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0959 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Creating Opportunities for Agroecological Development

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA...

Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: JIRCAS Seminar, Tsukuba, Japan

Presented on: November 16, 2009
Presented on: November 16, 2009

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0959 The System of  Rice Intensification (SRI):  Creating Opportunities for Agroecological Development 0959 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Creating Opportunities for Agroecological Development Presentation Transcript

  • The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Creating Opportunities for Agroecological Development JIRCAS Seminar Tsukuba, November 16, 2009 Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
  • Needs for rice sector in 21 st century acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004
    • Increased land productivity-- higher yield
    • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop
    • Technology more accessible for the poor
    • Technology more environmentally friendly
    • Greater resistance to pests and diseases
    • Tolerance of abiotic stresses (climate change)
    • Better grain quality for consumers, and
    • Greater profitability for farmers
  • SRI practices help meet all these needs :
    • Higher yields by 50-100% -- or more
    • Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed)
    • Reduced capital expenditure (accessible)
    • Little or no need for agrochemical inputs
    • Induced pest and disease resistance
    • Tolerance for drought, little/no lodging
    • Better grain quality -- less chalkiness
    • Lower costs of production by 10-20% -- which leads to higher farmers’ income
  • SRI is application of AGROECOLOGY , which can be summarized this way: 1. ENHANCE the life in the soil, i.e., in soil systems , recognizing the precedence of soil biology , which is shaping soil’s chemistry and physics 2.IMPROVE growing environment (E) for crops, in ways that will work to induce more productive phenotypes from any given crop genotype (G)
  • Agroecological principle #1: SUPPORT the recycling of biomass to optimize nutrient availability in the soil and balance nutrient flows in the soil and biosphere over time
  • Agroecological principle #2: PROVIDE the most favorable soil conditions which will enhance the soil’s structure and the functioning of soil systems , esp. by managing organic matter and by enhancing soil biotic activity
  • Agroecological principle #3: MINIMIZE losses of energy and other growth factors within plants’ microenvironments both above and below ground in ways that can maximize resource-use efficiency
  • Agroecological principle #4: DIVERSIFY the species and the genetic resources within agroecosystems, both over time and over space
  • Agroecological principle #5: ENHANCE beneficial biological interactions and synergies among all of the components of agrobiodiversity, thereby promoting key ecological processes and services (Reijntjes et al., 1992; Altieri 2002;)
  • SRI is many things:
      • SRI derives from a certain number of INSIGHTS , based on experience
      • SRI can be explained in terms of PRINCIPLES having scientific bases
      • SRI gets communicated to farmers in terms of specific PRACTICES that improve the growing environment for their rice plants - at same time,
      • SRI offers an alternative PARADIGM a different approach to agriculture - pointing toward post-modern agriculture
    • S RI is NOT A TECHNOLOGY
      • While SRI practices look like a PACKAGE or even like a RECIPE, they are really better understood as a MENU
        • Farmers are encouraged to use as many of the practices as possible, as well as possible
        • Each practice contributes to higher yield as seen from the accumulating evidence
        • There is also evidence of a certain synergy operating among the practices – so that the best results come from using them together
    • SRI is NOT YET FINISHED
      • -- Since SRI was empirically developed , we are continually improving scientific understanding of SRI concepts/theory
      • -- Since SRI is farmer-centered , it is being modified, improved, extended
        • There are now also rainfed versions of SRI and zero-till, direct-seed, raised-bed forms
        • SRI ideas are extrapolated to other crops : wheat, sugar cane, millet, teff, beans, etc.
