The System of Rice
Intensification (SRI):
Creating Opportunities for
Agroecological Development
JIRCAS Seminar
Tsukuba, No...
Needs for rice sector in 21st
century
acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004
• Increased land productivity-- higher yie...
SRI practices help meet all these needs:
• Higher yields by 50-100% -- or more
• Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed)
...
SRI is application of AGROECOLOGY,
which can be summarized this way:
1. ENHANCE the life in the soil,
i.e., in soil system...
Agroecological principle #1:
SUPPORT the recycling of
biomass to optimize nutrient
availability in the soil and balance
nu...
Agroecological principle #2:
PROVIDE the most favorable
soil conditions which will
enhance the soil’s structure and
the fu...
Agroecological principle #3:
MINIMIZE losses of energy
and other growth factors
within plants’ microenvironments
both abov...
Agroecological principle #4:
DIVERSIFY the species and
the genetic resources within
agroecosystems, both
over time and ove...
Agroecological principle #5:
ENHANCE beneficial biological
interactions and synergies
among all of the components of
agrob...
SRI is many things:
– SRI derives from a certain number
of INSIGHTS, based on experience
– SRI can be explained in terms o...
SRI is NOT A TECHNOLOGY
While SRI practices look like a PACKAGE
or even like a RECIPE, they are really
better understood a...
SRI is NOT YET FINISHED
-- Since SRI was empirically developed,
we are continually improving scientific
understanding of S...
System of Finger Millet Intensification
on left; regular management of improved
variety and of traditional variety on right
Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in
raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha.
In 20...
SRI was developed for
smallholders in Madagascar,
but it is relevant at all scales
- Fr. Henri de Laulanié came there from...
Fr. de Laulanié
making field visit
Status of SRI: As of 1999
Known and practiced only in Madagascar
SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries
in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Before 1999: Madagascar
1999-2000: ...
The Six Basic Ideas for SRI
1. Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth
potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now ...
Cuban farmer with two plants
of same variety (VN 2084)
and same age (52 DAP)
Single-seed SRI rice plant
Variety: Ciherang
Fertile tillers: 223
Sampoerna CSR Program,
Malang, E. Java, 2009
Additional benefits of SRI practice:
• Reduced time to maturity,by 1-2 weeks,
less exposure to pests and diseases, and
to ...
Requirements/Constraints
1. Water control to apply small amounts of
water reliably; may need drainage facilities
2. Supply...
SRI
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
IH H FH MR WR YRStage
Organdryweight(g/hill)
CK
I H H FH MR WR YR
Yellow
leaf and
sheath
Pani...
Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005
using two super-hybrid varieties --
seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields
St...
Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice
management (SRI) vs.standard rice management
at different plant densities ...
AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by
Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
SRI field at 30 days
SRI plant with 133 tillers @
72 days after transplanting
11.56 t/ha
IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
Two Paradigms for Agriculture:
• GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to:
* Change the genetic potential of plants, and
* Increas...
MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
CAMBODIA:
Rice plant grown
from single seed
in Takeo province
NEPAL:
Single rice
plant grown
with SRI
methods,
Morang
district
IRAN: SRI
roots and
normal
(flooded)
roots: note
difference in
color as well
as size
INDONESIA:
Rice plants of
same age and
same variety
in Lombok
province
Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of
on-farm comparative evaluations of
SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06
• No. of trials: 12...
SRI LANKA: same rice variety, same irrigation system &
same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
VIETNAM:
Dông Trù village,
Hanoi province,
after typhoon
Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village, Zhejiang
In 2004, SRI gave highest
yield in province: 12 t/ha
In 2005, his SRI rice fields
wer...
Irrigation
method
Seed-
ling age
Spacing
(cm2
)
Time to
flowering
Time to
maturity
Plant lodging percentage
Partial Comple...
Incidence of Diseases and Pests
Vietnam National IPM Program: average of
data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06:
Spring ...
Theory of Trophobiosis
(F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops, 2004)
deserves more attention and empirical
evaluation than it has r...
Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’
Explains incidence of pest and disease
in terms of plants’ nutrition:
Nutrient imbalances and def...
Resistance to cold temperatures: Yield and
meteorological data from ANGRAU, A.P., India
PeriodPeriod Mean max.Mean max.
te...
Measured Differences in Grain Quality
Conv. Methods SRI Methods
Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference
Chalky...
Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spacedSRI LANKA: Best use of transplanting methods
SRI LANKA: Soil-aerating hand weeder costs <$10
Effect of Active Soil Aeration
412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal,
using SRI in monsoon season, 2005
SRI yield = 6.3 t/...
Mechanical
Weedings
Farmers
(N)
Area
(ha)
Harvest
(kg)
Yield
(t/ha)
None 2 0.11 657 5.973
One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723
Two 27 3....
Mechanization
of weeding, i.e.,
soil aeration,
is also possible
Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari,
AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; yield
in 200...
SRI seedlings ready for transport to
field, for mechanical transplanting
in COSTA RICA
Fig 1 Trasplantadora motorizada
AP100 Yanmar
Mechanical transplanter
used in COSTA RICA
Mechanically transplanted SRI field in Costa Rica – 8 t/ha yield
PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing
with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
Mechanical transplanter for dropping seedlings into holes made by machine,
Water is sprayed in hole after 10-day seedling ...
Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch
(22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
Rice crop at 71 days in Punjab, Pakistan
Seedlings planted into dry soil = 70% water reduction
Average yield = 13 tons/ha ...
Role of Soil Biota
Bacteria and fungi perform many
services for crop (under aerobic
conditions)
• Nutrient cycling and mob...
ENDOPHYTIC AZOSPIRILLUM, TILLERING,
AND RICE YIELDS WITH CULTIVATION
PRACTICES AND NUTRIENT AMENDMENTS
Results of replicat...
Treatments Total
microbes
(x105
)
Azotobacter
(x103
)
Azospirillum
(x103
)
PSM
(x104
)
Conventional (T0) 2.3a 1.9a 0.9a 3....
‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia,
from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and
Assessment of Benefits to Rice ...
Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three
symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid ...
Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings.
On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant i...
Extensions of SRI to Other Crops:Extensions of SRI to Other Crops:
Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, IndiaUttarakhand / Hima...
Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh
Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
ICRISAT-WWF
Sugarcane Initiative:
at least 20% more
cane yield, with:
• 30% reduction in
water, and
• 25% reduction in
che...
HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN
TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING
1ST
S.T.I. TRIALS, 2008
Duplication of Earlier Findings
VARIETYVARIETY SOWINGSOWING
METHODMETHOD
PELLETINGPELLETING YIELDY...
2ND
S.T.I. TRIALS, 2009
COMPOUND FERTILIZER + SPACING
Variety: DZ-01-974 (3 replications I-III)
I II III TOTAL AVE.
YIELD
...
SRI is pointing the way toward
a possible paradigm shift to
‘post-modern agriculture’:
• Less ‘genocentric’ and more
profo...
THANK YOU
• Check out SRI website:
http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/
• Email: ciifad@cornell.edu
or ntu1@cornell.edu
How to “speed up the
biological clock”
(adapted from Nemoto et al. 1995)
Shorter phyllochrons Longer phyllochrons
• Higher...
Root cross-sections of varieties:
upland (left) and irrigated (right)
ORSTOM research (Puard et al. 1989)
Current research in
Indonesia at IPB:
cross-sections of rice
roots at 4, 6, 8 and 10
weeks after planting –
with conventio...
