0952 Agroecological Approaches to Climate-Proofing our Agriculture while also Raising Productivity

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Context of Climate Change- Asian Institute of Technology

Presented on: September 24, 2009

Published in: Technology
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  • Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez. These two rice plants are ‘twins’ in that they were planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done, very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Picture provided by George Rakotondrabe, Landscape Development Interventions project.
  • Picture provided by Mr. Shichi Sato, project leader for DISIMP project in Eastern Indonesia (S. Sulawasi and W. Nusa Tenggara), where > 1800 farmers using SRI on >1300 ha have had 7.6 t/ha average SRI yield (dried, unhusked paddy, 14% moisture content), 84% more than the control plots, with 40% reduction in water use, and 25% reduction in the costs of production.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web. Agronomists should be very interested in how more than doubled yield can be achieved in three weeks less time than ‘normally’ expected for this variety. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) evaluation of SRI in Andhra Pradesh state of India, conducted by ANGRAU, the state agricultural university, reported 7-10 day shorter maturation of SRI crops. In Cambodia, this has also been seen.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language,but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.
  • 0952 Agroecological Approaches to Climate-Proofing our Agriculture while also Raising Productivity

    1. 1. Agroecological Approaches to Climate-Proofing our Agriculture while also Raising Productivity International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Context of Climate Change Asian Institute of Technology September 24, 2009 Norman Uphoff, Cornell University
    2. 2. Climate Change includes both: * Global warming, and * Increase in ‘extreme events’ * Drought (water stress) * Storms (rain, wind, flooding) * Extreme temperatures For agriculture,extreme events are most serious kind of climate change * Climate change (abiotic stress) usually means greater incidence of pests and diseases (biotic stress)
    3. 3. 21st Century presents different conditions from the 20th century: * Less land per capita changes the economics of large-scale, extensive cultivation → raise land productivity * Less availability and reliability of water → need for water productivity * Higher energy costs make large-scale, mechanized production and long-distance trade in agricultural commodities less profitable → new patterns of trade
    4. 4. Other differences compared to 20th Century: * Greater and growing public concern for environmental conservation/quality - agro-chemicals becoming less acceptable * Accessibility of technology to the poor is a greater concern because hunger and poverty are still major problems These and other considerations suggest a need for evolving what can be called ‘post-modern agriculture’
    5. 5. ‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ Rhizo- bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo- synthetic rate (μmol-2 s-1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36A 63 ± 2A 16.42 ± 1.39A 3.62 ± 0.17BC 17.64 ± 4.94ABC 86 ± 5A SM-1021 180 ± 26A 67 ± 5A 14.99 ± 1.64B 4.02 ± 0.19AB 20.03 ± 3.92A 86 ± 4A SM-1002 168 ± 8AB 52 ± 4BC 13.70 ± 0.73B 4.15 ± 0.32A 19.58 ± 4.47AB 61 ± 4B R1-2370 175 ± 23A 61 ± 8AB 13.85 ± 0.38B 3.36 ± 0.41C 18.98 ± 4.49AB 64 ± 9B Mh-93 193 ± 16A 67 ± 4A 13.86 ± 0.76B 3.18 ± 0.25CD 16.79 ± 3.43BC 77 ± 5A Control 130 ± 10B 47 ± 6C 10.23 ± 1.03C 2.77 ± 0.69D 15.24 ± 4.0C 51 ± 4C Feng Chi et al.,Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278
    6. 6. * Agroecology is based upon the life in the soil (systems) -- recognizing the precedence of soil biology > soil chemistry * By improving plants’ growing environment (E), we can induce more productive phenotypes from any genotype (G)
    7. 7. CUBA: two plants of same variety (VN 2084)
    8. 8. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) developed in Madagascar in 1980s has made these ideas and principles very concrete --and very powerful, especially with regard to Climate Change
    9. 9. SRI Experience in Madagascar Small farmers (ave. <1 ha) -- on some of ‘poorest’ soils that had previously yielded 2 tons/ha -- were able to average 8 tons/ha without new seeds or fertilizer Same results from a larger French-funded project for irrigation improvement on the High Plateau; also seen in a 1996 study sponsored by French aid (N=108)
    10. 10. SRI Not a Technology = 6 Core Ideas 1. Use young seedlings to preserve growth potential (although direct seeding is becoming an option) 2. Avoid trauma to the roots --transplant quickly, carefully, shallow; no inversion of root tips upward 3. Give plants wider spacing – one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve edge effect 4. Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded – mostly aerobic, not continuously saturated (hypoxic) 5. Actively aerate the soil -- as much as possible 6. Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible Practices 1-3 support more plant growth; practices 4-6 enhance the growth and health of roots and soil biota
    11. 11. These Changes in Practices Lead to: 1. Increased grain yield by 50-100% or more if farmers’ yields are presently low 2. Reduced irrigation water requirements by 25-50%; SRI adapted to rainfed cropping 3. Lower costs of production by 10-20%, so net income increases by more than yield 4. Higher milling outturn by ca.15%; less chaff and fewer broken grains → more food 5. Less need for agrochemical use because of natural resistance to pests and diseases 6. Resistance to abiotic stresses due to bigger, stronger root systems and soil biotic activity
    12. 12. APPLICATIONS TO OTHER CROPS • Wheat • Sugar cane • Finger millet • Teff • Kidney beans • Cotton • Vegetables?