  •  
  • Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, his SRI yield set provincial yield record: 16 t/ha
    • SRI was developed for smallholders in Madagascar, but it is relevant at all scales
    • - Fr. Henri de Laulanié came there from France in 1961 – had agricultural training
    • - He started working with farmers to raise yield without dependence on external inputs
    • In 1983-84 season he learned effects of young seedlings
    • In late 1980s, when fertilizer subsidies were removed, he switched over to compost
  • Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
  • Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
  • SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Ghana, Ecuador, Costa Rica 2009: Timor Leste, Malaysia Now in 2009, SRI benefits have been validated in 37 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  • The Six Basic Ideas for SRI
    • Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option
    • Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips, which halts growth
    • Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve ‘edge effect’ everywhere
    • Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic and not continuously saturated
    • Actively aerate the soil as much as possible
    • Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible
    • 1-2-3 stimulate plant growth aboveground, while 4-5-6 enhance growth of plants’ ROOTS and of soil BIOTA  better PHENOTYPES
  • Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  • Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
  • Additional benefits of SRI practice:
    • Reduced time to maturity , by 1-2 weeks, less exposure to pests and diseases, and to adverse climate; can replant sooner
    • Higher milling outturn – by about 15%
    • Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach – want farmers to become better managers of their resources, experimenting, evaluating…
    • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture; can adapt to larger- scale production through mechanization
  • Requirements/Constraints
    • Water control to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities
    • Supply of biomass for making compost – but can use fertilizer if compost is insufficient
    • Crop protection may be necessary, although usually more resistance to pests & diseases
    • Mechanical weeder is desirable as this can aerate the soil at same time it controls weeds
    • Skill & motivation of farmers most important; need to learn new practices; once techniques are mastered, SRI can become labor-saving
    • Support of experts? have faced opposition
  • 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  • Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields
    • Standard Rice Mgmt
    • 30-day seedlings
    • 20x20 cm spacing
    • Continuous flooding
    • Fertilization:
      • 100% chemical
    • New Rice Mgmt (SRI)
    • 20-day seedlings
    • 30x30 cm spacing
    • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD)
    • Fertilization:
      • 50% chemical,
      • 50% organic
  • Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha -1
  • AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
  • SRI field at 30 days
  • SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
  • IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
  • Two Paradigms for Agriculture:
    • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to:
    • * Change the genetic potential of plants, and
    • * Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides
    • SRI ( AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients:
      • * To promote the growth of root systems , and
      • * To increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits
    • The goal is to produce better PHENOTYPES
  • MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
  • CAMBODIA: Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province
  • NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods, Morang district
  • IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
  • INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
  • Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06
    • No. of trials: 12,133
    • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares
    • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%)
    • Reduction in water requirements : 40%
    • Reduction in fertilizer use : 50%
    • Reduction in costs of production : 20%
    • Note: In Bali (DS 2006) 24 farmers on 42 ha: SRI + Longping hybrids -> 13.3 vs. 8.4 t/ha
  • SRI LANKA: same rice variety, same irrigation system & same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
  • VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon
  • Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village, Zhejiang In 2004, SRI gave highest yield in province: 12 t/ha In 2005, his SRI rice fields were hit by three typhoons – yet he was still able to harvest 11.15 tons/ha -- while other farmers’ fields were badly affected by the storm damage In 2008, Nie used chemical fertilizer, and crop lodged
  • Time to flowering, maturity, and plant lodging percentage as affected by AWDI and ordinary irrigation practice combined with different age of seedlings and spacing in Chiba, 2008 (Chapagain and Yamaji, 2009) Irrigation method Seed-ling age Spacing (cm 2 ) Time to flowering Time to maturity Plant lodging percentage Partial Complete Total Inter-mittent irrigation (AWDI) 14 30x30 75 118 6.67 0 6.67 30x18 74.67 118.67 40.00 6.67 46.67 21 30x30 72.67 117.67 26.67 20 46.67 30x18 74.33 117 13.33 13.33 26.67 Ordinary irrigation (continu-ous flooding) 14 30x30 73.33 122 16.67 33.33 50.00 30x18 72 121 26.67 53.33 80.00 21 30x30 72 120.67 20 76.67 96.67 30x18 72.67 121 13.33 80 93.33
  • Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: * Insects/m 2 Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7%
  • Theory of Trophobiosis
    • (F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops , 2004) deserves more attention and empirical evaluation than it has received to date
    • Its propositions are well supported by published literature over last 50 years -- and by long-standing observations about adverse effects of nitrogenous fertilizers and chlorinated pesticides
    • Theory does not support strictly ‘organic’ approach because nutrient amendments are approved where soil deficits exist
  • Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’
    • Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of plants’ nutrition :
    • Nutrient imbalances and deficiencies lead to excesses of free amino acids in the plants’ sap and cells, not yet synthesized into proteins – and more simple sugars in sap and cytoplasm not incorporated into polysaccharides
    • This condition attracts and nourishes insects, bacteria, fungi, even viruses
  • Resistance to cold temperatures: Yield and meteorological data from ANGRAU, A.P., India + Sudden drop in minimum temp. for 5 days (16–21 Dec. = 9.2-9.9 o C ) * Low yield was due to cold injury (see below) Period Mean max. temp. 0 C Mean min. temp. 0 C No. of sunshine hrs 1 – 15 Nov 27.7 19.2 4.9 16–30 Nov 29.6 17.9 7.5 1 – 15 Dec 29.1 14.6 8.6 16–31 Dec 28.1 12.2 + 8.6 Season Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha) Kharif 2006 0.21* 4.16 Rabi 2005-06 2.25 3.47
  • Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conv. Methods SRI Methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004 Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 - 30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 - 65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5%
  • Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced SRI LANKA: Best use of transplanting methods
  • SRI LANKA: Soil-aerating hand weeder costs <$10
  • Effect of Active Soil Aeration
    • 412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005
    • SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha vs. control = 3.1 t/ha
    • Data show how WEEDINGS can raise yield
    • No. of No. of Average Range
    • weedings farmers yield of yields
    • 1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6)
    • 2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0)
    • 3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4)
  • Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98 Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772
  • Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration , is also possible
  • Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 16.2 t/ha paddy (dry weight)
  • SRI seedlings ready for transport to field, for mechanical transplanting in COSTA RICA
  • Fig 1 Trasplantadora motorizada AP100 Yanmar Mechanical transplanter used in COSTA RICA
  • Mechanically transplanted SRI field in Costa Rica – 8 t/ha yield
  • PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
  • Mechanical transplanter for dropping seedlings into holes made by machine, Water is sprayed in hole after 10-day seedling is lput in, adding compost.
  • Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch (22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
  • Rice crop at 71 days in Punjab, Pakistan Seedlings planted into dry soil = 70% water reduction Average yield = 13 tons/ha (7 to 22 tons/ha)
  • Role of Soil Biota
    • Bacteria and fungi perform many services for crop (under aerobic conditions)
    • Nutrient cycling and mobilization
    • Nitrogen fixation
    • Phosphorus solubilization
    • Water and nutrient acquisition
    • Competition with pathogens
    • Induced systemic resistance
    • Also previously unappreciated benefits --
  •  
