1007 The Progress of the System of Rice Intensification in Super Hybrid Rice

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Presented by: Ma Guohui, Deputy DG China National Hybrid Rice R & D Center

Presented at: Workshop on the System of Rice Intensification, Exchanging Experience in China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Internationally
Held February 28-March 2, 2010, in Hangzhou, China

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1007 The Progress of the System of Rice Intensification in Super Hybrid Rice

  1. 1. The Progress of SRI in Super Hybrid Rice Dr. Ma Guohui, Deputy DG & Professor China National Hybrid Rice R & D Center 28 February, 2010, Hangzhou
  2. 3. 2003.3.1-3. 杭州
  3. 4. 1. Key elements of SRI & M-SRI 2. Major progress in M-SRI 3. Key issues for SRI improvement Outline
  4. 5. <ul><li>A. Key elements of SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Single seedlings with wide spacing 稀植建立较大的生长空间有利于通风透光,分蘖多根系发达,能更好地从土壤中吸取养分,形成多穗和大穗 . </li></ul><ul><li>Raising very young seedlings in carefully managed nurseries 帮助秧苗在大田迅速恢复生长确保高产的潜力发挥至关重要 . </li></ul><ul><li>Less water for irrigation 这一方式重在使稻株的结构,根和分蘖的密度及空间定位得到优化,氧气更易直接进入土壤达到根部,促进根系深扎 . </li></ul><ul><li>Manual weed control without herbicide 幼穗分化前深中耕 2~3 次,达到除草、通气、促根的目的 . 中耕调节氧气为稻根利用比消灭杂草更为重要 . </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch compost application 减少化肥用量,每亩基肥施足 2500 ~ 4000 千克 . 施用堆肥和厩肥不仅可改良土壤结构、促进根的生长,而且能促进土壤有利微生物的形成 </li></ul>1. Key elements of SRI & M-SRI
  5. 6. <ul><li>Adaptable high-yielding varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable (optimal) spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic tray nursery instead wet nursery </li></ul><ul><li>Both organic and chemical fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Weed control with chemicals & manual </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable implement for field tillage </li></ul><ul><li>Technical standardization (processing) </li></ul>B. Key elements of Modified SRI
  6. 7. <ul><li>1) Varieties evaluation for SRI methods </li></ul><ul><li>筛选出了 14 个适于不同生态区的优质高产杂交新组合 ( 品种 ) ,奠定了水稻改良型强化栽培技术推广应用的良种基础 . </li></ul><ul><li>Hunan :丰优 611 、准两优 527 、 88S/0293 、 </li></ul><ul><li>88S/0389 、金优 Q661 ; </li></ul><ul><li>Sichuan :冈优 527 、 D 优 527 、川香优 2 号、 </li></ul><ul><li>协优 527 、辐优 802 ; </li></ul><ul><li>Guangdong :粤杂 122 、粤杂 889 、天丰优 998 、桂农占 </li></ul>2. Major progress in M-SRI
  7. 8. Yield differences between varieties by SRI and Ck Yield advantages by M-SRI : 3.6-10.5% over CK Varieties applied: longer growth duration, vigorous tillering, bigger panicles, and resistant to lodging
  8. 9. 1 ) SRI used with 7 new hybrids showed yield increase, producing yields of more than 800 kg/mu (12 t/ha) 2 ) Spacing: 26- 30×30cm ; 3 ) Showed yield differences with M-SRI between varieties Yield differences between varieties with SRI 图 1. SRI 改良技术平均产量效果比较 图 2. SRI 改良技术最高产量效果比较
