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0953 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA …

Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia

Presented on: October 6, 2009


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  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This plot of Liu Zhibin’s was harvested just before my visit, with an official certificate for a yield of 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, when Liu first used SRI methods, on soil that has been kept well supplied with organic matter, he got a yield of 16 t/ha which helped to persuade Prof. Yuan Long-ping, ‘the father of hybrid rice’ in China, to become more interested in SRI. Liu is manager for the seed farm that produces hybrid seed for Prof. Yuan’s operations.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Figures from a paper presented by Dr. Tao to international rice conference organized by the China National Rice Research Institute for the International Year of Rice and World Food Day, held in Hangzhou, October 15-17, 2004. Dr. Tao has been doing research on SRI since 2001 to evaluate its effects in physiological terms.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields >15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • Picture provided by George Rakotondrabe, Landscape Development Interventions project.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
  • Picture provided by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Morang District, Nepal. Again, this is a single SRI plant grown from a single seed.
  • Picture provided by Mr. Shichi Sato, project leader for DISIMP project in Eastern Indonesia (S. Sulawasi and W. Nusa Tenggara), where > 1800 farmers using SRI on >1300 ha have had 7.6 t/ha average SRI yield (dried, unhusked paddy, 14% moisture content), 84% more than the control plots, with 40% reduction in water use, and 25% reduction in the costs of production.
  • This picture from Sri Lanka shows two fields having the same soil, climate and irrigation access, during a drought period. On the left, the rice grown with conventional practices, with continuous flooding from the time of transplanting, has a shallower root system that cannot withstand water stress. On the right, SRI rice receiving less water during its growth has deeper rooting, and thus it can continue to thrive during the drought. Farmers in Sri Lanka are coming to accept SRI in part because it reduces their risk of crop failure during drought.
  • Prof. Ma Jun in his paper to the Haerbin conference included data on rice quality that he had collected. They showed SRI rice grains (from three different spacings within the SRI range) to be clearly superior in two major respects to conventionally-grown grains (two spacings). A reduction in chalkiness makes the rice more palatable. An increase in outturn is a ‘bonus’ on top of the higher yields of paddy (unmilled) rice that farmers get with SRI methods. We have seen this kind of improvement in outturn rates in Cuba, India and Sri Lanka, about 15%. More research on other aspects of SRI grain quality should be done, including nutritional content.
  • Here the seedlings are being set into the soil, very shallow (only 1-2 cm deep). The transplanted seedlings are barely visible at the intersections of the lines. This operation proceeds very quickly once the transplanters have gained some skill and confidence in the method. As noted already, these seedling set out with two leaves can already have a third leaf by the next day.
  • This is Subasinghe Ariyaratna’s own design. He is a small rice farmer (2 ha) in Mahaweli System ‘H’ of Sri Lanka. He has also devised a method of crop establishment that is labor saving. Instead of transplanting young seedlings 10 days old, at a seed rate of 5 kg/ha, he germinates seed and broadcasts it on prepared muddy soil at a rate of 25 kg/ha. Then at 10 days, when the seedlings are established, he ‘weeds’ the field as recommended for SRI, with rows 25x25 cm, in both directions, removing (churning under) about 80% of the seedlings, leaving just 1 or maybe 2 or 3 plants at the intersections of his passes. This saves the labor of making and managing a nursery and of transplanting, at a cost of 20 kg of seed/ha. He says this can assure a yield of 7.5 t/ha. As his household labor supply is limited (he has two young children and his wife teaches), he needs to economize on labor.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
  • These data were reported in Prof. Robert Randriamiharisoa's paper in the Sanya conference proceedings. They give the first direct evidence to support our thinking about the contribution of soil microbes to the super-yields achieved with SRI methods.
    The bacterium Azospirillum was studied as an "indicator species" presumably reflecting overall levels of microbial populations and activity in and around the plant roots.
    Somewhat surprisingly, there was no significant difference in Azospirillum populations in the rhizosphere. But there were huge differences in the counts of Azospirillum in the roots themselves according to soil types (clay vs. loam) and cultivation practices (traditional vs. SRI) and nutrient amendments (none vs. NPK vs. compost).
    NPK amendments with SRI produce very good results, a yield on clay soil five times higher than traditional methods with no amendments. But compost used with SRI gives a six times higher yield. The NPK increases Azospirillum (and other) populations, but most/much of the N that produced a 9 t/ha yield is coming from inorganic sources compared to the higher 10.5 t/ha yield with compost that depends entirely on organic N.
