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Study and Utilization of the SRI Technology  for Super High Yield   in Sichuan Co-partner units   : Sichuan Academy of Agr...
Report Outline <ul><li>1.  Technology Background  </li></ul><ul><li>2. New T echnology of SRI  </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Techn...
1.  Technology Background <ul><li>Rice production in Sichuan </li></ul><ul><li>Planting area: 2,000,000ha </li></ul><ul><l...
1.  Technology Background <ul><li>Rice cropping distribution  </li></ul>Plains—25% Low hills—25% Hills—45% Mountains—5%
1.  Technology Background   <ul><li>  Problems to utilize original SRI directly in Sichuan </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanting...
<ul><li>Use the concepts and ideas of SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Making adaptations based on concrete ecological conditions, fa...
2. New  Technology of SRI for Super High Yield
<ul><li>Obvious differences in yield among different varieties  under SRI.  Many years of trials and demonstration results...
<ul><li>This  promotes earlier and faster tillering and also improves the percentage of effective tillers. </li></ul><ul><...
Grain yield and its components under different seedling-ages  and planting densities Variety : Xieyou 527 Seedling ages Pl...
<ul><li>Sparse planting </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanting patterns :  triangle planting (3 plants/hill), square or wide-narr...
Comparison of grain yield and its components   under different cultivation practices T-SRI: Triangular system  Cultiva-tio...
30-40cm 30-40cm 10-12cm
Transplanting machine — for  making holes in zero-till field
<ul><li>和 </li></ul>Transplanting young seedlings with 3-4 leaves
Transplanting young seedlings with 3-4 leaves
<ul><li>With “wet-dry-shallow-interval” irrigation technology, transplanting into soil with no layer of standing water and...
Comparison of grain yield and its components   under different water management Note : A  = damp irrigation   (no-water la...
<ul><li>Control of tiller emergence  </li></ul><ul><li>Field was dried until total tiller number was 150-180×10 3 /667m 2 ...
<ul><li>Sufficient fertilizer for higher yield </li></ul><ul><li>Organic fertilizer:   30% or so </li></ul><ul><li>Fertili...
Comparison of yield and its components   under different kinds of fertilizer Variety : 2480/881 Treatments No. of  effecti...
<ul><li>Weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical weeding  </li></ul><ul><li>Manual weeding (1-2 times) </li></ul>
<ul><li>SRI  and  rice quality </li></ul>Variety : Xieyou 527 A , B, C =  SRI   with   planting densities  (10 3  plants/h...
3.  Technology Research for Transplanting with Medium and Older Seedlings <ul><li>Background   </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat (ra...
Technology of seedling-raising <ul><li>Goal is to raise medium and older seedlings with 5-7 leaves   </li></ul><ul><li>Upl...
Effects of different sowing densities and transplanting seedling age on rice yield A 1 , A 2 , A 3 :  sowing densities , r...
Field planting density <ul><li>Triangle planting within hills (7-10 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>Spacing of hills 30-40cm×30-40cm...
Grain yield and its components under different  seedling ages and spacing A1, A2, A3 = transplanting seedlings with 2, 5, ...
Triangular SRI field in Yuechi, Sichuan
Nitrogen application <ul><li>Nitrogen fertilizer application  ratio of basic+tiller  :  panicle fertilizer  was  5:5  </li...
Grain yield under different nitrogen application rates  ( kg/667m 2 ) A, B, C, D  = ratio of  basic+tiller fertilizer : pa...
4.  Technical Advancement <ul><li>Set up the new SRI technology and widen its range of practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote...
<ul><li>Grain yield:  increased by 20%, the highest yield was  650-853  kg/667m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Net profit:  increased...
Dr. Norman visited  SRI field in Meishan in 2007
Demonstrations of SRI technology  for super high yield in 2008 *(Tons/ha) Demon-stration counties Variety Demon-stration a...
Extension area and yield of new SRI technology in Sichuan province, 2004-2009 Year Area ( ha ) Average  provincial   yield...