0959 The System of  Rice Intensification (SRI):  Creating Opportunities for Agroecological Development
0959 The System of  Rice Intensification (SRI):  Creating Opportunities for Agroecological Development
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0959 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Creating Opportunities for Agroecological Development

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: JIRCAS Seminar, Tsukuba, Japan

Presented on: November 16, 2009
Presented on: November 16, 2009

Published in: Technology
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  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This plot of Liu Zhibin’s was harvested just before my visit, with an official certificate for a yield of 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, when Liu first used SRI methods, on soil that has been kept well supplied with organic matter, he got a yield of 16 t/ha which helped to persuade Prof. Yuan Long-ping, ‘the father of hybrid rice’ in China, to become more interested in SRI. Liu is manager for the seed farm that produces hybrid seed for Prof. Yuan’s operations.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This picture was provided by Association Tefy Saina, showing Fr. de Laulanie the year before his death in 1995, at age 75.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez. These two rice plants are ‘twins’ in that they were planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Figures from a paper presented by Dr. Tao to international rice conference organized by the China National Rice Research Institute for the International Year of Rice and World Food Day, held in Hangzhou, October 15-17, 2004. Dr. Tao has been doing research on SRI since 2001 to evaluate its effects in physiological terms.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &amp;gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • Picture provided by George Rakotondrabe, Landscape Development Interventions project.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
  • Picture provided by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Morang District, Nepal. Again, this is a single SRI plant grown from a single seed.
  • Picture provided by Mr. Shichi Sato, project leader for DISIMP project in Eastern Indonesia (S. Sulawasi and W. Nusa Tenggara), where &amp;gt; 1800 farmers using SRI on &amp;gt;1300 ha have had 7.6 t/ha average SRI yield (dried, unhusked paddy, 14% moisture content), 84% more than the control plots, with 40% reduction in water use, and 25% reduction in the costs of production.
  • This picture from Sri Lanka shows two fields having the same soil, climate and irrigation access, during a drought period. On the left, the rice grown with conventional practices, with continuous flooding from the time of transplanting, has a shallower root system that cannot withstand water stress. On the right, SRI rice receiving less water during its growth has deeper rooting, and thus it can continue to thrive during the drought. Farmers in Sri Lanka are coming to accept SRI in part because it reduces their risk of crop failure during drought.
  • This is explained in the book referenced above.
  • This is explained in the book by Chaboussou for which reference is given above.
  • Prof. Ma Jun in his paper to the Haerbin conference included data on rice quality that he had collected. They showed SRI rice grains (from three different spacings within the SRI range) to be clearly superior in two major respects to conventionally-grown grains (two spacings). A reduction in chalkiness makes the rice more palatable. An increase in outturn is a ‘bonus’ on top of the higher yields of paddy (unmilled) rice that farmers get with SRI methods. We have seen this kind of improvement in outturn rates in Cuba, India and Sri Lanka, about 15%. More research on other aspects of SRI grain quality should be done, including nutritional content.
  • Here the seedlings are being set into the soil, very shallow (only 1-2 cm deep). The transplanted seedlings are barely visible at the intersections of the lines. This operation proceeds very quickly once the transplanters have gained some skill and confidence in the method. As noted already, these seedling set out with two leaves can already have a third leaf by the next day.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
  • This is Subasinghe Ariyaratna’s own design. He is a small rice farmer (2 ha) in Mahaweli System ‘H’ of Sri Lanka. He has also devised a method of crop establishment that is labor saving. Instead of transplanting young seedlings 10 days old, at a seed rate of 5 kg/ha, he germinates seed and broadcasts it on prepared muddy soil at a rate of 25 kg/ha. Then at 10 days, when the seedlings are established, he ‘weeds’ the field as recommended for SRI, with rows 25x25 cm, in both directions, removing (churning under) about 80% of the seedlings, leaving just 1 or maybe 2 or 3 plants at the intersections of his passes. This saves the labor of making and managing a nursery and of transplanting, at a cost of 20 kg of seed/ha. He says this can assure a yield of 7.5 t/ha. As his household labor supply is limited (he has two young children and his wife teaches), he needs to economize on labor.