    On poorer soil, SRI methods do not have much effect, but when enriched with compost, even this poor soil can give a huge increase in production, attributable to the largest of the increases in microbial activity in the roots. At least, this is how we interpret these findings. Similar research should be repeated many times, with different soils, varieties and climates. We consider these findings significant because they mirror results we have seen in other carefully measured SRI results in Madagascar. Tragically, Prof. Randriamiharisoa, who initiated this work, passed away in August, 2004, so we will no longer have his acute intelligence and probing mind to advance these frontiers of knowledge.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez. These two rice plants are ‘twins’ in that they were planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
  • From MS thesis of Barison; showing effects of different practices and specifically fertilization on root volume and depth.
  • This is explained in the book referenced above.
  • This is explained in the book by Chaboussou for which reference is given above.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language, but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production Universitas Brawijaya Indonesia October 6, 2009 Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
    • 2. Rice sector in 21st century needs: acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004 • Increased land productivity-- higher yield • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop • Technology that is accessible for the poor • Technology that is environmentally friendly • Greater resistance to pests and diseases • Tolerance of abiotic stresses (climate change) • Better grain quality for consumers, and • Greater profitability for farmers
    • 3. SRI practices can meet all these needs: • Higher yields by 50-100%, or more • Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed) • Little need for capital expenditure • Little or no need for agrochemical inputs • Pest and disease resistance is induced • Drought tolerance; no lodging • Better grain quality, and • Lower costs of production by 10-20% → giving farmers higher income
    • 4. What SRI Is Not: 1. It is NOT A THING (many things) a. SRI derives from a number of INSIGHTS, based on experience b. SRI is a SET OF PRINCIPLES that have sound scientific justifications c. SRI gets communicated to farmers in terms of CERTAIN PRACTICES that improve the growing environment for their rice plants - but at same time, d. SRI is also an alternative PARADIGM
    • 5. What SRI Is Not: 2. It is NOT A TECHNOLOGY SRI practices may look like a PACKAGE or a RECIPE, but they are really a MENU • Farmers are encouraged to use as many of the practices as possible, as well as possible • Considerable research evidence shows that each practice contributes to higher yield • But there is also evidence that there is some synergy among the practices – so the best results come from using them together
    • 6. 3. SRI is NOT YET FINISHED -- It was empirically developed, so we are continually improving our scientific understanding of SRI concepts/theory -- Being farmer-centered, SRI is always evolving, being modified, improved, extended • We now have rainfed versions of SRI (7 t/ha) • Also zero-till, direct-seed, raised-bed forms • SRI ideas are being extrapolated to other crops: wheat, sugarcane, millet, teff, beans.. What SRI Is Not:
    • 7. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. His SRI yield in 2001 set provincial yield record: 16 t/ha
    • 8. SRI Is Based on Six Basic Ideas 1. Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option 2. Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips which halts growth 3. Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve “edge effect” everywhere 4. Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic -- not continuously saturated 5. Actively aerate the soil as much as possible 6. Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible First 3 practices stimulate plant growth, while the latter 3 practices enhance the growth and health of plants’ ROOTS and of soil
    • 9. These Changes in Practices Lead to: 1. Increased grain yield by 50-100%, or more if farmers’ yields are presently low 2. Lower irrigation water requirements by 25-50%; SRI adapted to rainfed cropping 3. Reduced costs of production by 10-20%, so net income increases by more than yield 4. Higher milling outturn by ca.15%; less chaff and fewer broken grains means more food 5. Less need for agrochemical use because of natural resistance to pests and diseases 6. Resistance to abiotic stresses due to bigger, stronger root systems and soil biotic activity
    • 10. Additional benefits of SRI practice: • Time to maturity reduced by 1-2 weeks, less exposure to pests and diseases, and to adverse climate; can replant sooner •Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach – want farmers to become better managers of their resources, experimenting, evaluating… • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture; can adapt to larger- scale production through mechanization