  9. 10. <ul><li>2) Seedling raising methods research </li></ul><ul><li>集成并研创了以“软盘旱育秧、定位播种”为特点的改良型强化栽培乳苗培育技术,并探索了稀直播强化栽培播种育苗技术 </li></ul><ul><li>Tray nursery advantage : </li></ul><ul><li>Yield increase by 8.0% over upland nursery </li></ul><ul><li>E xtract seeding tray : </li></ul><ul><li>Single or two seeds per hole saves labor </li></ul>不同育秧方法产量差异比较(两优培九) 635.7kg/ 亩 602.5kg / 亩 525kg / 亩
  10. 11. Yield components difference in different nurseries Treatment in nursery Yield ( t/ha ) Panicles/ 667m 2 Spikelets per panicle Filled grains per panicle Grain weight ( g ) Upland tray nursery 11.13 17.38 191.5 172.3 24.78 Upland nursery 10.31 14.52 212.8 186.9 25.33 Wet tray nursery 9.86 13.93 203.1 183 25.8 Wet Nursery 9.74 15.1 199.9 167.8 25.61
  11. 12. 3) Reasonable (optimal) spacing and suitable seedling age 提出了“适龄早栽、合理稀植”改良型强化栽培群体调控技术 Transplanting age for high yield : Leaf age = 2-5 leaves Spacing : 水稻强化栽培要重视稀植,但必须 是合理稀植 . Hunan : 8000 ~ 10000 Pl/667m2 Sichuan : 6000 ~ 9000 Pl//667m2 Guangdong: 8000 ~ 10000 Pl//667m2
  12. 13. Yield at different transplanting leaf ages 不同叶龄处理间产量没有显著差异,可以适当增大强化栽培的移栽叶龄 . Leaf age Spikelets Grains per panicle Seed setting rate (%) Grain weight (g) Yield (t/ha) 2 140.7 123.2 87.64 31.68 7.74 3 137.27 118.2 86.15 31.27 7.82 4 141.87 123.9 87.25 31.60 7.68 5 141.2 123.9 87.73 31.51 7.75
  13. 14. 水稻强化栽培要重视稀植,但必须是合理稀植 Yields with different spacing place Treatment (hills/667m 2 ) Panicles (×10,000 /667 m 2 ) Spiklets per panicle Grains per panicle Seed setting rate ( % ) Grain weight (g) Yield (kg/667m 2 ) Hunan 6,000 12.7 271.7 237.5 87.4 25.4 669.6 8,000 15.9 272.3 235.5 86.5 25.5 825.9 10,000 16.3 268.1 227.1 84.7 25.4 816.3 12,000 16.1 285.3 223.7 78.4 25.3 714.4 Sichuan 3,000 10.2 222 181 81.5 27.9 515.1 6,000 13 232.2 187.8 80.7 28.23 689.2 9,000 16.1 228 179 78.5 28.35 817.0 Guang-dong 6,000 13.5 215.2 176 81.8 28 665.3 8,000 16.3 216.9 169.85 78.3 27.8 769.7 10,000 17.6 213.3 165.1 77.4 27.6 802.0
  14. 15. <ul><li>4) Component fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>研究了强化栽培技术氮磷钾营养的吸收特点,研制了适于强化栽培的水稻专用配方肥,建立了与强化栽培配套的“节氮栽培” 肥料运筹技术 </li></ul><ul><li>Organic & chemical : 同等施氮量, “ 活性肥 + 有机肥 + 化肥” </li></ul><ul><li>产量最高,氮肥当季利用率比全有机肥和全化肥 </li></ul><ul><li>分别提高 10.45 和 5.54 个百分点 . </li></ul><ul><li>Early less and late more : 前期施肥量小于常规栽培,增大后期 </li></ul><ul><li>肥料施用量 . 缓控释肥有较好的应用前景 </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen saving : 强化栽培氮素利用率提高 5.7 ~ 25.9 % . </li></ul><ul><li>Component fertilizer : 较习惯施肥法增产 9.9 ~ 10.8 % . </li></ul>
  15. 16. Establish nitrogen-saving technique for high- yielding rice cultivation Progress: With nitrogen-saving technique, a super high-yield of 12t/ha more, but with a lower amount of N at 231.0-255.0 kg/ha Varieties Highest yield ( t/ha ) Purity of N applied ( kg/ha ) Xieyou 9019 8.90 300.0 Liangyou 293 12.14 231.0 Liangyoupeijiu 12.26 255.0
  16. 17. 施肥方式对水稻强化栽培 LAI 和总颖花量的影响 Effects of fertilization application manners on LAI and total spikelets with SRI 施肥水平 施肥方法 抽穗 (LAI) 成熟 (LAI) 下降速率( % ) 总颖花数 (10 7 /667m 2 ) 粒 叶 比 ( 粒 /cm 2 ) Yield (kg/mu) A1 9kg/mu B1/org. 6.5 3.1 52.3 2.60 0.600 612.9 B2/chem 7.4 2.7 63.5 3.25 0.658 656.4 B3/o+c 6.9 2.9 58.0 3.10 0.673 685.1 A2 12kg/mu B1/org. 7.5 3.6 52.0 3.23 0.646 688.2 B2/chem 8.2 2.5 69.5 3.44 0.628 663.0 B3/o+c 7.6 2.8 63.2 3.36 0.663 716.8