  • This was developed in 2003 by Mr. L. Reddy, to replace the use of strings and sticks to mark lines for planting, or the use of a wooden “rake” that could mark lines when pulled across the paddy in two directions. This implement, which can be built for any spacing desired, enables farmers, after it is pulled across the paddy in one direction, to plant SRI seedlings in a 25x250 cm square pattern. It saves as lot of labor time for transplanting because only one pass is needed across the field, and this is wider than a rake could be. Even wider ones have been built. Mr. Reddy is a very innovative and successful SRI farmer, with a superb yield last rabi season, measured and reported by the Department of Extension in Andhra Pradesh.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
  • These data were reported in Prof. Robert Randriamiharisoa&amp;apos;s paper in the Sanya conference proceedings. They give the first direct evidence to support our thinking about the contribution of soil microbes to the super-yields achieved with SRI methods.
    The bacterium Azospirillum was studied as an &amp;quot;indicator species&amp;quot; presumably reflecting overall levels of microbial populations and activity in and around the plant roots.
    Somewhat surprisingly, there was no significant difference in Azospirillum populations in the rhizosphere. But there were huge differences in the counts of Azospirillum in the roots themselves according to soil types (clay vs. loam) and cultivation practices (traditional vs. SRI) and nutrient amendments (none vs. NPK vs. compost).
    NPK amendments with SRI produce very good results, a yield on clay soil five times higher than traditional methods with no amendments. But compost used with SRI gives a six times higher yield. The NPK increases Azospirillum (and other) populations, but most/much of the N that produced a 9 t/ha yield is coming from inorganic sources compared to the higher 10.5 t/ha yield with compost that depends entirely on organic N.
    On poorer soil, SRI methods do not have much effect, but when enriched with compost, even this poor soil can give a huge increase in production, attributable to the largest of the increases in microbial activity in the roots. At least, this is how we interpret these findings. Similar research should be repeated many times, with different soils, varieties and climates. We consider these findings significant because they mirror results we have seen in other carefully measured SRI results in Madagascar. Tragically, Prof. Randriamiharisoa, who initiated this work, passed away in August, 2004, so we will no longer have his acute intelligence and probing mind to advance these frontiers of knowledge.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language, but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.
  • 0959 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Creating Opportunities for Agroecological Development

    1. 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Creating Opportunities for Agroecological Development JIRCAS Seminar Tsukuba, November 16, 2009 Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
    2. 2. Needs for rice sector in 21st century acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004 • Increased land productivity-- higher yield • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop • Technology more accessible for the poor • Technology more environmentally friendly • Greater resistance to pests and diseases • Tolerance of abiotic stresses (climate change) • Better grain quality for consumers, and • Greater profitability for farmers
    3. 3. SRI practices help meet all these needs: • Higher yields by 50-100% -- or more • Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed) • Reduced capital expenditure (accessible) • Little or no need for agrochemical inputs • Induced pest and disease resistance • Tolerance for drought, little/no lodging • Better grain quality -- less chalkiness • Lower costs of production by 10-20% -- which leads to higher farmers’ income
    4. 4. SRI is application of AGROECOLOGY, which can be summarized this way: 1. ENHANCE the life in the soil, i.e., in soil systems, recognizing the precedence of soil biology, which is shaping soil’s chemistry and physics 2.IMPROVE growing environment (E) for crops, in ways that will work to induce more productive phenotypes from any given crop genotype (G)
    5. 5. Agroecological principle #1: SUPPORT the recycling of biomass to optimize nutrient availability in the soil and balance nutrient flows in the soil and biosphere over time
    6. 6. Agroecological principle #2: PROVIDE the most favorable soil conditions which will enhance the soil’s structure and the functioning of soil systems, esp. by managing organic matter and by enhancing soil biotic activity
    7. 7. Agroecological principle #3: MINIMIZE losses of energy and other growth factors within plants’ microenvironments both above and below ground in ways that can maximize resource-use efficiency
    8. 8. Agroecological principle #4: DIVERSIFY the species and the genetic resources within agroecosystems, both over time and over space
    9. 9. Agroecological principle #5: ENHANCE beneficial biological interactions and synergies among all of the components of agrobiodiversity, thereby promoting key ecological processes and services (Reijntjes et al., 1992; Altieri 2002;)
    10. 10. SRI is many things: – SRI derives from a certain number of INSIGHTS, based on experience – SRI can be explained in terms of PRINCIPLES having scientific bases – SRI gets communicated to farmers in terms of specific PRACTICES that improve the growing environment for their rice plants - at same time, – SRI offers an alternative PARADIGM a different approach to agriculture - pointing toward post-modern agriculture
    11. 11. SRI is NOT A TECHNOLOGY While SRI practices look like a PACKAGE or even like a RECIPE, they are really better understood as a MENU • Farmers are encouraged to use as many of the practices as possible, as well as possible • Each practice contributes to higher yield as seen from the accumulating evidence • There is also evidence of a certain synergy operating among the practices – so that the best results come from using them together
    12. 12. SRI is NOT YET FINISHED -- Since SRI was empirically developed, we are continually improving scientific understanding of SRI concepts/theory -- Since SRI is farmer-centered, it is being modified, improved, extended • There are now also rainfed versions of SRI and zero-till, direct-seed, raised-bed forms • SRI ideas are extrapolated to other crops: wheat, sugar cane, millet, teff, beans, etc.