    • 11. Requirements/Constraints 1. Water control to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities 2. Supply of biomass for making compost – can use fertilizer as alternative 3. Crop protection may be necessary, although usually more resistance to pests & diseases 4. Mechanical weeder is desirable as this can aerate the soil as well as control weeds 5. Skill & motivation of farmers most important; need to learn new practices; SRI can become labor-saving once techniques are mastered 6. Support of experts? have faced opposition
    • 12. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
    • 13. Merits of SRI methods first seen outside of Madagascar in China: 1999: Nanjing Agric. University, then China National Hybrid Rice R&D Center, China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI), and Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences Then Indonesia (AARD-Sukamandi) & Philippines (CDSMC) in 2000-01
    • 14. CHINA: Farmers with SRI fields in Bu Tou village, Jie Ton township (Tien Tai city), Zhejiang province, 2004
    • 15. Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village • 2004: His SRI had best yield in province: 12 t/ha • 2005: His SRI rice fields were hit by three typhoons – but still able to harvest 11.15 tons/ha -- while other farmers’ fields were badly affected by the storms’ damage • 2008: Nie used chemical fertilizer, and crop lodged
    • 16. SRI 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 IH H FH MR WR YRStage Organdryweight(g/hill) CK I H H FH MR WR YR Yellow leaf and sheath Panicle Leaf Sheath Stem 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
    • 17. Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields Standard Rice Mgmt • 30-day seedlings • 20x20 cm spacing • Continuous flooding • Fertilization: – 100% chemical New Rice Mgmt (SRI) • 20-day seedlings • 30x30 cm spacing • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) • Fertilization: – 50% chemical, – 50% organic
    • 18. Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha-1 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 150,000 180,000 210,000 NRM SRM
    • 19. SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Congo, Ecuador, Costa Rica 2009: Timor Leste …. Now in 2009, SRI benefits have been validated in 36 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
    • 20. AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
    • 21. SRI field at 30 days
    • 22. SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
    • 23. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
    • 24. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: * Change the genetic potential of plants, and * Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides • SRI (AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: * To promote the growth of root systems, and * To increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits The goal is to produce better PHENOTYPES
    • 25. MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
    • 26. CAMBODIA: Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province
    • 27. NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods, Morang district
    • 28. IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
    • 29. INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
    • 30. Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06 • No. of trials: 12,133 • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%) • Reduction in water requirements: 40% • Reduction in fertilizer use: 50% • Reduction in costs of production: 20% Note: In Bali (DS 2006) 24 farmers on 42 ha: SRI + Longping hybrids → 13.3 vs. 8.4 t/ha
    • 31. INDONESIA: Rice plants in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
    • 32. SRI LANKA: same rice variety, same irrigation system & same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
    • 33. VIETNAM: Dông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon
    • 34. Journal of Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology (2009), Vol. 2, No. 23 “Introduction of Land-Cover Integrated Technologies with Water Saving and High Yield” -- Lv Shihua et al. • Yield in normal year is 150-200 kg/mu (2.25-3.0 t/ha); yield in drought year is 200 kg/mu (3.0 t/ha) or even more • Net income in normal year is increased by new methods from profit of 100 ¥/mu to 600-800 ¥/mu (i.e., from profit of $220/ha to >$1,500/ha) • Net income in drought year with new methods goes from loss of 200-300 ¥/mu to 300-500 ¥/mu profit (from a loss of $550/ha to a profit of $880/ha)
    • 35. Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7% * Insects/m2
    • 36. Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conv. Methods SRI Methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 -30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 -65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5% Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004
    • 37. Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced SRI starts with simple but careful transplanting of single young seedlings in square pattern
    • 38. Seedlings can be even as young as four days
    • 39. Comparison of SRI and usual rice plants – Miyatty Jannah, Crawuk village, Ngawi, EJ
    • 40. Mechanically transplanted SRI field in Costa Rica – 8 t/ha yield
    • 41. Fig 1 Trasplantadora motorizada AP100 Yanmar
    • 42. 10-day seedlings ready for transplanting in Costa Rica
