1031 International Experience with the System of Rice Intensification
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1031 International Experience with the System of Rice Intensification



Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: Rice Research and Training Institute, Kafr-el-Sheikh

Date Presented: 04/14/2010



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  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This plot of Liu Zhibin’s was harvested just before my visit, with an official certificate for a yield of 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, when Liu first used SRI methods, on soil that has been kept well supplied with organic matter, he got a yield of 16 t/ha which helped to persuade Prof. Yuan Long-ping, ‘the father of hybrid rice’ in China, to become more interested in SRI. Liu is manager for the seed farm that produces hybrid seed for Prof. Yuan’s operations.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This picture was provided by Association Tefy Saina, showing Fr. de Laulanie the year before his death in 1995, at age 75.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez. These two rice plants are ‘twins’ in that they were planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52 nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Figures from a paper presented by Dr. Tao to international rice conference organized by the China National Rice Research Institute for the International Year of Rice and World Food Day, held in Hangzhou, October 15-17, 2004. Dr. Tao has been doing research on SRI since 2001 to evaluate its effects in physiological terms.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields >15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • Picture provided by George Rakotondrabe, Landscape Development Interventions project.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
  • Picture provided by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Morang District, Nepal. Again, this is a single SRI plant grown from a single seed.
  • Picture provided by Mr. Shichi Sato, project leader for DISIMP project in Eastern Indonesia (S. Sulawasi and W. Nusa Tenggara), where > 1800 farmers using SRI on >1300 ha have had 7.6 t/ha average SRI yield (dried, unhusked paddy, 14% moisture content), 84% more than the control plots, with 40% reduction in water use, and 25% reduction in the costs of production.
  • This picture from Sri Lanka shows two fields having the same soil, climate and irrigation access, during a drought period. On the left, the rice grown with conventional practices, with continuous flooding from the time of transplanting, has a shallower root system that cannot withstand water stress. On the right, SRI rice receiving less water during its growth has deeper rooting, and thus it can continue to thrive during the drought. Farmers in Sri Lanka are coming to accept SRI in part because it reduces their risk of crop failure during drought.
  • This is explained in the book referenced above.
  • This is explained in the book by Chaboussou for which reference is given above.
  • Prof. Ma Jun in his paper to the Haerbin conference included data on rice quality that he had collected. They showed SRI rice grains (from three different spacings within the SRI range) to be clearly superior in two major respects to conventionally-grown grains (two spacings). A reduction in chalkiness makes the rice more palatable. An increase in outturn is a ‘bonus’ on top of the higher yields of paddy (unmilled) rice that farmers get with SRI methods. We have seen this kind of improvement in outturn rates in Cuba, India and Sri Lanka, about 15%. More research on other aspects of SRI grain quality should be done, including nutritional content.
  • Here the seedlings are being set into the soil, very shallow (only 1-2 cm deep). The transplanted seedlings are barely visible at the intersections of the lines. This operation proceeds very quickly once the transplanters have gained some skill and confidence in the method. As noted already, these seedling set out with two leaves can already have a third leaf by the next day.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
  • This is Subasinghe Ariyaratna’s own design. He is a small rice farmer (2 ha) in Mahaweli System ‘H’ of Sri Lanka. He has also devised a method of crop establishment that is labor saving. Instead of transplanting young seedlings 10 days old, at a seed rate of 5 kg/ha, he germinates seed and broadcasts it on prepared muddy soil at a rate of 25 kg/ha. Then at 10 days, when the seedlings are established, he ‘weeds’ the field as recommended for SRI, with rows 25x25 cm, in both directions, removing (churning under) about 80% of the seedlings, leaving just 1 or maybe 2 or 3 plants at the intersections of his passes. This saves the labor of making and managing a nursery and of transplanting, at a cost of 20 kg of seed/ha. He says this can assure a yield of 7.5 t/ha. As his household labor supply is limited (he has two young children and his wife teaches), he needs to economize on labor.
