1025 Agronomic and environmental evaluation of a new approach for water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS)

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Contributors: S Lin, K. Dittert, HB Tao1, KR Shen, YC Xu, SW Gao, XL Fan, MS Fan, SH Lu, LH Wu, FS Zhang. China Agriculture University, University of Kiel, Agricultural Bureau Hubei, Nanjing …

Contributors: S Lin, K. Dittert, HB Tao1, KR Shen, YC Xu, SW Gao, XL Fan, MS Fan, SH Lu, LH Wu, FS Zhang. China Agriculture University, University of Kiel, Agricultural Bureau Hubei, Nanjing Agriculture University, Hunan Agricultural University, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University

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  • 1. Agronomic and environmental evaluation of a new approach for water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) S Lin 1 、 K. Dittert 2 、 HB Tao 1 、 KR Shen 3 、 YC Xu 4 、 SW Gao 4 、 XL Fan 5 、 MS Fan 1 、 SH Lu 6 、 LH Wu 7 、 FS Zhang 1 1 China Agriculture University, 2 University of Kiel, 3 Agricultural Bureau Hubei, 4 Nanjing Agriculture University, 5 Hunan Agricultural University, 6 Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 7 Zhejiang University (linshan@cau.edu.cn)
  • 2. Rice production is facing severe water scarcity even in Southern China, in Guangdong with annual precipitation of 2000 mm © www.irri.org/ipswar
  • 3. Rice Corn Wheat Yield (kg/ha) year Average yield of rice, corn and wheat in China 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00
  • 4. Disadvantages of lowland rice production systems:
    • High water demand , hence low
    • water use efficiency
  • 5. Wheat 500 Rice 1900 (Pimentel, 1997b) Amount of water required (in liters) for the production of 1 kg grain
  • 6. Water consumption for lowland production daily Season (150 d) mm d -1 mm Land preparation 175 – 750 Evapotranspiration wet season 4 – 5 600 – 750 dry season 6 – 7 900 – 1050 Seepage heavy clays 1 – 5 150 – 750 loamy/sandy soil 25 – 30 3750 – 4500 Total season 925 – 5800 mm Typical 1500 – 2000 mm (Bouman, 2001)
  • 7. Disadvantages of lowland rice production systems:
    • High water demand, and hence low
    • water use efficiency
    • Low N- fertiliser use efficiency
    • High methane emission, and thus
    • high global warming potential
  • 8. Water-saving Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS) Strategy I: Rice is direct seeded , and soil is irrigated to approximately 80% of field water-holding capacity Strategy II: Rice plant is transplanted , and soil is irrigated to maintain soil water content near saturation To reduce evaporation, the soil is covered by plastic film or by plant mulch with both strategies
  • 9. Objectives of water-saving GCRPS
    • Increase water and nutrient use efficiency
    • Reduce emissions of CH 4 and N 2 O
    • Maintain and increase the grain yield
  • 10. 4000 3000 2000 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 100 50 Beijing, 600 mm Nanjing, 1000 mm Gaungzhou, 2000 mm Hubei Sichuan Zhejiang Distribution of precipitation GCRPS – direct seeding GCRPS – transplanting
  • 11.
    • GCRPS - direct seeding
    Seeding GCRPS-film (15 cm pF < 10–15 kPa) Lin, 2002
  • 12.
    • GCRPS - transplanting
    Lin, 2002
    • Rice plant will be transplanted and soil is irrigated to maintain soil water content near saturation
    • To reduce evaporation, the soil is covered by plastic film or plant mulch.
  • 13. Lin, 2005 Transplanting Land level & fertilization Film covering Hole making
  • 14. 林杉 , 2005 Layout of the field experiment in Hubei
  • 15. Evapo-transpiration plus leaching Free surface evaporation Free surface evaporation Evapo-transpiration Free surface evapo-ration between rows