    • 43. Soil-aerating hand weeder in Sri Lanka costing <$10
    • 44. Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration, is also possible
    • 45. Mechanical weeder for raised beds --for spacing 9x9 inch (22.5x22.5 cm) – gives very good soil aeration
    • 46. Pakistan: rice crop planted in dry soil with SRI practices adapted to mechanization: average number of tillers = 90 @ 71 days
    • 47. What Is Going On? The ‘young seedling’ effect can be understood in terms of phyllochrons •Phyllochrons are the periods of time (4- 10 days) that pattern the emergence of tillers and of roots (reflect conditions) •These relationships can be analyzed also in terms of leaf-age or degree-days •Phyllochrons ‘discovered’ by T. Katayama in 1920s-30s; published work in 1951; never translated into English language •Analysis improved upon by de Laulaniè
    • 48. Main shoot stem emerges during 1st phyllochron; no further tillering until 1st primary tiller emerges in the 4th phyllochron
    • 49. How to speed up ‘the biological clock’ and shorten phyllochrons to have more cycles of tiller-root growth before PI? (adapted from Nemoto et al., Crop Science, 1995) Shorter phyllochrons Longer phyllochrons •Higher temperatures > cold temperatures •Wider spacing > crowding of roots/canopy •More illumination > shading of plants •Ample nutrients in soil > nutrient deficits •Soil penetrability > compaction of soil •Sufficient moisture > drought conditions •Sufficient oxygen > hypoxic soil conditions
    • 50. Effect of Active Soil Aeration 412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha vs. control = 3.1 t/ha • Data show how WEEDINGS can raise yield No. of No. of Average Range weedings farmers yield of yields 1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6) 2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0) 3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4)
    • 51. Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772 Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98
    • 52. Lessons & Recommendations for SRILessons & Recommendations for SRI Paddy for Mountainous Regions (PSI)Paddy for Mountainous Regions (PSI) Transplanting Time (days)Transplanting Time (days) (i) 10-15 days: 7.0-7.5 t/ha (ii) 16-23 days: 5.5-6.0 t/ha (iii) > 23 days: 4.0-4.5 t/ha Weeding (no. of times)Weeding (no. of times) (i) 3 times: 7.0-7.5 t/ha (ii) 2 times: 6.0-6.5 t/ha (iii) 1 time: 5.0-5.5 t/ha
    • 53. Microbial populations in rice rhizosphere Tamil Nadu Agricultural University research Microorganisms Conventional SRI Total bacteria 88 x 106 105 x 106 Azospirillum 8 x 105 31 x 105 Azotobacter 39 x 103 66 x 103 Phosphobacteria 33 x 103 59 x 103 T. M. Thiyagarajan, WRRC presentation, Tsukuba, Japan, 11/04
    • 54. ENDOPHYTIC AZOSPIRILLUM, TILLERING, AND RICE YIELDS WITH CULTIVATION PRACTICES AND NUTRIENT AMENDMENTS Results of replicated trials at Anjomakely, Madagascar, 2001 (Andriankaja, 2002) Azospirillum No. of CLAY SOIL in Roots (103 /mg) Tillers/ plant Yield (t/ha) Traditional cultivation, no amendments 65 17 1.8 SRI cultivation, with no amendments 1,100 45 6.1 SRI cultivation, with NPK amendments 450 68 9.0 SRI cultivation, with compost 1,400 78 10.5 LOAM SOIL SRI cultivation with no amendments 75 32 2.1 SRI cultivation, with compost 2,000 47 6.6
    • 55. ‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ Rhizo- bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo- synthetic rate (μmol-2 s-1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36A 63 ± 2A 16.42 ± 1.39A 3.62 ± 0.17BC 17.64 ± 4.94ABC 86 ± 5A SM-1021 180 ± 26A 67 ± 5A 14.99 ± 1.64B 4.02 ± 0.19AB 20.03 ± 3.92A 86 ± 4A SM-1002 168 ± 8AB 52 ± 4BC 13.70 ± 0.73B 4.15 ± 0.32A 19.58 ± 4.47AB 61 ± 4B R1-2370 175 ± 23A 61 ± 8AB 13.85 ± 0.38B 3.36 ± 0.41C 18.98 ± 4.49AB 64 ± 9B Mh-93 193 ± 16A 67 ± 4A 13.86 ± 0.76B 3.18 ± 0.25CD 16.79 ± 3.43BC 77 ± 5A Control 130 ± 10B 47 ± 6C 10.23 ± 1.03C 2.77 ± 0.69D 15.24 ± 4.0C 51 ± 4C Feng Chi et al.,Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278
    • 56. ‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ “Rice-adapted isolates of rhizobia have previously been shown to produce the growth-regulating phyto-hormones IAA and GA in pure culture and to increase IAA levels accumulated externally in root exudates of gnotobiotically-cultured rice plants… We predict that this rhizobium-induced elevation of the levels of these growth-stimulating phytohormones within above-ground rice tissues contributes to the underlying mechanism(s) allowing certain strains of these bacteria to enhance vegetative and reproductive growth of cereals in general…” (Feng et al., 2005)
    • 57. Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants (symbiotic plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum) Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology, 2:3 (2009).
    • 58. Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology, 2:3 (2009).
    • 59. What contributes to getting better phenotypes? SRI plants have profuse ROOT GROWTH with little or late senescence – Continue taking up N until end of cycle – Roots are reaching lower horizons • More uptake of micronutrients (Cu, Zn …) • Also more uptake of silicon (Si)? – Interaction and interface with SOIL MICROORGANISMS – phytohormones?