  • This was developed in 2003 by Mr. L. Reddy, to replace the use of strings and sticks to mark lines for planting, or the use of a wooden “rake” that could mark lines when pulled across the paddy in two directions. This implement, which can be built for any spacing desired, enables farmers, after it is pulled across the paddy in one direction, to plant SRI seedlings in a 25x250 cm square pattern. It saves as lot of labor time for transplanting because only one pass is needed across the field, and this is wider than a rake could be. Even wider ones have been built. Mr. Reddy is a very innovative and successful SRI farmer, with a superb yield last rabi season, measured and reported by the Department of Extension in Andhra Pradesh.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
  • These data were reported in Prof. Robert Randriamiharisoa's paper in the Sanya conference proceedings. They give the first direct evidence to support our thinking about the contribution of soil microbes to the super-yields achieved with SRI methods. The bacterium Azospirillum was studied as an "indicator species" presumably reflecting overall levels of microbial populations and activity in and around the plant roots. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no significant difference in Azospirillum populations in the rhizosphere. But there were huge differences in the counts of Azospirillum in the roots themselves according to soil types (clay vs. loam) and cultivation practices (traditional vs. SRI) and nutrient amendments (none vs. NPK vs. compost). NPK amendments with SRI produce very good results, a yield on clay soil five times higher than traditional methods with no amendments. But compost used with SRI gives a six times higher yield. The NPK increases Azospirillum (and other) populations, but most/much of the N that produced a 9 t/ha yield is coming from inorganic sources compared to the higher 10.5 t/ha yield with compost that depends entirely on organic N. On poorer soil, SRI methods do not have much effect, but when enriched with compost, even this poor soil can give a huge increase in production, attributable to the largest of the increases in microbial activity in the roots. At least, this is how we interpret these findings. Similar research should be repeated many times, with different soils, varieties and climates. We consider these findings significant because they mirror results we have seen in other carefully measured SRI results in Madagascar. Tragically, Prof. Randriamiharisoa, who initiated this work, passed away in August, 2004, so we will no longer have his acute intelligence and probing mind to advance these frontiers of knowledge.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language, but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.

1031 International Experience with the System of Rice Intensification 1031 International Experience with the System of Rice Intensification Presentation Transcript

  • International Experience with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Rice Research and Training Institute Kafr-el-Sheikh, April 8, 2010 Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
  • Purpose: to share knowledge about a new system of crop management
    • Not trying to sell SRI or to promote its use – rather would like to promote its evaluation
    • If SRI ideas and practices are found to be beneficial , this is open-access, public-domain information – available to anybody to use
      • No patents, no royalties, no IPRs; not just rice
    • SRI is not a technology – instead we refer to it as a system or a methodology
    • We think of SRI as is emerging paradigm for agricultural research and practice
  • Acc. to IRRI DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004 Rice sector needs in 21 st century:
    • Increased land productivity-- higher yield
    • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop
    • Technology accessible for the poor
    • Environmental friendliness
    • More pest- and disease-resistance
    • Tolerance of abiotic stresses (climate Δ )
    • Better grain quality for consumers
    • Greater profitability for farmers
  • SRI practices already can meet these needs :
    • Higher yields -- 50-100% (or more?)
