paddy, due to less chaff, less breakage
    • Reductions in labor requirements – incentive for adoption in China and India; mechanization starting
    • Lower costs of production – this increases farmer incomes by more than the yield increase; this adds to the incentive to adopt agroecological management
  • Environmental Benefits
    • Reduced water requirements – less pressure on ecosystems that are in competition with food and agriculture; higher crop water-use efficiency
    • Higher land productivity – reduce pressures for expansion of arable area to feed our population
    • Less use of inorganic fertilizer – reactive N is ‘the third major threat to our planet after biodiversity loss and climate change’ (John Lawton, former chief executive, UK National Envir. Research Council)
    • Less reliance on agrochemicals for crop protection - this should enhance both soil and water quality
    • Buffering the effects of climate change – drought, storms (no lodging), cold temperatures, etc.
    • Possible reduction in greenhouse gases (GHG) – reduced CH 4 apparently without offsetting N 2 O
  • More productive SRI phenotypes give higher water-use efficiency as reflected in the ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration : For each 1 millimol of water lost by transpiration: In SRI plants, 3.6 millimols of CO 2 are fixed In RMP plants, 1.6 millimols of CO 2 are fixed Climate change makes this increasingly important ‘ An assessment of physiological effects of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) compared with recommended rice cultivation practices in India,’ A.K. Thakur, N. Uphoff and E. Antony Experimental Agriculture , 46(1), 77-98 (2010)
  • Comparison of chlorophyll content, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO 2 concentration in SRI and RMP Standard deviations are given in parentheses [N = 15] Parameters Cultivation method SRI RMP SRI % LSD .05 Total chlorophyll (mg g -1 FW) 3.37 (0.17) 2.58 (0.21) +30 0.11 Ratio of chlorophyll a/b 2.32 (0.28) 1.90 (0.37) +22 0.29 Transpiration (m mol m -2 s -1 ) 6.41 (0.43) 7.59 (0.33) -16 0.27 Net photosynthetic rate (μ mol m -2 s -1 ) 23.15 (3.17) 12.23 (2.02) +89 1.64 Stomatal conductance (m mol m -2 s -1 ) 422.73 (34.35) 493.93 (35.93) -15 30.12 Internal CO 2 concentration (ppm) 292.6 (16.64) 347.0 (19.74) -16 11.1
  • Other Benefits from Changes in Practices
    • Water saving – major concern in many places, also now have ‘rainfed’ version with similar results
    • Greater resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses – less damage from pests and diseases, drought, typhoons, flooding, cold spells [discuss tomorrow]
    • Shorter crop cycle – same varieties are harvested by 1-3 weeks sooner, save water, less crop risk
    • High milling output – by about 15%, due to fewer unfilled grains (less chaff) and fewer broken grains
    • Reductions in labor requirements – widely reported incentive for changing practices in India and China; also, mechanization is being introduced many places
    • Reductions in costs of production – greater farmer income and profitability, also health benefits
    SRI LANKA: Rice fields 3 weeks after irrigation was stopped; conventionally-grown field on left, and SRI field on right
  • VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon SRI field and rice plant on left; Conventional field and plant on right
  • INDIA: Meteorological and yield data from ANGRAU IPM evaluation, Andhra Pradesh, 2006 * Low yield was due to cold injury for plants (see above) *Sudden drop in min. temp. during 16–21 Dec. (9.2-9.8 o C for 5 days) Period Mean max. temp. 0 C Mean min. temp. 0 C No. of sunshine hrs 1 – 15 Nov 27.7 19.2 4.9 16–30 Nov 29.6 17.9 7.5 1 – 15 Dec 29.1 14.6 8.6 16–31 Dec 28.1 12.2 * 8.6 Season Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha) Rabi 2005-06 2.25 3.47 Kharif 2006 0.21* 4.16
  • Emisi CH 4 (mg C m -2 Jam -1 ) METHANE EMISSIONS Initial results reported by IPB Soil Biotechnology Laboratory from GHG studies with SRI management in Indonesia
  • Emisi N 2 O (mg N m -2 Jam -1 ) N 2 O EMISSIONS
  • Yan, X., H. Akiyama, K. Yagi and H. Akomoto. ‘Global estimations of the inventory and mitigation potential of methane emissions from rice cultivation conducted using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines.’ Global Biochemical Cycles , (2009) “ We estimated that if all of the continuously flooded rice fields were drained at least once during the growing season, the CH4 emissions would be reduced by 4.1 Tg a -1 . Furthermore, we estimated that applying rice straw off-season wherever and whenever possible would result in a further reduction in emissions of 4.1 Tg a -1 globally. … if both of these mitigation options were adopted, the global CH 4 emission from rice paddies could be reduced by 7.6 Tg a -1 . Although draining continuously flooded rice fields may lead to an increase in nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission, the global warming potential resulting from this increase is negligible when compared to the reduction in global warming potential that would result from the CH 4 reduction associated with draining the fields.”
  • Soil and Atmospheric Benefits?