  17. 18. 同等施肥水平强化栽培产量明显提高,同时氮素利用率均较对照高,提高幅度 5.7 - 25.9% . 说明强化栽培在不增加氮素用量或者适当降低的情况下,也能获得高产 . Nitrogen-saving effects with yields Cultivation method N ( kg ) Yield (kg/667m2) N rate (%) M-SRI over CK (+/-%) M-SRI 12.0 653.7 54.3 5.7 10.8 (less N by 10% ) 648.1 59.08 15.0 9.6 (less N by 20%) 621.0 64.69 25.9 CK 12.0 616.6 51.38 -
  18. 19. The differences of yield and nitrogen utilization between slow-release fertilizers Fig.3. Yield differences between slow-release fertilizers and nitrogen applications <ul><li>Fertilizers: </li></ul><ul><li>SCU (sulfur-coated urea) </li></ul><ul><li>CCF (coated component fertilizer) </li></ul><ul><li>Urea </li></ul><ul><li>Ck (no nitrogen application) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments: </li></ul><ul><li>NE: equal nitrogen application at 180 kg/ha </li></ul><ul><li>NS: nitrogen application at 135 kg/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Place and years: standing plots/fields for 2 years’ continuous experiments in Changsha, China, 2006 and 2007 </li></ul>Nitrogen-saving effects of slow-release fertilizer
  19. 20. Optimized nitrogen rate and diminishing marginal yield analysis Yield response to fertilizer N rate <ul><li>1) Optimized nitrogen rate </li></ul><ul><li>Highest yields appeared at same rate of 180kg N ha -1 . Over or less than this rate, Y-you No. 1 also yielded less. </li></ul><ul><li>When N application increased from N135 to N225 and N270 (by 66.7%-100%), the yield at N225 and N270 was only a little higher, by just 2.1%-3.2%. </li></ul>N0     N90    N135     N180    N225    N270
  20. 21. <ul><li>5) Water management and weed control </li></ul><ul><li>改进了强化栽培水分管理与中耕除草技术,研创了适于强化栽培的小型中耕农具,建立了“节水强根”型强化栽培技术模式 . </li></ul><ul><li>Water saving model : “分蘖期湿润灌溉,孕穗期浅水灌溉, </li></ul><ul><li>抽穗 - 成熟期干湿交替灌溉”,比淹水灌溉的水分利用效率提 </li></ul><ul><li>高 42.42% . </li></ul><ul><li>Weed control : 研制小型农机具,人工中耕和化学除草相结 </li></ul><ul><li>合,可以增加工作效率,除草效果显著,增加产量 15 %左右 . </li></ul>
  21. 22. 不同灌溉方式灌溉水利用效率、水分利用率比较 Differences of WPE and WUE in varied water irrigation models 处 理 Treatments 有效穗 Panicle ×10,000 /667m2 结实率 Seed setting rate (%) 产量 Yield (g/hill) 灌溉水利用效率 WPE (kg.m- 3 ) 水分利用率 WUE (Pn/TR/10- 3 ) 湿润灌溉 /WWI 10.6A 82.2 42.6 2.15 2.65 节水灌溉 /WSI 11.0A 82.5 46.7 2.17 3.07 全程胁迫 /WII 7.2B 67.2 15.8 1.23 2.25 淹水灌溉 /WFI 10.1A 82.0 41.2 1.34 2.49
  22. 23. <ul><li>6) High-yielding theory of M-SRI </li></ul><ul><li>探究了改良型水稻强化栽培超高产的基础理论 </li></ul><ul><li>Tillering production 强化栽培茎蘖发生规律: </li></ul><ul><li>有效分蘖期延长 </li></ul><ul><li>Dry matter accumulation 强化栽培成穗特性及干物质积累特点 : </li></ul><ul><li>前慢后快,运转率高,后期优势强 </li></ul><ul><li>Larger root system 稀植栽培垄体健根技术 : </li></ul><ul><li>齐穗期和成熟期根干重分别提高了 13.5% 和 17.4% </li></ul>
  23. 24. Tillers differences between cultivation methods 初步结论:不同栽培方式比较中,改良型强化栽培技术形成的分蘖数最多,有效穗数也最多 .