    • Water reduction -- 25-50% (also rainfed)
    • Reduced input need - good for poor farmers
    • Little or no need for agrochemical inputs
    • Induced pest and disease resistance
    • Drought tolerance; little or no lodging
    • Better grain quality -- less chalkiness
    • Lower costs of production by 10-20%  which leads to higher farmers’ income
  • SRI is many things:
      • SRI derives from a certain number of INSIGHTS , based on experience
      • SRI can be explained in terms of PRINCIPLES having scientific bases
      • SRI gets communicated to farmers in terms of specific PRACTICES that improve the growing environment for their rice plants - at same time,
      • SRI offers an alternative PARADIGM a different approach to agriculture - pointing toward post-modern agriculture
      • SRI practices may look like a PACKAGE or even like a RECIPE, but they are much better understood as a MENU
        • Farmers are encouraged to use as many of the practices as possible, as well as possible
        • Each practice contributes to higher yield as seen from the accumulating evidence
        • But there is evidence of some synergy in effect among the practices – so that the best results come from using them together
      • -- Since SRI was empirically developed , we are continually improving scientific understanding of SRI concepts/theory
      • -- Since SRI is farmer-centered , it is being modified, improved, extended
        • There are now also rainfed versions of SRI and zero-till, direct-seed, raised-bed forms
        • SRI ideas are extrapolated to other crops : wheat, sugar cane, millet, teff, beans, etc.
  • Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, his SRI yield set provincial yield record: 16 t/ha
    • SRI was developed for smallholders in Madagascar, but it is relevant at all scales
    • - Fr. Henri de Laulanié arrived there from France in 1961 with some agricultural training
    • - He started working with farmers to raise yields, without dependence on external inputs
    • In 1983-84 season, he learned the effects of transplanting young seedlings
    • In late 1980s, when fertilizer subsidies were removed, he switched over to compost
  • Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
  • Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
  • Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba, Laos, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Peru, Moz 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Vietnam, Pakistan 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Rwanda, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana 2009: Malaysia Timor Leste 2010: Kenya, DPRK, Panama? Solomon Islands? 2010: SRI benefits have now been validated in 39 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  • The Six Basic Ideas for SRI
    • Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option
    • Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips, which halts growth
    • Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve ‘edge effect’ everywhere
    • Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic and not continuously saturated
    • Actively aerate the soil as much as possible
    • Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible
    • 1+2+3 stimulate plant growth overall, while 4+5+6 enhance the growth of plants’ ROOTS and of soil BIOTA  better PHENOTYPES
  • Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  • Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
  • Additional benefits of SRI practice:
    • Reduced time to maturity , by 1-2 weeks, less exposure to pests and diseases, and to adverse climate; can replant sooner
    • Higher milling outturn – by about 15%
      • Fewer broken grains, less chaff (unfilled grains)
    • Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach – we want farmers to become better managers of their resources, experimenting, evaluating…
    • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture; can adapt SRI to larger- scale production thru mechanization
  • Requirements/Constraints
    • Water control to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities
    • Supply of biomass for making compost – but can use fertilizer if compost is insufficient
    • Crop protection may be necessary, although usually more resistance to pests & diseases
    • Mechanical weeder is desirable as this can aerate the soil at same time it controls weeds
    • Skill & motivation of farmers most important; need to learn new practices; once techniques are mastered, SRI can become labor-saving
    • Support of experts? have faced opposition
  • 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  • CHINA: Factorial trials by China National Rice Research Institute, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields
    • Standard Rice Mgmt
    • 30-day seedlings
    • 20x20 cm spacing
    • Continuous flooding
    • Fertilization:
      • 100% chemical
    • New Rice Mgmt (SRI)
    • 20-day seedlings
    • 30x30 cm spacing
    • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD)
    • Fertilization:
      • 50% chemical,
      • 50% organic
  • Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha -1 NRM plants are different phenotype , responding positively to less seed, less water, less fertilizer  now being wasted
  • 2009 Report from Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province, Afghanistan 2008: 6 farmers got SRI yields of 10.1 t/ha vs. 5.4 t/ha regular 2009: 42 farmers got SRI yields of 9.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha regular 2 nd year SRI farmers got 13.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha 1 st year SRI farmers got 8.7 t/ha vs. 5.5 t/ha
  • AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
  • SRI field at 30 days
  • SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
  • IRAQ: Comparison trials, Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
  • BHUTAN: Report on SRI in Deorali Geog , 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Georg, Dagana SRI @ 25x25cm 9.5 t/ha SRI random spacing 6.0 t/ha SRI @ 30x30cm 10.0 t/ha Standard practice 3.6 t/ha
  • MALI: SRI nursery in Timbuktu region – 8-day seedlings ready for transplanting
  • SRI transplanting in Timbuktu, Mali
  • MALI: Farmer in Timbuktu region showing difference between regular and SRI rice plants -- First SRI yields 8.98 t/ha (2007)
    • * adjusted to 14% grain moisture content
    MALI: Next year results - rice grain yield for SRI, control, and farmer-practice plots Goundam circle, Timbuktu region, 2008   SRI Control Farmer Practice Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86 Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18 % Change compared to Control + 66 100 - 11 % Change compared to Farmer Practice + 87 + 13 100 Number of Farmers 53 53 60
  • Two Paradigms for Agriculture:
    • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to:
    • * Change the genetic potential of plants, and
    • * Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides
    • SRI (AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients:
      • * To promote the growth of root systems , and
      • * To increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits
    • The goal is to produce better PHENOTYPES
  • MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
  • CAMBODIA: Rice plant grown from a single seed in Takeo province
  • NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods, Morang district
  • IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
  • INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
  • Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06
    • No. of trials: 12,133
    • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares
    • Ave. increase in yield: 78% (3.3 t/ha)
    • Reduction in water requirements : 40%
    • Reduction in fertilizer use : 50%
    • Reduction in costs of production : 20%
  • SRI LANKA: rice fields after three weeks without water; same rice variety, same irrigation system, same drought -- conventional methods on left; SRI on right
  • VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon has passed over -- SRI plant/field on left; conventional plant/field on right
  • Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village, Zhejiang In 2004, SRI gave highest yield in province: 12 t/ha In 2005, his SRI rice fields were hit by three typhoons – yet he was still able to harvest 11.15 tons/ha -- while other farmers’ fields were badly affected by the storm damage In 2008, Nie used chemical fertilizer - and crop lodged
  • Time to flowering, maturity, and plant lodging percentage as affected by AWDI and ordinary irrigation practice combined with different age of seedlings and spacing in Chiba, 2008 (Chapagain and Yamaji, 2009) Irrigation method Seed-ling age Spacing (cm 2 ) Time to flowering Time to maturity Plant lodging percentage Partial Complete Total Inter-mittent irrigation (AWDI) 14 30x30 75 118 6.67 0 6.67 30x18 74.67 118.67 40.00 6.67 46.67 21 30x30 72.67 117.67 26.67 20 46.67 30x18 74.33 117 13.33 13.33 26.67 Ordinary irrigation (continu-ous flooding) 14 30x30 73.33 122 16.67 33.33 50.00 30x18 72 121 26.67 53.33 80.00 21 30x30 72 120.67 20 76.67 96.67 30x18 72.67 121 13.33 80 93.33
  • Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from on-farm trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: * Insects/m 2 Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7%