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1003 Study and Utilization of the SRI Technology

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Presenter: Ma Jun,
Sichuan Agricultural University

Workshop on the System of Rice Intensification, Exchanging Experience in
China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and InternationallyOrganized and
hosted by the China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI), with support from The
Asia Foundation.

Hangzhou, China, February 28-March 2, 2010

Published in: Technology
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Transcript of "1003 Study and Utilization of the SRI Technology "

  1. 1. Study and Utilization of the SRI Technology for Super High Yield in Sichuan Co-partner units : Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences General Station of Sichuan Agricultural Technology Extension Sichuan Kenong Seed Industry Co., Ltd. Ma Jun Sichuan Agricultural University
  2. 2. Report Outline <ul><li>1. Technology Background </li></ul><ul><li>2. New T echnology of SRI </li></ul><ul><li>3. Technology Research for Transplanting with Medium and Old Seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>4. Technology Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>5. Technology Utilization and Extension </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Technology Background <ul><li>Rice production in Sichuan </li></ul><ul><li>Planting area: 2,000,000ha </li></ul><ul><li>Grain yield: about 7.6 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Total rice production: 15.2 mt(47%) </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties: medium-late maturing hybrid rice </li></ul><ul><li>Cropping system </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat-rice </li></ul><ul><li>Rape-rice </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables-rice </li></ul><ul><li>Fallow-rice </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Technology Background <ul><li>Rice cropping distribution </li></ul>Plains—25% Low hills—25% Hills—45% Mountains—5%
  5. 5. 1. Technology Background <ul><li>  Problems to utilize original SRI directly in Sichuan </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanting with young seedlings is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>-> Cropping systems set certain transplanting dates for rice </li></ul><ul><li>-> Long growth period of varieties </li></ul><ul><li>-> Low temperature in early spring </li></ul><ul><li>Application of organic manure </li></ul><ul><li>Water management </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding paddy fields </li></ul><ul><li>Low percentage of effective tillers </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Use the concepts and ideas of SRI </li></ul><ul><li>Making adaptations based on concrete ecological conditions, farming systems, variety characteristics, and production conditions in Sichuan </li></ul><ul><li>Study and set up the new applications of SRI principles </li></ul>1. Technology Background
  7. 7. 2. New Technology of SRI for Super High Yield
  8. 8. <ul><li>Obvious differences in yield among different varieties under SRI. Many years of trials and demonstration results have showed for super high yields with SRI, we should choose high-quality hybrid rice varieties having large panicles, strong tillering ability, and lodging resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Varietal selection </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>This promotes earlier and faster tillering and also improves the percentage of effective tillers. </li></ul><ul><li>Upland nurseries for raising seedlings or raising seedlings on plastic film </li></ul><ul><li>Zero-till or plowing for paddy field </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanting seedling age: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5-3 leaves for fields fallow in winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4-6 leaves for double-cropped fields </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transplanting early with young seedling </li></ul>