  24. 25. 不同种植密度各级分蘖构成及成穗临界叶龄 Tiller composition of each level and critical leaf age for productive tillers under different transplanting densities 注:一级分蘖中包括了主茎分蘖。 Note: The first-level tiller category includes main culm tiller A: 50cm×50cm; B: 33.3cm×33.3cm; C: 26.6cm×26.6cm 组合 Combina-tion 处理 Treat-ment 最高分蘖期分蘖构成 ( 个 ) Tiller composition at maximal tiller stage 成穗分蘖构成 ( 个 ) Tiller composition of productive tillers 分蘖成穗率 (%) Productive tiller rate 有效分蘖临界期 ( 月 / 日 ) Critical stage of effective tiller 有效分蘖临界 叶龄 Critical leaf age for effective tiller 一级 二级 三级 四级 一级 二级 三级 四级 一级 二级 三级 四级 两优 0293 A 10.2 28.7 30.1 5.5 8.7 21.3 12.8 1.2 85.3 74.2 42.5 21.8 7/11 12.3 B 8.9 22.3 17.9 1.3 7.1 15.2 3.4 0 79.8 68.2 19.0 0 7/2 10.5 C 8.3 19.6 12.9 0.3 5.3 9.2 2 0 63.9 46.9 15.5 0 6/27 9.3 GD-1S/RB207 A 8.0 19.8 12.3 0 8 19.2 7.7 0 100 97.0 62.6 0 7/16 12.5 B 7.4 17.4 6.7 0 7.2 12.6 2.2 0 97.3 72.4 32.8 0 7/6 10.9 C 6.3 14.3 3.7 0 5.2 8.1 0.1 0 82.5 56.6 2.7 0 6/27 8.9
  25. 26. 不同栽培方式茎蘖成穗特性对产量的贡献 Panicle rate contribution of SRI & other methods to yield 处理 Treat-ments A = > 200 spikelets/plant B = 100-199 spikelets/plant C = < 100 spikelets/plant 比例 Rate % 结实率 Seed setting rate% 贡献 Contri--bution % 比例 Rate % 结实率 Seed setting rate% 贡献 Contri--bution % 比例 Rate % 结实率 Seed setting rate% 贡献 Contri--bution % CK 11.4 84.5 19.8 57.1 86.2 60.8 31.5 75.4 19.4 SRI 22.8 91.2 36.0 60.0 90.5 57.4 17.1 80.2 6.7 M-SRI 17.5 89.6 29.3 63.6 87.1 63.0 18.9 85.5 7.7 宽窄 13.5 84.5 21.9 58.4 84.3 62.9 28.1 77.4 15.2
  26. 27. The difference of the dry matter accumulation and Harvest Index with varied cultivation methods 不同栽培方式对物质积累及经济系数的影响 齐穗期 Heading (kg/mu) 成熟期 Harvest (kg/mu) 茎输出率 Output of stem (%) 经济系数 HI CK 908.2 1165 16.2 0.535 SRI 804.7 1102 23.3 0.547 M-SRI 898.4 1214 24.4 0.560 宽窄 820.5 1207 25.0 0.555
  27. 28. Difference of panicle rates with varied cultivation methods 不同栽培方式对成穗率的影响 初步结论:不同栽培方式比较中,改良型强化栽培技术成穗能力较强, SRI 技术最低 . SRI
  28. 29. 不同栽培方式不同生育期根系干重比较 Difference of root weight with varied cultivation methods
  29. 30. Additional tools for SRI 7) Small efficient implements used for SRI 研究形成了小型工具提高 SRI 技术的可操作性 进展: 改进了两种适于 SRI 技术的小型中耕器 进展: 适应 SRI 的软盘育秧精量播种器
  30. 31. 8 ) System of M-SRI 建立了超级稻改良型强化栽培技术 软盘旱育 定位播种 适龄早载 合理稀植 节水节氮 垄体强根
  31. 32. Modified SRI for Super hybrid rice Technical evaluation by Agricultural Department of Hunan Province in September 2005
  32. 33. Publications related to M-SRI 代表论文