  • 16. Amount of irrigation water used for paddy ground cover with plastic film and with straw Irrigation water (mm) Paddy Film Straw Beijing Nanjing Guangzhou Paddy Film Straw Paddy Film Straw 0 1000 2000 3000
  • 17. Irrigation water use efficiency 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 WUEi (kg m -3 ) Paddy Film Straw Beijing Nanjing Guangzhou Paddy Film Straw Paddy Film Straw 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
  • 18. photo Lin May we reduce CH 4 /N 2 O emission of traditional paddy rice? Closed Chamber 15 N balance Water balance Nitrate leaching Water meter
  • 19. CH 4 emissions 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 20000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 20000 CH 4 (mg m -2 ) Paddy Film Straw Beijing Nanjing Guangzhou Paddy Film Straw Paddy Film Straw 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 20000
  • 20. N 2 O emissions 0 500 1000 1500 0 500 1000 1500 0 500 1000 1500 N 2 O (mg m -2 ) Paddy Film Straw Beijing Nanjing Guangzhou Paddy Film Straw Paddy Film Straw
  • 21. Global warming potential of CH 4 and N 2 O 0 200 400 0 200 400 0 200 400 Compared to CO2: CH 4 by factor of 23, N 2 O by factor of 296 (IPCC 2001) CO 2 equivalent flux (g m -2 ) Paddy Film Straw Beijing Nanjing Guangzhou Paddy Film Straw Paddy Film Straw
  • 22. Evaluation of water-saving alternatives with GCRPS Comparison of rice grain yield, 2002 Beijing Nanjing Guangzhou Regional yield level
  • 23. Evaluation of water-saving alternatives with GCRPS Comparison of fertiliser nitrogen use efficiency, 2002 Fertiliser productivity: kg grain kg N fertiliser -1 Beijing Nanjing Guangzhou
  • 24. Average grain yield (kg ha -1 ) of long-term experiments Treatment Sichuan Hubei Nanjing Zhejiang (1999-2008) (2003-2008) (2001-2008) (2001-2008) Paddy -N0 nd 3,180 4,631 nd GCRPS-N0 5,011 4,657 4,330 6,318 Paddy -N150 5,998 6,059 7,294 8,216 GCRPS-N150 7,051 6,631 6,636 7,766 150 kg N/ha/yr for Sichuan, Hubei & Nanjing; 135 kg N/ha/yr for Zhejiang +18% +10% -9% -5% +46% -6%
  • 25. Average grain yield, N uptake, NUE and C-fixation at Hubei , 2003-08 Treatment Yield N-uptake C-fix. NUE* (kg/ha) (kg N/ha) (kg C/ha) (%) Paddy -N0 3,180 45 2,762 GCRPS-N0 3,657 50 3,388 Paddy -N150 6,059 111 5,663 44 GCRPS-N150 6,631 123 6,310 52 -- Difference method -- 150 kg N/ha/yr, n=18
  • 26. Is there still some room for maneuver for us to increase the rice grain yield and reduce N 2 O emission of GCRPS by improvement of fertilization method?
  • 27. Average grain yield, N uptake, NUE and C-fixation at Hubei, 2003-08 Treatment Yield N-uptake C-fix. NUE* (kg/ha) (kg N/ha) (kg C/ha) (%) Paddy -N0 3,180 45 2,762 GCRPS-N0 3,657 50 3,388 Paddy -N150 6,059 111 5,663 44 GCRPS-N150 6,631 123 6,310 52 GCRPS-CRF* 6,805 134 6,876 59 GCRPS-Ninhibitor** 6,945 133 6,550 59
    • *Average for 5 years; ** Average for 4 years;
    • 150 kg N/ha/yr for all fertilized treatment
    +13% +24% +18% 100%
  • 28. Paddy _N225 0.05 c 123 c GCRPS_N225 0.20 a 490 a GCRPS_N150 0.12 b 293 b GCRPS_CRF 0.07 c 160 c AvdFlux Total (mg.m -2 .h -1 ) (mg.m -2 ) Average daily N 2 O flux (AvdFlux) and total emission during the whole rice growth period (Total) (Fan, unpub., pers. comm.)
  • 29. Covering with plastic film Hole-making with simple tool Water-saving rice GCRPS in practice
  • 30. GCRPS in Hubei 2005.5.7
  • 31. GCRPS in Sichuan 2009.5.27
  • 32. Conclusion The system of water-saving ground cover rice production can maintain food safety, improve resource use efficiency (both for water & N), and increase C-fixation. Also, it can also decrease global warming potential by reducing CH 4 emissions and has the potential to reduce N 2 O emissions. We believe GCRPS can harmonize the objectives of Countering Water Scarcity , Enhancing Food Safety , Achieving Resource Use Efficiency , and Abating Global Warming Potential
  • 33. Thanks for your attention