  10. 10. Grain yield and its components under different seedling-ages and planting densities Variety : Xieyou 527 Seedling ages Plant density *10 4 plant/ha Effective panicles * 10 4 /ha Spikelets/ panicle Filled grains/ panicle Seed setting rate ( % ) 1000-grain wt. /g Yield (t/ha) 2 -leaf 4.5 156.68 155.4 134.4 86.49 30.59 7.11 9.0 192.15 137.4 120.2 87.48 32.26 7.78 13.5 238.95 129.3 115.0 88.94 32.18 8.33 Average 195.93 140.7 123.2 87.64 31.68 7.74 3-leaf 4.5 153.0 148.4 126.4 85.18 30.35 6.96 9.0 195.15 136.3 118.1 86.65 31.45 8.43 13.5 225.23 127.1 110.1 86.62 32.0 8.07 Average 191.13 137.27 118.2 86.15 31.27 7.82 4-leaf 4.5 147.68 161.0 143.1 88.88 30.74 7.06 9.0 192.15 139.4 119.4 85.65 31.92 7.88 13.5 225.0 125.2 109.2 87.22 32.15 8.11 Average 188.28 141.87 123.9 87.25 31.60 7.68 5-leaf 4.5 153.75 151.2 134.3 88.82 30.60 7.15 9.0 192.0 137.4 121.1 88.14 31.98 7.92 13.5 220.5 135.0 116.4 86.22 31.94 8.18 Average 188.75 141.2 123.9 87.73 31.51 7.75
  11. 11. <ul><li>Sparse planting </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanting patterns : triangle planting (3 plants/hill), square or wide-narrow row planting </li></ul><ul><li>Planting density : </li></ul><ul><li>25-30cm×25-30cm (7,500~10,000 hill/667m 2 ) for low-fertility paddy fields or low fertilizer supply </li></ul><ul><li>30cm×30cm or so (7,500 hill/667m 2 ) for middle-fertility paddy fields or middle fertilizer supply </li></ul><ul><li>35-50cm×35-50cm (3,000~5,500 hill/667m 2 ) for high-fertility paddy fields or high fertilizer supply </li></ul><ul><li>This promotes more tiller emergence and more growth of individual plants </li></ul>
  12. 12. Comparison of grain yield and its components under different cultivation practices T-SRI: Triangular system Cultiva-tion methods No. of effective panicles (10 4 /ha) No. of spikelets /panicle No. of total spikelets (10 6 /ha) Seed setting rate (%) 1000-grain wt. ( g ) Grain yield ( t/ha ) Increase(%) T-SRI 337.5 185.3 703.47 88.9 25.9 15.075 37.67 SRI 279.0 181.0 577.13 87.5 26.0 12.945 18.22 Standard cultivation (CK) 268.5 177.3 531.90 89.5 26.1 10.950 —
  13. 13. 30-40cm 30-40cm 10-12cm
  14. 14. Transplanting machine — for making holes in zero-till field
  15. 15. <ul><li>和 </li></ul>Transplanting young seedlings with 3-4 leaves
  16. 16. Transplanting young seedlings with 3-4 leaves
  17. 17. <ul><li>With “wet-dry-shallow-interval” irrigation technology, transplanting into soil with no layer of standing water and then maintaining shallow water ensures that the seedling will turn green and survive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At early tillering stage — s oil-aerating irrigation promotes tillering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At late tillering stage -- paddy field is dried (total tiller number= 150-180 × 10 3 /667m 2 ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At middle growth stage, from spike differentiation to heading, shallow irrigation ( 2 cm or so) promotes larger panicle formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At late growth stage during grain-filling stage, wetting-drying alternation irrigation maintains root vigor, prevents leaves’ senescence, and promotes grain-filling. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water management for stronger root systems </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is to set up a stronger root system </li></ul>
  18. 18. Comparison of grain yield and its components under different water management Note : A = damp irrigation (no-water layer, soil water potential (ψ soil : -0.017±0.003MPa). B = wet, dry, shallow, interval irrigation. C = dry cultivation (ψsoil: -0.065±0.005MPa). D = submerged irrigation (CK; maintain water depth of 1-3 cm, ψ soil : 0MPa) Varieties Treatment No. of effective panicles/plant Spikelets /panicle Seed setting rate(%) 1000-grain weight (g) Grain yield (g/plant) Water use efficiency (kg/m 3 ) Gangyou 527 A 10.6A 152.8 82.2 29.9 42.6 2.15 B 11.0A 167.4 82.5 30.0 46.7 2.17 C 7.2B 117.7 67.2 26.2 15.8 1.23 D 10.1A 164.3 82.0 29.0 41.2 1.34 Dyou 363 A 10.8A 139.7 77.3 26.2 38.9 1.96 B 11.2A 154.7 82.0 26.5 42.8 1.99 C 8.9B 107.5 65.3 23.1 15.4 1.20 D 10.3A 146.2 77.0 26.1 37.8 1.23 Shanyou 63 A 10.6A 111.2 71.4 26.1 34.2 1.73 B 10.9A 147.6 74.7 26.3 37.4 1.74 C 8.6B 85.1 58.6 21.9 10.4 0.81 D 10.2A 140.6 71.2 26.0 31.8 1.03