    13. 13. System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on right
    14. 14. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, his SRI yield set provincial yield record: 16 t/ha
    15. 15. SRI was developed for smallholders in Madagascar, but it is relevant at all scales - Fr. Henri de Laulanié came there from France in 1961 – had agricultural training - He started working with farmers to raise yield without dependence on external inputs - In 1983-84 season he learned effects of young seedlings - In late 1980s, when fertilizer subsidies were removed, he switched over to compost
    16. 16. Fr. de Laulanié making field visit
    17. 17. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
    18. 18. SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Ghana, Ecuador, Costa Rica 2009: Timor Leste, Malaysia Now in 2009, SRI benefits have been validated in 37 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
    19. 19. The Six Basic Ideas for SRI 1. Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option 2. Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips, which halts growth 3. Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve ‘edge effect’ everywhere 4. Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic and not continuously saturated 5. Actively aerate the soil as much as possible 6. Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible 1-2-3 stimulate plant growth aboveground, while 4-5-6 enhance growth of plants’ ROOTS and of soil BIOTA  better PHENOTYPES
    20. 20. Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
    21. 21. Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
    22. 22. Additional benefits of SRI practice: • Reduced time to maturity,by 1-2 weeks, less exposure to pests and diseases, and to adverse climate; can replant sooner • Higher milling outturn – by about 15% •Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach – want farmers to become better managers of their resources, experimenting, evaluating… • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture; can adapt to larger- scale production through mechanization
    23. 23. Requirements/Constraints 1. Water control to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities 2. Supply of biomass for making compost – but can use fertilizer if compost is insufficient 3. Crop protection may be necessary, although usually more resistance to pests & diseases 4. Mechanical weeder is desirable as this can aerate the soil at same time it controls weeds 5. Skill & motivation of farmers most important; need to learn new practices; once techniques are mastered, SRI can become labor-saving 6. Support of experts? have faced opposition
    24. 24. SRI 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 IH H FH MR WR YRStage Organdryweight(g/hill) CK I H H FH MR WR YR Yellow leaf and sheath Panicle Leaf Sheath Stem 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
    25. 25. Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields Standard Rice Mgmt • 30-day seedlings • 20x20 cm spacing • Continuous flooding • Fertilization: – 100% chemical New Rice Mgmt (SRI) • 20-day seedlings • 30x30 cm spacing • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) • Fertilization: – 50% chemical, – 50% organic
    26. 26. Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha-1 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 150,000 180,000 210,000 NRM SRM
    27. 27. AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
    28. 28. SRI field at 30 days
    29. 29. SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
    30. 30. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
    31. 31. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: * Change the genetic potential of plants, and * Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides • SRI (AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: * To promote the growth of root systems, and * To increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits The goal is to produce better PHENOTYPES
    32. 32. MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
    33. 33. CAMBODIA: Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province
    34. 34. NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods, Morang district
    35. 35. IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
    36. 36. INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
    37. 37. Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06 • No. of trials: 12,133 • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%) • Reduction in water requirements: 40% • Reduction in fertilizer use: 50% • Reduction in costs of production: 20% Note: In Bali (DS 2006) 24 farmers on 42 ha: SRI + Longping hybrids → 13.3 vs. 8.4 t/ha