    13. 13. Finger Millet Intensification (left); regular management of improved variety (center) and of traditional variety (right), India
    14. 14. Research on Applying/Adapting SRI Methods to Other CropsResearch on Applying/Adapting SRI Methods to Other Crops – People’s Science Institute, Dehradun– People’s Science Institute, Dehradun Crop No. of Farmer s Area (ha) Grain Yield (Q/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv . SRI 1 Rajma 5 0.4 14 20 43 2 Mandwa 5 0.4 18 24 33 3 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 16 22 38 2007 1 Rajma 113 2.26 18 30 67 2 Mandwa 43 0.8 15 24 60 3 Wheat (I) 25 0.23 22 43 95 4 Wheat (UI) 25 0.09 16 26 63 Rajma (kidney bean) Manduwa (finger millet) From powerpoint report to 3rd National SRI Symposium, TNAU, Coimbatore, Dec. 1-3, 2008
    15. 15. ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative: at least 20% more cane yield, with: • 30% reduction in water, and • 25% reduction in chemical inputs ‘The inspiration for putting this package together is from the successful approach of SRI – System of Rice Intensification.’
    16. 16. Requirements/Constraints 1. Water control to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities 2. Supply of biomass for making compost – can use fertilizer as alternative 3. Crop protection may be necessary, although usually more resistance to pests & diseases 4. Mechanical weeder is desirable as this can aerate the soil as well as control weeds 5. Skill & motivation of farmers most important; need to learn new practices; SRI can become labor-saving once techniques are mastered 6. Support of experts? have faced opposition
    17. 17. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
    18. 18. MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
    19. 19. SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Congo, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Ghana > 1 million ha and farmers 2009: SRI benefits have been validated in 36 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
    20. 20. CAMBODIA: Farmer in Takeo Province: yield of 6.72 tons/ha > 2-3 t/ha
    21. 21. AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
    22. 22. Afghanistan: SRI field at 30 days
    23. 23. SRI plant 72 days after transplanting – 133 tillers Yield calculated at 11.56 tons/ha
    24. 24. Indonesia: Rice plants same variety and same age in Lombok Province
    25. 25. Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei, 2002-06 • No. of trials: 12,133 • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%) • Reduction in water requirements: 40% • Reduction in fertilizer use: 50% • Reduction in costs of production: 20%
    26. 26. MALI: Farmer in the Timbuku region shows difference between regular rice and SRI rice plants, 2007 First year trials: SRI yield 8.98 t/ha Control yield 6.7 t/ha Expanded trials in 2008 with support of Better U Foundation
    27. 27.   SRI Control Farmer Practice Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86 Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18 % Change compared to Control + 66 100 - 11 % Change compared to Farmer Practice + 87 + 13 100 Number of Farmers 53 53 60 • * adjusted to 14% grain moisture content MALI: Rice grain yield for SRI plots, control plots and farmer-practice plots, Goundam circle, Timbuktu region, 2008
    28. 28. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
    29. 29. IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
    30. 30. What relevance of SRI to CLIMATE CHANGE? 1. RESISTANCE TO DROUGHT
    31. 31. Journal of Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology (2009), Vol. 2, No. 23 “Introduction of Land-Cover Integrated Technologies with Water Saving and High Yield” -- Lv Shihua et al. • Yield in normal year is 150-200 kg/mu (2.25-3.0 t/ha); yield in drought year is 200 kg/mu (3.0 t/ha) or even more • Net income in normal year is increased by new methods from profit of 100 ¥/mu to 600-800 ¥/mu (i.e., from profit of $220/ha to >$1,500/ha) • Net income in drought year with new methods goes from loss of 200-300 ¥/mu to 300-500 ¥/mu profit (from a loss of $550/ha to a profit of $880/ha)
    32. 32. SRI LANKA: Rice paddies,with same soil, same variety, same irrigation system and same drought, three weeks after water was stopped: conventional (left), SRI (right)