  19. 19. <ul><li>Control of tiller emergence </li></ul><ul><li>Field was dried until total tiller number was 150-180×10 3 /667m 2 ) at late tillering stage. </li></ul><ul><li>This way, over 75% of total tillers became effective . </li></ul><ul><li>Aim is to control ineffective tiller emergence and promote effective tiller growth, in order to promote stronger stems and larger panicles </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Sufficient fertilizer for higher yield </li></ul><ul><li>Organic fertilizer: 30% or so </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer rate: supply N 150-210Kg/ha, N:P:K= 2 : 1 : 1-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease fertilizer rate at early growth stage and increase fertilizer rate at late growth stage. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of base, tillering and panicle fertilizer application is 50%,30% and 20%,respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the nutrient requirements for super high yield </li></ul>
  21. 21. Comparison of yield and its components under different kinds of fertilizer Variety : 2480/881 Treatments No. of effective panicles ×10 4 /ha Spikelets /panicle No. of filled grains/ panicle Seed setting rate % 1000-grain weight (g) Grain yield t/ha Yield increase±% Blank (CK) 117.82 228.23 178.27 78.12 22.44 5.00c - Organic fertilizer 171.44 212.19 161.20 76.00 23.08 7.41b +48.2 Chemical fertilizer 170.34 242.80 192.70 79.37 22.72 7.66b +53.2 1/2 organic +1/2 chemical fertilizer 168.41 246.31 196.12 79.62 22.81 7.59b +51.8 Organic compound fertilizer 166.21 249.85 195.10 78.09 23.30 7.69b +53.8 Organic + chemi cal + microbial activity fertilizer 182.46 260.99 199.00 76.25 22.39 8.81a +76.2
  22. 22. <ul><li>Weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Manual weeding (1-2 times) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>SRI and rice quality </li></ul>Variety : Xieyou 527 A , B, C = SRI with planting densities (10 3 plants/ha), respectively, of 45, 90, 135 D, E = Conventional cultivation with planting densities (10 3 plants /ha ), respectively, of 90 and 180 Treatments Length/width Percentage of chalky kernel (%) Chalkiness (%) Brown rice (%) Milled rice (%) Head milled rice (%) A 2.89a 32.47c 4.04c 83.70a 73.22b 50.17c B 2.81a 30.05d 3.17d 83.71a 74.00a 53.26b C 2.79a 23.62e 1.02e 84.48a 72.87b 61.2a D 2.77a 41.07a 7.17a 82.32b 68.38d 47.99d E 2.77a 39.89b 6.74b 83.66a 69.98c 46.65e
  24. 24. 3. Technology Research for Transplanting with Medium and Older Seedlings <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat (rape) -rice rotation cropping patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Medium and late-maturing hybrid rice varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Longer seedling age </li></ul><ul><li>Wider SRI application range </li></ul>
  25. 25. Technology of seedling-raising <ul><li>Goal is to raise medium and older seedlings with 5-7 leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Upland seedbed for raising seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Thin sowing (10-20g/m 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Topdressing 2-3 times on nursery bed </li></ul>
  26. 26. Effects of different sowing densities and transplanting seedling age on rice yield A 1 , A 2 , A 3 : sowing densities , respectively, of 10, 15, 20g/m 2 on nursery bed B1-B7 : seedling age at transplanting 40, 46, 52, 58, 64, 70, 76d, respectively
  27. 27. Field planting density <ul><li>Triangle planting within hills (7-10 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>Spacing of hills 30-40cm×30-40cm </li></ul>