    38. 38. SRI LANKA: same rice variety, same irrigation system & same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
    39. 39. VIETNAM: Dông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon
    40. 40. Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village, Zhejiang In 2004, SRI gave highest yield in province: 12 t/ha In 2005, his SRI rice fields were hit by three typhoons – yet he was still able to harvest 11.15 tons/ha -- while other farmers’ fields were badly affected by the storm damage In 2008, Nie used chemical fertilizer, and crop lodged
    41. 41. Irrigation method Seed- ling age Spacing (cm2 ) Time to flowering Time to maturity Plant lodging percentage Partial Complete Total Inter- mittent irrigation (AWDI) 14 30x30 75 118 6.67 0 6.67 30x18 74.67 118.67 40.00 6.67 46.67 21 30x30 72.67 117.67 26.67 20 46.67 30x18 74.33 117 13.33 13.33 26.67 Ordinary irrigation (continu- ous flooding) 14 30x30 73.33 122 16.67 33.33 50.00 30x18 72 121 26.67 53.33 80.00 21 30x30 72 120.67 20 76.67 96.67 30x18 72.67 121 13.33 80 93.33 Time to flowering, maturity, and plant lodging percentage as affected by AWDI and ordinary irrigation practice combined with different age of seedlings and spacing in Chiba, 2008 (Chapagain and Yamaji, 2009)
    42. 42. Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7% * Insects/m2
    43. 43. Theory of Trophobiosis (F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops, 2004) deserves more attention and empirical evaluation than it has received to date Its propositions are well supported by published literature over last 50 years -- and by long-standing observations about adverse effects of nitrogenous fertilizers and chlorinated pesticides Theory does not support strictly ‘organic’ approach because nutrient amendments are approved where soil deficits exist
    44. 44. Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’ Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of plants’ nutrition: Nutrient imbalances and deficiencies lead to excesses of free amino acids in the plants’ sap and cells, not yet synthesized into proteins – and more simple sugars in sap and cytoplasm not incorporated into polysaccharides This condition attracts and nourishes insects, bacteria, fungi, even viruses
    45. 45. Resistance to cold temperatures: Yield and meteorological data from ANGRAU, A.P., India PeriodPeriod Mean max.Mean max. temp.temp. 00 CC Mean min.Mean min. temp.temp. 00 CC No. ofNo. of sunshine hrssunshine hrs 1 – 151 – 15 NovNov 27.727.7 19.219.2 4.94.9 16–3016–30 NovNov 29.629.6 17.917.9 7.57.5 1 – 15 Dec1 – 15 Dec 29.129.1 14.614.6 8.68.6 16–31 Dec16–31 Dec 28.128.1 12.212.2++ 8.68.6 + Sudden drop in minimum temp. for 5 days (16–21 Dec. = 9.2-9.9o C ) SeasonSeason Normal (t/ha)Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha)SRI (t/ha) Kharif 2006Kharif 2006 0.21*0.21* 4.164.16 Rabi 2005-06Rabi 2005-06 2.252.25 3.473.47 * Low yield was due to cold injury (see below)
    46. 46. Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conv. Methods SRI Methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 - 30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 - 65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5% Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004
    47. 47. Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spacedSRI LANKA: Best use of transplanting methods
    48. 48. SRI LANKA: Soil-aerating hand weeder costs <$10
    49. 49. Effect of Active Soil Aeration 412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha vs. control = 3.1 t/ha • Data show how WEEDINGS can raise yield No. of No. of Average Range weedings farmers yield of yields 1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6) 2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0) 3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4)
    50. 50. Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772 Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98
    51. 51. Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration, is also possible
    52. 52. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 16.2 t/ha paddy (dry weight)
    53. 53. SRI seedlings ready for transport to field, for mechanical transplanting in COSTA RICA
    54. 54. Fig 1 Trasplantadora motorizada AP100 Yanmar Mechanical transplanter used in COSTA RICA
    55. 55. Mechanically transplanted SRI field in Costa Rica – 8 t/ha yield
    56. 56. PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
    57. 57. Mechanical transplanter for dropping seedlings into holes made by machine, Water is sprayed in hole after 10-day seedling is lput in, adding compost.
