The Epidemiology of SRI: High Hopes and Falling Trees Roundtable on System of Rice Intensification IDS, University of Suss...
This subject can be framed by a pop song  and a  philosophical query <ul><li>‘ High hopes’  have animated SRI efforts </li...
Started with an understanding that  SRI is not a technology     something different, many things <ul><li>Epistemological ...
Inductive semantic realizations <ul><li>‘ SRI’ is  better understood  as  an  adjective  than as a  noun </li></ul><ul><ul...
Rice scientists ask:  What is SRI? This is  not a problem  for farmers & practitioners working with them <ul><li>Reports a...
‘ Rice Aplenty in Aceh (Indonesia)’ CARITAS NEWS Spring 2009 SRI methods were introduced in Aceh in 2005 by CARITAS Austra...
2009 Report from  Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province, Afghanistan 2008: 6 farmers got  SRI yields of  10.1 t/ha  vs. 5...
AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
AKF technician making field visit in Baghlan Province
SRI field at 30 days
SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
From  Report on SRI in Deorali Geog, Bhutan , 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Georg, Dagana SRI @ 25x25cm ...
Mechanized Systems of Crop Intensification (MSCI) 1 KM Defence Road, Bhobatian Chowk,  Raiwind Road, Lahore, Pakistan  Tel...
Mechanical weeder for raised beds --for spacing 9x9 inch  (22.5x22.5 cm) – gives very good soil aeration
 
SRI is best understood as being  a ‘ civil society ’ innovation <ul><li>But with a  broad understanding  of  civil society...
IRRI has characterized SRI  as  a movement  – WU study <ul><li>But this is only  one aspect  of SRI </li></ul><ul><li>SRI ...
Status of SRI:   As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
Before 1999:   Madagascar 1999-2000:   China, Indonesia 2000-01:  Bangladesh, Cuba Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Myanmar,...
SRI as been likened to an  infection  – a benign virus? <ul><li>Its  spread  is trackable between and within countries </l...
Approximate  Regional Distribution  of SRI Network, by Roles (N) Africa LAC ME&NA So Asia SE Asia E Asia Europe U.S. Trans...
Approximate  Sectoral Distribution  of SRI Network, by Roles (N) Govt. Bodies NGO Res. Insts. Univer-sities Priv. Sector G...
Cornell Connections  of SRI Network Participants, by Roles (N) Men Women Cornell Faculty/ Stud/Staff Cornell Programs Corn...
How to Understand  Dynamics ? <ul><li>SRI is  unprecedented : both (a) as an  agricultural innovation   (less    more)  a...
Some Historical and Fictional Precedents? … Musings <ul><li>My role in all this can be  over estimated as easily as it may...
Precedent from Previous Work in Development: Gal Oya <ul><li>Transformation of most run-down irrigation system in Sri Lank...
SRI-Inspired Phenomena <ul><li>Rainfed  SRI – 7 t/ha average </li></ul><ul><li>Other crops  – wheat, sugar cane, finger mi...
 
<ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF   Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with:  </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water...
Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India  Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet) Crop No. of...
Comparison of SRI and usual rice plants – Miyatty Jannah,  Crawuk village,   Ngawi, E. Java
THANK YOU <ul><li>Check out SRI website:   http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email:   [email_address]   </l...
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0949 The Epidemiology of SRI: High Hopes and Falling Trees

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: Roundtable on System of Rice Intensification IDS, University of Sussex

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  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language, but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.
  • 0949 The Epidemiology of SRI: High Hopes and Falling Trees