    33. 33. 2. RESISTANCE TO STORM DAMAGE (LODGING)
    34. 34. VIETNAM: Farmer in Dông Trù village – after typhoon
    35. 35. China: Bu Tou village, Zhejiang • 2004: Nie Fu-qiu had best yield in province: 12 t/ha • 2005: Even though his SRI rice fields were hit by 3 typhoons – he was able to harvest 11.15 tons/ha - while other farmers’ fields were badly affected by the storm damage • 2008: Nie used chemical
    36. 36. 3. TOLERANCE OF EXTREME TEMPERATURES
    37. 37. PeriodPeriod Mean max.Mean max. temp.temp. 00 CC Mean min.Mean min. temp.temp. 00 CC No. ofNo. of sunshine hrssunshine hrs 1 – 151 – 15 NovNov 27.727.7 19.219.2 4.94.9 16–3016–30 NovNov 29.629.6 17.917.9 7.57.5 1 – 15 Dec1 – 15 Dec 29.129.1 14.614.6 8.68.6 16–31 Dec16–31 Dec 28.128.1 12.212.2++ 8.68.6 Meteorological and yield data from ANGRAU IPM evaluation, Andhra Pradesh, India, 2006 SeasonSeason Normal (t/ha)Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha)SRI (t/ha) Kharif 2006Kharif 2006 0.21*0.21* 4.164.16 Rabi 2005-06Rabi 2005-06 2.252.25 3.473.47 * Low yield due to cold injury (see above) +Sudden drop in min. temp. between 16–21 Dec. (9.2-9.80 C for 5 days)
    38. 38. 4. PEST AND DISEASE RESISTANCE (Biotic stresses)
    39. 39. Reduction in Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program evaluation based on data from 8 provinces, 2005-06 Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7% * Insects/m2
    40. 40. Insects (their damage or population) SRI cultivation (mean ± SE) Conventional cultivation (mean ± SE) t value (difference) (SRI reduction) Cut worm (% damaged leaves per hill) 17.9 ± 1.9 (18.0) 23.2 ± 2.0 (19.1) 6.6** - 23% Thrips (per hill) 6.6 ± 0.1 (2.2) 20.2 ± 2.0 (4.1) 12.2** - 67% Green leaf hopper (per hill) 0.6 ± 0.1 (1.0) 1.1 ± 0.2 (1.2) 10.7** - 45% Brown plant hopper (per hill) 1.1 ± 0.2 (1.2) 2.7 ± 0.2 (1.8) 14.4** - 60% Whorl maggot (% truncated leaves per hill) 5.6 ± 1.8 (5.9) 8.8 ± 1.4 (9.1) 4.5** - 36% India: Pest incidence in main field (TNAU) Figures in parentheses are transformed values ** significant difference (P<0.001)
    41. 41. 5. OFTEN SHORTER CROP CYCLE (by 1-3 weeks) 1. Reduces water requirements 2. Reduces crops’ exposure to adverse climate risks and to pests and diseases 3. Increases opportunities for growing other crops
    42. 42. Reduced Time to Maturity when Using Younger Seedlings 51 Nepali SRI farmers planted the same 145-day variety (Bansdhan) in monsoon season, 2005 Age of N of Days to Reduction seedling farmers harvest (in days) >14 d 9 138.5 6.5 10-14 d 37 130.6 14.4 8-9 d 5 123.6 21.4 SRI doubled average yield: 3.1 → 6.3 t/ha
    43. 43. Crop duration from seed to seed for different rice varieties using SRI vs. conventional methods, Morang district, Nepal, 2008 season Varieties Conventional duration (days) SRI duration (days) Difference (days) Mansuli 155 136 (126-146) 19 (9-29) Swarna 155 139 (126-150) 16 (5-29) Radha 12 155 138 (125-144) 17 (11-30) Bansdhan/Kanchhi 145 127 (117-144) 18 (11-28) Barse 2014 135 127 (116-125) 8 (10-19) Barse 3017 135 118 17 Sugandha 120 106 (98-112) 14 (8-22) Hardinath 1 120 107 (98-112) 13 (8-22) Data from Morang district, Nepal, 2008 main season
    44. 44. 6. GREATER PLANT WATER-USE EFFICIENCY
    45. 45. AN ASSESSMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) COMPARED WITH RECOMMENDED RICE CULTIVATION PRACTICES IN INDIA A.K. THAKUR, N. UPHOFF, E. ANTONY Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar-751023, Orissa, India, Ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration reflects water-use efficiency Loss of 1 millimol of water (transpiration) SRI: 3.6 millimols of CO2 fixed RMP: 1.6 millimols of CO2 fixed
    46. 46. Parameters Cultivation method SRI RMP LSD.05 Total chlorophyll (mg g-1 FW) 3.37 (0.17) 2.58 (0.21) 0.11 Chlorophyll a/b ratio 2.32 (0.28) 1.90 (0.37) 0.29 Transpiration (m mol m-2 s-1 ) 6.41 (0.43) 7.59 (0.33) 0.27 Net photosynthetic rate (μ mol m-2 s-1 ) 23.15 (3.17) 12.23 (2.02) 1.64 Stomatal conductance (m mol m-2 s-1 ) 422.73 (34.35) 493.93 (35.93) 30.12 Internal CO2 concentration (ppm) 292.6 (16.64) 347.0 (19.74) 11.1 Comparison of chlorophyll content, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO2 concentration in SRI and RMP Standard deviations are given in parentheses (n = 15).