    58. 58. Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch (22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
    59. 59. Rice crop at 71 days in Punjab, Pakistan Seedlings planted into dry soil = 70% water reduction Average yield = 13 tons/ha (7 to 22 tons/ha)
    60. 60. Role of Soil Biota Bacteria and fungi perform many services for crop (under aerobic conditions) • Nutrient cycling and mobilization • Nitrogen fixation • Phosphorus solubilization • Water and nutrient acquisition • Competition with pathogens • Induced systemic resistance Also previously unappreciated benefits --
    61. 61. ENDOPHYTIC AZOSPIRILLUM, TILLERING, AND RICE YIELDS WITH CULTIVATION PRACTICES AND NUTRIENT AMENDMENTS Results of replicated trials at Anjomakely, Madagascar, 2001 (Andriankaja, 2002) Azospirillum CLAY SOIL (Methods of cultivation) in roots (103 /mg) Tillers/ plant Yield (t/ha) Usual with no amendments 65 17 1.8 SRI with no amendments 1,100 45 6.1 SRI with NPK added 450 68 9.0 SRI methods with compost 1,400 78 10.5 LOAM SOIL SRI with no amendments 75 32 2.1 SRI methods with compost 2,000 47 6.6
    62. 62. Treatments Total microbes (x105 ) Azotobacter (x103 ) Azospirillum (x103 ) PSM (x104 ) Conventional (T0) 2.3a 1.9a 0.9a 3.3a Inorganic SRI (T1) 2.7a 2.2a 1.7ab 4.0a Organic SRI (T2) 3.8b 3.7b 2.8bc 5.9b Org. SRI + BF (T3) 4.8c 4..4b 3.3c 6.4b CFU = colony forming units PSM = Phosphate-solubilizing microbes BF = Bio-organic fertilizer Values with the different letters in a column are significantly different by LSD at the 0.05 level. Treatments: T0 = 20x20 cm spacing, 30 day seedlings, 6 seedlings/hill, 5 cm flooding depth of water, fertilized with inorganic NPK (250 kg urea, 200 kg SP-18, 100 kg KCl ha-1 ); T1, T2, T3 = All 30x30 cm spacing, 6-10 day seedlings, 1 seedling/hill, moist soil or intermittent irrigation, with different fertilization: T1 = same inorganic NPK as T0; T2 = 5 t ha-1 of organic fertilizer (compost); T3 = Inorganic NPK as in T0 + 300 kg ha-1 bioorganic fertilizer. Total microbes and numbers of beneficial soil microbes (CFU g-1 ) under conventional and SRI rice cultivation methods, Tanjung Sari, Bogor district, Indonesia, Feb-Aug 2009 (Iswandi et al., 2009)
    63. 63. ‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ Rhizo- bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo- synthetic rate (μmol-2 s-1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36A 63 ± 2A 16.42 ± 1.39A 3.62 ± 0.17BC 17.64 ± 4.94ABC 86 ± 5A SM-1021 180 ± 26A 67 ± 5A 14.99 ± 1.64B 4.02 ± 0.19AB 20.03 ± 3.92A 86 ± 4A SM-1002 168 ± 8AB 52 ± 4BC 13.70 ± 0.73B 4.15 ± 0.32A 19.58 ± 4.47AB 61 ± 4B R1-2370 175 ± 23A 61 ± 8AB 13.85 ± 0.38B 3.36 ± 0.41C 18.98 ± 4.49AB 64 ± 9B Mh-93 193 ± 16A 67 ± 4A 13.86 ± 0.76B 3.18 ± 0.25CD 16.79 ± 3.43BC 77 ± 5A Control 130 ± 10B 47 ± 6C 10.23 ± 1.03C 2.77 ± 0.69D 15.24 ± 4.0C 51 ± 4C Feng Chi et al.,Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278
    64. 64. Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants (symbiotic plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum) Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology, 2:3 (2009).