  28. 28. Grain yield and its components under different seedling ages and spacing A1, A2, A3 = transplanting seedlings with 2, 5, 8 leaves, respectively. B1, B2, B3 = triangular SRI with spacing of 30×30 cm, 40×40 cm, 50×50 cm, respectively. CK = Conventional cultivation , transplant seedlings with 8 leaves, spacing16.7×33.3 cm Treatments Effective panicles Spikelets /panicle 1000-grain weight Seed setting Yield (×10 4 /hm 2 ) (Sp./Pa.) (g) (%) (kg/hm 2 ) A1 B1 207Aa 175Bc 28.2ABCbc 77.8Bd 10,168Bb B2 177Cc 212ABa 30.4ABab 85.0ABabc 11,889Aa B3 155Dd 220ABa 29.9Aa 85.6Aab 9,606BCb A2 B1 197Bb 182ABbc 28.5BCc 80.5ABbcd 9,920BCb B2 156Dd 205ABabc 29.4ABCabc 86.8ABabc 9,935BCb B3 133Ee 216Aa 28.5ABCabc 88.6Aab 8,464Dd A3 B1 176Cc 181Bc 27.4Cc 82.4ABcd 9,151 Dd B2 133Ee 214ABab 28.4ABCbc 88.0ABabc 9,448 CDc B3 113Ff 206ABab 29.1ABCbc 86.6Aa 6,927Ee CK 159Dd 156Dd 26.5CDc 66.5Ce 7,347Ef
  29. 29. Triangular SRI field in Yuechi, Sichuan
  30. 30. Nitrogen application <ul><li>Nitrogen fertilizer application ratio of basic+tiller : panicle fertilizer was 5:5 </li></ul><ul><li>Application of panicle fertilizer: no difference among 5th and 3rd, 4th and 2nd, 3rd and 1 st leaves from top. </li></ul><ul><li>R atio of p anicle fertilizer could be increased by 50% of total N application under triangular SRI with medium and older seedlings. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Grain yield under different nitrogen application rates ( kg/667m 2 ) A, B, C, D = ratio of basic+tiller fertilizer : panicle fertilizer was, respectively, 5 : 5, 6 : 4, 7 : 3, or 8 : 2 1, 2, 3 = date of panicle fertilizer application was, respectively, the emergence of 5th and 3 rd ; 4th and 2 nd ; or 3rd and 1st leaf from top CK1 = P and K but no N but P. CK2 = no N, P, K. Treat-ment A B C D Average CK1 CK2 1 727.98 685.34 695.27 695.20 700.95 460.62 447.83 2 706.02 728.24 680.02 680.50 698.70 3 703.77 670.28 711.97 681.13 691.79 Ave. 712.59 694.62 695.75 685.61
  32. 32. 4. Technical Advancement <ul><li>Set up the new SRI technology and widen its range of practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote ‘triangular’ SRI transplanting method </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve practical utilization of SRI technology at large scale within Sichuan province </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Grain yield: increased by 20%, the highest yield was 650-853 kg/667m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Net profit: increased by ¥ 70-200/667m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>New yield records set in most of the demonstration counties, with yields of > 700 kg/667m 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Set up local technology standard for Sichuan province including use of super high-yielding variety, DB51-T 913 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>This has become a major technological innovation to increase rice yields in Sichuan p rovince . </li></ul><ul><li>It has been designated a key technology for rice production in Sichuan p rovince in 2009 and 2010. </li></ul>5. Technology Utilization and Extension
  34. 34. Dr. Norman visited SRI field in Meishan in 2007
  35. 35. Demonstrations of SRI technology for super high yield in 2008 *(Tons/ha) Demon-stration counties Variety Demon-stration area (×667m 2 ) Measured area (×667m 2 ) Measured yield (kg/667m 2 ) Dongpo Gangyou188 52 1.45 789.9 (11.85)* Guanghan Chuanxiang 9838 15 1.115 853.5 (12.8)* Zhongjiang (hilly area) Eryouhang 1 65 1.2 721.2 (10.82)*
  36. 36. Extension area and yield of new SRI technology in Sichuan province, 2004-2009 Year Area ( ha ) Average provincial yield ( t/ha ) Average yield with new SRI technology Yield (t/ha) SRI increase (t/ha) over average provincial yield SRI increase (%) over average provincial yield 2004 1,133 7.74 9.11 1.37 17.6 2005 7,267 7.65 9.44 1.79 23.3 2006 5,740 7.01 8.81 1.80 25.7 2007 117,267 7.49 9.01 1.59 21.2 2008 204,000 7.58 9.41 1.83 24.2 2009 250,333 7.62 9.11 1.49 19.5
  37. 37. THANK YOU
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