    47. 47. 7. POSSIBLE REDUCTION IN GREENHOUSE GASES
    48. 48. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Paddy Rice Fields in Indonesia Comparison of SRI and surrounding conventional fields - SRI Experiment Plots + Farmers Fields Tabo-Tabo Jampue Langunga Penarungan Sungsang Dr. KIMURA Sonoko Dorothea Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
    49. 49. Methods  Closed-chamber method Features: 30cm×30cm×60cm dimensions, equipped with thermometer, pressure bag, and gas sampling tube (foldable)  Measurements taken at 0, 10- and 20-minute intervals 10ml vacuum vial→   Each field: 2-3 replications   N2O & CH4 measured by GC-ECD→ & GC- FID   Parameters: soil temperature, stem number, days after planting, plant height, variety etc.   Dates: 2008 / 3 / 20-23
    50. 50. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Conv SRI Conv SRI1 SRI2 Conv SRI Conv SRI Conv SRI Conv SRI Conv SRI SRI Lombok Tabo-Tabo Jampue Langunga Pena rungan Sungsang Methane FluxCH4Flux (mgCm-2 h-1 ) Error bar stands for standard deviation
    51. 51. Nitrous Oxide Flux N2OFlux (μgNm-2 h-1 ) -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 Conv SRI Conv SRI1 SRI2 Conv SRI Conv SRI Conv SRI Conv SRI Conv SRI SRI Lombok Tabo-Tabo Jampue Langunga Pena rungan Sungsang Error bar stands for standard deviation
    52. 52. CH4 Flux Water status at the time of sampling had a greater influence on CH4 flux than did the difference between SRI and conventional methods. However, since SRI fields tend to be drained, CH4 flux tended to be higher in conventional fields. Highest CH4 emission was found during early growing stages with conventional methods. N2O Flux High variability. Unexpected negative flux in some fields. SRI fields tended to emit more N2O than conventional fields -- but the SRI values are in the range found for conventional paddy fields (see F.M. Honmachi, 2007 -- total emission 0-0.2 kg N ha-1 ). Conclusion
    53. 53. Highlights of S.R.I. Research in Indonesia Iswandi Anas, D. K. Kalsim, Budi I. Setiawan, Yanuar, and Sam Herodian, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) Presented at workshop on S.R.I at Ministry of Agriculture, Jakarta, June 13, 2008
    54. 54. Waktu Pengamatan METHANE EMISSION
    55. 55. N2O EMISSION
    56. 56. Yan, X., H. Akiyama, K. Yagi and H. Akomoto. Global estimations of the inventory and mitigation potential of methane emissions from rice cultivation conducted using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines. Global Biochemical Cycles, (2009) “We estimated that if all of the continuously flooded rice fields were drained at least once during the growing season, the CH4 emissions would be reduced by 4.1 Tg a-1 . Furthermore, we estimated that applying rice straw off-season wherever and whenever possible would result in a further reduction in emissions of 4.1 Tg a-1 globally. … if both of these mitigation options were adopted, the global CH4 emission from rice paddies could be reduced by 7.6 Tg a-1. Although draining continuously flooded rice fields may lead to an increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, the global warming potential resulting from this increase is negligible when compared to the reduction in global warming potential that would result from the CH4 reduction associated with draining the fields.”
    57. 57. CONCLUSIONS ON: CLIMATE-PROOFING AGRICULTURE
    58. 58. Strategy for Post-Modern Agriculture with Climate Change 1. Grow roots, and shoots/plants will follow 2. Promote the life in the soil – special focus on achieving below-ground biodiversity! 3. Improve soil structure and functioning 4. Focus on ‘green water’ > ‘blue water’ 5. Increase SOC as priority because this is a ‘two-fer,’ also reduces atmospheric CO2 6. Reduce chemical-dependence in agriculture
    59. 59. Estimated marginal value product of nitrogen fertilizer (Kshs/kg N) conditional on plot soil carbon content (Marenya and Barrett, AJAE, 2009) Plot content (%) of soil organic carbon (SOC) In Western Kenya, applying N fertilizer to soil with < 3-4% SOC does not repay farmers’ expenditure
    60. 60. THANK YOU • Web page: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ • Email: ciifad@cornell.edu or ntu1@cornell.edu

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