    • 60. Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
    • 61. Estimated marginal value product of nitrogen fertilizer (Kshs/kg N) conditional on plot soil carbon content (Marenya and Barrett, AJAE, 2009) Plot content (%) of soil organic carbon (SOC) In Western Kenya, applying N fertilizer to soil with < 4% SOC does not repay farmers’ expenditure
    • 62. ROOT GROWTH: Research findings from on-farm studies in 2005 by Dr. O.P. Rupela, ICRISAT/WWF Average yield: •SRI: 7.68 t/ha vs. FP: 6.15 t/ha Length of roots in top 15 cm of soil •SRI: 19.8 km/m3 vs. FP: 2.4 km/m3 We should not consider roots separately from soil biota – instead, roots and biota are best regarded as a single system
    • 63. Root length density (cm cm-3 ) under SRI, SRA and conventional systems (Barison, 2003) Soil layers (cm) Treatments 0-5 5-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 SRI with compost 3.65 0.75 0.61 0.33 0.30 0.23 SRI without compost 3.33 0.71 0.57 0.32 0.25 0.20 SRA with NPK and urea 3.73 0.99 0.65 0.34 0.18 0.09 SRA without fertilization 3.24 0.85 0.55 0.31 0.15 0.07 Conventional system 4.11 1.28 1.19 0.36 0.13 0.06
    • 64. Comparison of root pulling resistance (RPR), in kg, different stages of plant growth (Barison, 2003) Treatments (plants per hill) RPR at panicle initiation RPR at anthesis RPR at maturity Decrease from anthesis to maturity SRI with compost (1) 53.00 77.67 55.19 28.7% SRI without compost (1) 61.67 68.67 49.67 28.3% SRA with NPK + urea (2) 44.00 (22.00) 55.33 (27.66) 34.11 (17.06) 38.3% SRA without fertilization (2) 36.33 (18.16) 49.67 (24.88) 30.00 (15.00) 39.4% Conventional system (3) 22.00 (7.33) 35.00 (11.67) 20.67 (6.89) 41.0%
    • 65. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 0 100 200 N uptake (kg/ha) Grainyield(kg/ha) Grain yield SRI (kg/ha) Grainyield Conv (kg/ha) Poly.:Grain yield SRI (kg/ha) Poly.: Grain yield Conv. (kg/ha) Rice grain yield response to N uptake Regression relationship between nitrogen uptake and grain yield for SRI and conventional methods (Barison, 2003) – same relationship for P and K
    • 66. System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on right
    • 67. Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
    • 68. ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative: at least 20% more cane yield, with: • 30% reduction in water, and • 25% reduction in chemical inputs ‘The inspiration for putting this package together is from the successful approach of SRI – System of Rice Intensification.’
    • 69. Extensions of SRI to Other Crops:Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, IndiaUttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 2007 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60 Wheat (Irrig.) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63 Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet)
    • 70. Contributions of Larger Root Systems and Soil Organisms? • Uptake of N until end of growth cycle • Higher protein → less breakage in milling? • Higher nutritional value of grains? • Uptake of more micronutrients • Heavier grains are denser → less breakage? • Greater conversion of macronutrients taken up into grain output? • Higher nutrient value of grains? • Many research Qs – SRI is not finished
    • 71. SRI is pointing the way toward an emerging paradigm shift in our agricultural sciences: • Less ‘genocentric’ and more profoundly ‘biocentric’? • Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to capitalize on biodiversity and ecological dynamics? • Less chemical-dependent? • More energy-efficient? • More oriented to health of humans and the environment? •Intensification of production > continued extensification? • Focus on factor productivity and sustainability?
    • 72. Theory of Trophobiosis (F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops, 2004) deserves more attention and empirical evaluation than it has received to date Its propositions are well supported by published literature over last 50 years -- and by long-standing observations about adverse effects of nitrogenous fertilizers and chlorinated pesticides Theory does not support strictly ‘organic’ approach because nutrient amendments are recommended if soil deficits exist
    • 73. Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’ Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of plants’ nutrition: Nutrient imbalances and deficiencies lead to excesses of free amino acids in the plants’ sap and cells, not yet synthesized into proteins – and more simple sugars in sap and cytoplasm not incorporated into polysaccharides This condition attracts and nourishes insects, bacteria, fungi, even viruses
    • 74. THANK YOU • Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ • Email: ciifad@cornell.edu • or ntu1@cornell.edu