  • Theory of Trophobiosis
    • (F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops , 2004) deserves more attention and empirical evaluation than it has received to date
    • Its propositions are well supported by published literature over last 50 years -- and by long-standing observations about adverse effects of nitrogenous fertilizers and chlorinated pesticides
    • Theory does not support strictly ‘organic’ approach because nutrient amendments are approved where soil deficits exist
  • Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’
    • Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of plants’ nutrition :
    • Nutrient imbalances and deficiencies lead to excesses of free amino acids in the plants’ sap and cells, not yet synthesized into proteins – and more simple sugars in sap and cytoplasm not incorporated into polysaccharides
    • This condition attracts and nourishes insects, bacteria, fungi, even viruses
  • Resistance to cold temperatures: Yield and meteorological data from ANGRAU, A.P., India + Sudden drop in minimum temp. for 5 days (16–21 Dec. = 9.2-9.9 o C ) * Low yield was due to cold injury (see below) Period Mean max. temp. 0 C Mean min. temp. 0 C No. of sunshine hrs 1 – 15 Nov 27.7 19.2 4.9 16–30 Nov 29.6 17.9 7.5 1 – 15 Dec 29.1 14.6 8.6 16–31 Dec 28.1 12.2 + 8.6 Season Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha) Kharif 2006 0.21* 4.16 Rabi 2005-06 2.25 3.47
  • Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conv. Methods SRI Methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004 Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 - 30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 - 65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5%
  • NEPAL: Crop duration (from seed to seed) of different rice varieties with SRI (6.3 t/ha) vs. conventional methods (3.1 t/ha) - 125 days vs. 141 days (16 days less) Varieties (N = 412) Conventional duration SRI duration Difference Bansdhan/Kanchhi 145 127 (117-144) 18 (28-11) Mansuli 155 136 (126-146) 19 (29- 9) Swarna 155 139 (126-150) 16 (29- 5) Sugandha 120 106 (98-112) 14 (22- 8) Radha 12 155 138 (125-144) 17 (30-11) Barse 3017 135 118 17 Hardinath 1 120 107 (98-112) 13 (22- 8) Barse 2014 135 127 (116-125) 8 (19-10)
  • Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced SRI LANKA: Best use of transplanting methods
  • SRI LANKA: Soil-aerating hand weeder costs <$10
  • Effect of Active Soil Aeration
    • 412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005
    • SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha vs. control = 3.1 t/ha
    • Data show how WEEDINGS can raise yield
    • No. of No. of Average Range
    • weedings farmers yield of yields
    • 1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6)
    • 2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0)
    • 3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4)
  • Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98 Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772
  • Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration , is also possible
  • INDIA: Roller-marker devised by L. Reddy, East Godavari, AP, to save time in transplanting operations; yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 16.2 t/ha paddy (dry weight)
  • SRI seedlings ready for transport to field, for mechanical transplanting in COSTA RICA
  • Fig 1 Trasplantadora motorizada AP100 Yanmar Mechanical transplanter used in COSTA RICA
  • COSTA RICA - Mechanically transplanted SRI field 8 t/ha yield
  • PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
  • Mechanical transplanter for dropping seedlings into holes made by machine, Water is sprayed in hole after 10-day seedling is lput in, adding compost.
  • Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch (22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
  • Rice crop at 71 days in Punjab, Pakistan Seedlings planted into dry soil = 70% water reduction Average yield = 13 tons/ha (7 to 22 tons/ha)
  • Role of Soil Biota
    • Bacteria and fungi perform many services for crop (under aerobic conditions)
    • Nutrient cycling and mobilization
    • Nitrogen fixation
    • Phosphorus solubilization
    • Water and nutrient acquisition
    • Competition with pathogens
    • Phytohormone production (auxins, etc.)
    • Induced systemic resistance
    • Also previously unappreciated benefits
  • Total bacteria Total diazotrophs Microbial populations in rhizosphere soil in rice crop under different management at active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering (SRI = yellow; conventional = red) [units are √ transformed values of population/gram of dry soil] Phosphobacteria Azotobacter