    • Few evaluations of impact on soil organic carbon – study at ICRISAT (Rupela et al. 2006) found microbial biomass carbon (MBC) 1242 vs. 1187 (NS)
    • Should have some increase in carbon sequestration – from ongoing amendments of compost, FYM, etc. + exudation from larger, more active root systems
    • Improvements in soil structure – improved soil porosity from increased biological activity; venting of H 2 S, CO 2 and other gases
    • Increased water retention – related to soil porosity and SOM, also from increased biological activity
    • Should have reduced carbon footprint – with smaller-scale, less mechanized production; and less chemical fertilizer produced and transported
  • Total bacteria Total diazotrophs Microbial populations in rhizosphere soil in rice crop under different management at active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering (SRI = yellow; conventional = red) – IPB research [units are √ transformed values of population/gram of dry soil] Phosphobacteria Azotobacter
  • Dehydrogenase activity (μg TPF) Urease activity (μg NH 4 -N)) Microbial activities in rhizosphere soil in rice crop with different management (SRI = yellow; conventional = red) at active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering stages [units are √ transformed values of population/gram of dry soil per 24 h] Acid phosphate activity (μg p-Nitrophenol) Nitrogenase activity (nano mol C 2 H 4 )
  • Microorganisms in Leaves and Seeds: New Paradigm for Agriculture?
    • Beneficial interactions between plants and microorganisms within the root zone ( rhizosphere ) are well established
    • We are now finding that positive interactions extend also to the rest of the plant:
      • Leaves : soil bacteria ( Rhizobia ) migrate into the leaf zone ( phyllosphere ), promoting better phenotypes, and
      • Seeds : when inoculated with fungus ( Fusarium culmorum ), more root growth
  • Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology Feng Chi et al., J. Applied & Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278 Rhizo-bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm 3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo-synthetic rate (μmol -2 s -1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm 2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36 A 63 ± 2 A 16.42 ± 1.39 A 3.62 ± 0.17 BC 17.64 ± 4.94 ABC 86 ± 5 A SM-1021 180 ± 26 A 67 ± 5 A 14.99 ± 1.64 B 4.02 ± 0.19 AB 20.03 ± 3.92 A 86 ± 4 A SM-1002 168 ± 8 AB 52 ± 4 BC 13.70 ± 0.73 B 4.15 ± 0.32 A 19.58 ± 4.47 AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23 A 61 ± 8 AB 13.85 ± 0.38 B 3.36 ± 0.41 C 18.98 ± 4.49 AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16 A 67 ± 4 A 13.86 ± 0.76 B 3.18 ± 0.25 CD 16.79 ± 3.43 BC 77 ± 5 A Control 130 ± 10 B 47 ± 6 C 10.23 ± 1.03 C 2.77 ± 0.69 D 15.24 ± 4.0 C 51 ± 4 C
  • Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
  • SRI Concepts and Methods Are Now Being Extended Beyond Rice
    • Agroecological management is generic -- SRI is not a technology
    • Applications now with other crops:
    • Wheat (India, Ethiopia, Mali)
    • Sugar cane (India)
    • Finger millet (India, Ethiopia)
    • Legumes and vegetables (India)
    • Teff (Ethiopia)
  • New farming method boosts food output in Bihar for India's rural poor In Ghantadih village in Gaya district, more than half of the 42 farming households have switched to SWI from traditional practices. Manna Devi, mother of three, was the first woman to use the technique in Bihar state. She says she decided to take a gamble despite jibes from neighbouring farmers who mocked her cultivation methods. "We were living a hand-to-mouth existence before and we just couldn't manage to eat, let alone put our children through school," she says. "We were only producing about 30 kg of wheat, which lasted us four months, and we had to take loans, and my husband had also taken a second job as a rickshaw puller in order to make ends meet." Devi says she now produces about 80 kg of wheat - enough to feed her family for a year – and hopes to start selling extra crop. Alert Net: Thomson-Reuters Foundation, March 30, 2010
    • ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with:
    • 30% reduction in water, and
    • 25% reduction in chemical inputs
    • “ The inspiration for putting
    • this package together is
    • from the successful
    • approach of SRI – System
    • of Rice Intensification.”
  •  
  • HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING Dr. Tareke Berhe, SAA, ‘Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia’s Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World,’ Cornell seminar, 7/23/09 – Berhe was CIMMYT post-doctoral fellow with Norman Borlaug in 1970
  • Where Is All This Leading?
      • Still a lot of research to be done, but we should begin moving beyond our genocentric paradigm
        • ‘ Seeds and fertilizer’ is not only path to progress
      • Many powerful trends are making ‘modern agriculture’ less profitable and less sustainable
      • Now beginning to work toward what might be called ‘post-modern’ agriculture – focusing on:
        • Ecological dynamics at field level and above
        • Crop/animal interactions with microbes at micro level
        • Gene expression > DNA, e.g., epigenetics
      • Convergence of IPM, Conservation Agriculture, organic agriculture, SRI, agroforestry, et al.
        • Low-input intensification (European Parliament study)
        • Sustainable intensification (UK Royal Society report)
  • Thank you Website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ Soon to be: http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu Email: [email_address]