    65. 65. Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology, 2:3 (2009).
    66. 66. Extensions of SRI to Other Crops:Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, IndiaUttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 2007 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60 Wheat (Irrig.) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63 Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet)
    67. 67. Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
    68. 68. ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative: at least 20% more cane yield, with: • 30% reduction in water, and • 25% reduction in chemical inputs ‘The inspiration for putting this package together is from the successful approach of SRI – System of Rice Intensification.’
    69. 69. HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING
    70. 70. 1ST S.T.I. TRIALS, 2008 Duplication of Earlier Findings VARIETYVARIETY SOWINGSOWING METHODMETHOD PELLETINGPELLETING YIELDYIELD (Kg/Ha)(Kg/Ha) Cross 37Cross 37 BroadcastBroadcast NoneNone 1,0141,014 BroadcastBroadcast YesYes 483483 20 cm x 20 cm20 cm x 20 cm NoneNone 3,3903,390 20 cm x 20 cm20 cm x 20 cm YesYes 5,1095,109 Cross 387Cross 387 BroadcastBroadcast NoneNone 1,1811,181 BroadcastBroadcast YesYes 1,0361,036 20 cm x 20 cm20 cm x 20 cm NoneNone 4,1424,142 20 cm x 20 cm20 cm x 20 cm YesYes 4,3854,385 YIFRU ( 1998 ) M. Sc. THESIS Reported yield of 4-5 tons/ha for non-lodged teff vs. 2-3 t/ha for lodged teff
    71. 71. 2ND S.T.I. TRIALS, 2009 COMPOUND FERTILIZER + SPACING Variety: DZ-01-974 (3 replications I-III) I II III TOTAL AVE. YIELD (kg/ha)* DAP + UREA 57 49.5 34.2 140.7 46.9 6,700 DAP + NP + Zn 56.6 53.8 60.6 171 57.0 8,143 DAP + NP + Cu 67.6 58.4 40.4 166.4 55.5 7,924 DAP + NP + Zn + Cu 76.2 50.9 53.3 180.4 60.1 8,591 SUKUBE SUKUBE (NPK + Cu, Zn, Mn) + UREA 68.6 61.8 54.1 184.5 61.5 8,786 CHECK: NO FERTILIZER 5.3 11.2 3.2 19.7 6.6 938 * YIELD LEVELS NEVER REPORTED BEFORE
    72. 72. SRI is pointing the way toward a possible paradigm shift to ‘post-modern agriculture’: • Less ‘genocentric’ and more profoundly ‘biocentric’ • Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to capitalize on biodiversity and ecological dynamics • Less chemical-dependent and more energy-efficient • More oriented to the health of people and of environment • Intensification of production --not continued extensification • Focus on factor productivity and on sustainability !
    73. 73. THANK YOU • Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ • Email: ciifad@cornell.edu or ntu1@cornell.edu
    74. 74. How to “speed up the biological clock” (adapted from Nemoto et al. 1995) Shorter phyllochrons Longer phyllochrons • Higher temperatures > cold temperatures • Wider spacing > crowding of roots/canopy • More illumination > shading of plants • Ample nutrients in soil > nutrient deficits • Soil penetrability > compaction of soil • Sufficient moisture > drought conditions • Sufficient oxygen > hypoxic soil conditions
    75. 75. Root cross-sections of varieties: upland (left) and irrigated (right) ORSTOM research (Puard et al. 1989)
    76. 76. Current research in Indonesia at IPB: cross-sections of rice roots at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after planting – with conventional mgmt, SRI with fertilizer, and SRI with organic inputs

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