  • CFU = colony forming units PSM = Phosphate-solubilizing microbes BF = Bio-organic fertilizer Values with the different letters in a column are significantly different by LSD at the 0.05 level. Treatments : T0 = 20x20 cm spacing, 30 day seedlings, 6 seedlings/hill, 5 cm flooding depth of water, fertilized with inorganic NPK (250 kg urea, 200 kg SP-18, 100 kg KCl ha -1 ); T1, T2, T3 = All 30x30 cm spacing, 6-10 day seedlings, 1 seedling/hill, moist soil or intermittent irrigation, with different fertilization : T1 = same inorganic NPK as T0 ; T2 = 5 t ha -1 of organic fertilizer (compost); T3 = Inorganic NPK as in T0 + 300 kg ha -1 bioorganic fertilizer. Total microbes and numbers of beneficial soil microbes (CFU g -1 ) under conventional and SRI rice cultivation methods, Tanjung Sari, Bogor district, Indonesia, Feb-Aug 2009 (Iswandi et al., 2009) Treatments Total microbes (x10 5 ) Azotobacter (x10 3 ) Azospirillum (x10 3 ) PSM (x10 4 ) Conventional (T0) 2.3a 1.9a 0.9a 3.3a Inorganic SRI (T1) 2.7a 2.2a 1.7ab 4.0a Organic SRI (T2) 3.8b 3.7b 2.8bc 5.9b Inorg. SRI + BF (T3) 4.8c 4..4b 3.3c 6.4b
  • Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia,from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology Feng Chi et al., Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278 Rhizo-bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm 3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo-synthetic rate (μmol -2 s -1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm 2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36 A 63 ± 2 A 16.42 ± 1.39 A 3.62 ± 0.17 BC 17.64 ± 4.94 ABC 86 ± 5 A SM-1021 180 ± 26 A 67 ± 5 A 14.99 ± 1.64 B 4.02 ± 0.19 AB 20.03 ± 3.92 A 86 ± 4 A SM-1002 168 ± 8 AB 52 ± 4 BC 13.70 ± 0.73 B 4.15 ± 0.32 A 19.58 ± 4.47 AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23 A 61 ± 8 AB 13.85 ± 0.38 B 3.36 ± 0.41 C 18.98 ± 4.49 AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16 A 67 ± 4 A 13.86 ± 0.76 B 3.18 ± 0.25 CD 16.79 ± 3.43 BC 77 ± 5 A Control 130 ± 10 B 47 ± 6 C 10.23 ± 1.03 C 2.77 ± 0.69 D 15.24 ± 4.0 C 51 ± 4 C
  • Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants (symbiotic plants were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum ) Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
  • Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
  • Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet) Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 2007 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60 Wheat (Irrig.) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63
  • Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
    • ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with:
    • 30% reduction in water, and
    • 25% reduction in chemical inputs
    • ‘ The inspiration for putting
    • this package together is
    • from the successful
    • approach of SRI – System
    • of Rice Intensification.’
  • HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING Report of Dr. Tareke Berhe, Senior Rice Advisor, Sasakawa Africa Association, Addis Ababa, from experiments applying SRI methods for teff
  • 1 ST S.T.I. TRIALS, 2008 Duplication of Earlier Findings YIFRU ( 1998 ) M. Sc. THESIS Reported yield of 4-5 tons/ha for non-lodged teff vs. 2-3 t/ha for lodged teff Even higher yields with addition of some macronutients (NPK) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, S, Mg) – evaluations continuing VARIETY SOWING METHOD PELLETING YIELD (Kg/Ha) Cross 37 Broadcast None 1,014 Broadcast Yes 483 20 cm x 20 cm None 3,390 20 cm x 20 cm Yes 5,109 Cross 387 Broadcast None 1,181 Broadcast Yes 1,036 20 cm x 20 cm None 4,142 20 cm x 20 cm Yes 4,385
    • SRI is pointing the way toward a paradigm shift?  toward ‘post-modern agriculture’?
    • Less genocentric and more fundamentally biocentric
    • More interest in epigenetics
    • Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to utilize the benefits of biodiversity and ecological interactions
    • Less chemical-dependent and more energy-efficient
    • More oriented to health of humans and the environment
    • Intensification of production
    • Focus on greater factor productivity and sustainability
    • Can check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/
    • Email: [email_address] or [email_address]
  • How to “speed up the biological clock” (adapted from Nemoto et al. 1995)
    • Shorter phyllochrons Longer phyllochrons
    • Higher temperatures > cold temperatures
    • Wider spacing > crowding of roots/canopy
    • More illumination > shading of plants
    • Ample nutrients in soil > nutrient deficits
    • Soil penetrability > compaction of soil
    • Sufficient moisture > drought conditions
    • Sufficient oxygen > hypoxic soil conditions