  • CFU = colony forming units PSM = Phosphate-solubilizing microbes BF = Bio-organic fertilizer Values with the different letters in a column are significantly different by LSD at the 0.05 level. Treatments : T0 = 20x20 cm spacing, 30 day seedlings, 6 seedlings/hill, 5 cm flooding depth of water, fertilized with inorganic NPK (250 kg urea, 200 kg SP-18, 100 kg KCl ha -1 ); T1, T2, T3 = All 30x30 cm spacing, 6-10 day seedlings, 1 seedling/hill, moist soil or intermittent irrigation, with different fertilization : T1 = same inorganic NPK as T0 ; T2 = 5 t ha -1 of organic fertilizer (compost); T3 = Inorganic NPK as in T0 + 300 kg ha -1 bioorganic fertilizer. Total microbes and numbers of beneficial soil microbes (CFU g -1 ) under conventional and SRI rice cultivation methods, Tanjung Sari, Bogor district, Indonesia, Feb-Aug 2009 (Iswandi et al., 2009) Treatments Total microbes (x10 5 ) Azotobacter (x10 3 ) Azospirillum (x10 3 ) PSM (x10 4 ) Conventional (T0) 2.3a 1.9a 0.9a 3.3a Inorganic SRI (T1) 2.7a 2.2a 1.7ab 4.0a Organic SRI (T2) 3.8b 3.7b 2.8bc 5.9b Org. SRI + BF (T3) 4.8c 4..4b 3.3c 6.4b
  • ‘ Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ Feng Chi et al., Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278 Rhizo-bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm 3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo-synthetic rate (μmol -2 s -1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm 2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36 A 63 ± 2 A 16.42 ± 1.39 A 3.62 ± 0.17 BC 17.64 ± 4.94 ABC 86 ± 5 A SM-1021 180 ± 26 A 67 ± 5 A 14.99 ± 1.64 B 4.02 ± 0.19 AB 20.03 ± 3.92 A 86 ± 4 A SM-1002 168 ± 8 AB 52 ± 4 BC 13.70 ± 0.73 B 4.15 ± 0.32 A 19.58 ± 4.47 AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23 A 61 ± 8 AB 13.85 ± 0.38 B 3.36 ± 0.41 C 18.98 ± 4.49 AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16 A 67 ± 4 A 13.86 ± 0.76 B 3.18 ± 0.25 CD 16.79 ± 3.43 BC 77 ± 5 A Control 130 ± 10 B 47 ± 6 C 10.23 ± 1.03 C 2.77 ± 0.69 D 15.24 ± 4.0 C 51 ± 4 C
  • Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants (symbiotic plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum ) Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
  • Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
  • Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet) Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 2007 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60 Wheat (Irrig.) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63
  • Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
    • ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with:
    • 30% reduction in water, and
    • 25% reduction in chemical inputs
    • ‘ The inspiration for putting
    • this package together is
    • from the successful
    • approach of SRI – System
    • of Rice Intensification.’
  • HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING
  • 1 ST S.T.I. TRIALS, 2008 Duplication of Earlier Findings YIFRU ( 1998 ) M. Sc. THESIS Reported yield of 4-5 tons/ha for non-lodged teff vs. 2-3 t/ha for lodged teff VARIETY SOWING METHOD PELLETING YIELD (Kg/Ha) Cross 37 Broadcast None 1,014 Broadcast Yes 483 20 cm x 20 cm None 3,390 20 cm x 20 cm Yes 5,109 Cross 387 Broadcast None 1,181 Broadcast Yes 1,036 20 cm x 20 cm None 4,142 20 cm x 20 cm Yes 4,385
  • 2 ND S.T.I. TRIALS, 2009 COMPOUND FERTILIZER + SPACING Variety: DZ-01-974 (3 replications I-III) * YIELD LEVELS NEVER REPORTED BEFORE I II III TOTAL AVE. YIELD (kg/ha)* DAP + UREA 57 49.5 34.2 140.7 46.9 6,700 DAP + NP + Zn 56.6 53.8 60.6 171 57.0 8,143 DAP + NP + Cu 67.6 58.4 40.4 166.4 55.5 7,924 DAP + NP + Zn + Cu 76.2 50.9 53.3 180.4 60.1 8,591 SUKUBE SUKUBE (NPK + Cu, Zn, Mn) + UREA 68.6 61.8 54.1 184.5 61.5 8,786 CHECK: NO FERTILIZER 5.3 11.2 3.2 19.7 6.6 938
    • SRI is pointing the way toward a possible paradigm shift to ‘post-modern agriculture’:
    • Less ‘genocentric’ and more profoundly ‘biocentric’
    • Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to capitalize on biodiversity and ecological dynamics
    • Less chemical-dependent and more energy-efficient
    • More oriented to the health of people and of environment
    • Intensification of production --not continued extensification
    • Focus on factor productivity and on sustainability !
  • THANK YOU
    • Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/
    • Email: [email_address] or [email_address]
  •  
  •  
  • How to “speed up the biological clock” (adapted from Nemoto et al. 1995)
    • Shorter phyllochrons Longer phyllochrons
    • Higher temperatures > cold temperatures
    • Wider spacing > crowding of roots/canopy
    • More illumination > shading of plants
    • Ample nutrients in soil > nutrient deficits
    • Soil penetrability > compaction of soil
    • Sufficient moisture > drought conditions
    • Sufficient oxygen > hypoxic soil conditions
  •  
  • Current research in Indonesia at IPB: cross-sections of rice roots at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after planting – with conventional mgmt, SRI with fertilizer, and SRI with organic inputs