  33. 34. Yield potential of M-SRI <ul><li>Hunan Province: </li></ul><ul><li>Yield result of P88S/0293 in each demonstration location </li></ul>Year Address and area Tested by Yield (kg/667m 2 ) 2002/9/10 湖南龙山 , 121.5 亩 湖南省农业厅 817.4 2003/4/30 海南三亚, 1.16 亩 海南省农业厅 826.7 2003/9/16 湖南隆回, 102.2 亩 湖南省农业厅 801.9 2003/10/9 湖南湘潭, 102 亩 农业部科技教育司 804.4 2004/8/29 湖南中方, 107.2 亩 湖南省超级稻办公室 802.5 2004/9/20 湖南隆回, 102 亩 湖南省农业厅 809.9 2004/9/30 安徽安庆, 119 亩 安庆市科技局 802.3 2004/10/4 湖南汝城, 102 亩 湖南省超级稻办公室 803.3 2004/10/4 湖南溆浦, 112.88 亩 湖南省超级稻办公室 806.5 2009/10/18 湖南隆回, 102 亩 湖南省农业厅 851.7
  34. 35. A. Guinea: Traits and yields of the hybrids with SRI Yield potential in Guinea Hybrid varieties Growth duration (days) Height of plants ( cm ) Total grains per panicle Filled grains per panicle Seed set (%) 1000- grain weight ( g ) Effective Panicles (10 7 ha -1 ) Yields harvested (kg ha -1 ) GY037 113 104.31 138.36 124.32 89.85 28.14 2.817 8,436 GY036 114 98.23 160.18 142.13 88.73 25.88 2.645 7,794 GY035 104 112.93 136.30 122.90 90.17 34.65 2.601 7,527 GY034 112 95.79 151.20 122.52 81.03 29.06 2.700 7,714 GY033 110 92.75 121.33 95.33 78.57 31.25 2.269 5,592 GY032 120 109.30 151.75 125.95 82.99 31.80 2.952 9,232
  35. 36. Zhun-S/527
  36. 37. Liangyou 293
  37. 38. Transplanting Direct seeding Seedling broadcasting No-tillage cultivation 3. Key issues for SRI improvement SRI should be more diversified to deal with the great diversity of rice cultivation conditions
  38. 39. <ul><ul><li>技术特点:可同步开沟、起垄和播种,集成轻简直播、好气强根、节水节肥等多项农艺措施。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 )垄沟作灌溉水沟,保证水稻生长所需;稻种播在垄面上小沟中,湿润促全苗。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 )垄沟有水、垄面无水,湿润节水,好气强根。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 )垄面上的播种小沟增加了水稻根系的入土深度,较好地解决了一般直播稻播在泥面上而根系入土较浅、容易倒伏的问题。 </li></ul></ul>Merge or integrate? SRI + Mechanization? + Seeding + ?
  39. 40. <ul><li>Other challenges to be addressed </li></ul><ul><li>值得探讨的其它技术性问题 </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to raise young seedlings / 水稻乳苗的培育技术 ; </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to transplant young seedlings/ 乳苗移栽的有效方式、移栽质量与效果 </li></ul><ul><li>W ays to increase the panicle rate / 合理稀植条件下提高水稻成穗率的技术及机理 </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to increase the utilization efficiency (UE) of nitrogen / 提高肥料的利用率的技术与机理 ; </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to increase water use efficiency (WUE) / 提高土壤水份利用率的技术与机理 </li></ul>
  40. 41. Happy Festival of Lanterns! 元宵节快乐! For any information, please contact: maguohui@hhrrc.ac.cn

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