    1. 1. The Epidemiology of SRI: High Hopes and Falling Trees Roundtable on System of Rice Intensification IDS, University of Sussex December 17, 2009 Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
    2. 2. This subject can be framed by a pop song and a philosophical query <ul><li>‘ High hopes’ have animated SRI efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like little old ants and silly old rams ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambitious objectives plus persistence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If a tree falls and nobody hears it?... We have tried to get ‘trees’ to fall all over the world -- whether or not the scientific community was listening </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up approach - ‘boots on ground’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Put not your faith in princes’ (Psalm 146:3) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Started with an understanding that SRI is not a technology  something different, many things <ul><li>Epistemological orientation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inductive , and not reductionist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ontological assumptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialectical ( Heraclitean), both materialist & non-materialist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is not an ‘ either/or ’ world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pluralist post-modern outlook </li></ul>
    4. 4. Inductive semantic realizations <ul><li>‘ SRI’ is better understood as an adjective than as a noun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ SRI’ is more a matter of degree than of kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These understandings have not been widely shared, however </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many things have been SRI-inspired rather than being ‘SRI’ </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Rice scientists ask: What is SRI? This is not a problem for farmers & practitioners working with them <ul><li>Reports are generated from the field - week after week, season after season </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is an example of where practice has preceded the science that explains it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous example of the airplane (Ruttan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This challenges the ‘ linear model ’ that has been dominant throughout the 20 th century: researcher  extension  farmer/adopter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI favors the ‘ triangular model ’ (ISNAR) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. ‘ Rice Aplenty in Aceh (Indonesia)’ CARITAS NEWS Spring 2009 SRI methods were introduced in Aceh in 2005 by CARITAS Australia after tsunami had devastated the area – new methods raised local rice yields from 2 t/ha to 8.5 t/ha: “Using less rice seed, less water and organic compost, farmers in Aceh have quadrupled their crop production.”
    7. 7. 2009 Report from Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province, Afghanistan 2008: 6 farmers got SRI yields of 10.1 t/ha vs. 5.4 t/ha regular 2009: 42 farmers got SRI yields of 9.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha regular 2 nd year SRI farmers got 13.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha 1 st year SRI farmers got 8.7 t/ha vs. 5.5 t/ha
    8. 8. AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
    9. 9. AKF technician making field visit in Baghlan Province
    10. 10. SRI field at 30 days
    11. 11. SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
    12. 12. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
    13. 13. From Report on SRI in Deorali Geog, Bhutan , 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Georg, Dagana SRI @ 25x25cm 9.5 t/ha SRI random spacing 6.0 t/ha SRI @ 30x30cm 10.0 t/ha Standard practice 3.6 t/ha
    14. 14. Mechanized Systems of Crop Intensification (MSCI) 1 KM Defence Road, Bhobatian Chowk, Raiwind Road, Lahore, Pakistan Tel: +92 (042) 532 2205 Fax: +92 (042) 532 1509 [email_address] www.farmalltechnology.com Solutions Provider in Farm Sector Pakistan: Private-sector applications of SRI principles; mechanized rice production (8 ha) was 13 t/ha ; applications are being made to wheat, sugar cane, potatoes, onions, etc.
    15. 15. Mechanical weeder for raised beds --for spacing 9x9 inch (22.5x22.5 cm) – gives very good soil aeration
    16. 17. SRI is best understood as being a ‘ civil society ’ innovation <ul><li>But with a broad understanding of civil society – including state agencies, research institutions, private sector </li></ul><ul><li>Originated from the life’s work of Henri de Laulanié , SJ, in Madagascar, working with small/poor farmers, observing, experimenting, plus some serendipity </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer knowledge is not always right! </li></ul><ul><li>SRI has proceeded in a non-hierarchical , voluntary, opportunistic, non-formal manner </li></ul>
    17. 18. IRRI has characterized SRI as a movement – WU study <ul><li>But this is only one aspect of SRI </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is manifested in three domains : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biophysical innovation – new ways to manage plants, soil, water and nutrients in order to produce  better phenotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social network – focus of concern here, will consider alternative ways to perceive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradigm shift – operating in the realm of ideas – change our understanding of world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These interdependent realms interact </li></ul>
    18. 19. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
    19. 20. Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Rwanda, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana 2009: Timor Leste, Malaysia 2009: SRI benefits have now been validated in 37 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
    20. 21. SRI as been likened to an infection – a benign virus? <ul><li>Its spread is trackable between and within countries </li></ul><ul><li>SRI contagion can be rapid or slow and it can induce a kind of ‘fever’ </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor is immediately recognized and embraced by most in the ‘movement’ </li></ul><ul><li>* * * * </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative analysis of listing of 240 persons with significant roles in the spread of SRI around the world </li></ul>
    21. 22. Approximate Regional Distribution of SRI Network, by Roles (N) Africa LAC ME&NA So Asia SE Asia E Asia Europe U.S. Transnat’l. Movers 17 1 1 3 3 8 Support Staff 8 1 2 5 Country Leaders 43 6 4 4 15 10 3 1 0 Initiators 44 10 3 0 16 14 2 1 0 Enablers 45 3 0 1 12 6 5 9 9 Evaluators 31 7 2 0 7 3 4 2 6 Sages 16 2 1 0 2 2 2 2 5 Well-wishers 25 3 1 0 2 4 2 8 5 Angels 12 0 1 0 2 5 0 1 3 Totals 242 31 13 5 59 47 18 27 41
    22. 23. Approximate Sectoral Distribution of SRI Network, by Roles (N) Govt. Bodies NGO Res. Insts. Univer-sities Priv. Sector Grass-roots Intl. Orgs. Other Transnat’l. Movers 17 0 4 2 6 1 0 3 1 Support Staff 8 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 2 Country Leaders 44 7 12 7 11 2 2 1 2 Initiators 44 7 12 2 7 3 5 3 6 Enablers 45 8 12 2 4 4 1 11 3 Evaluators 33 2 0 6 21 0 0 4 0 Sages/ Adv. 16 1 4 4 5 0 0 1 1 Well-wishrs 25 3 3 3 5 2 0 6 3 Angels/ Fin. 12 1 2 0 0 4 1 0 4 245 29 51 26 63 16 9 29 22
    23. 24. Cornell Connections of SRI Network Participants, by Roles (N) Men Women Cornell Faculty/ Stud/Staff Cornell Programs Cornell Contacts SRI Info  Cornell Transnational Movers 17 12 5 3 1 5 7 Support Staff 8 2 6 4 0 0 4 Country Leaders 44 38 6 4 3 11 26 Initiators 44 35 9 5 3 6 31 Enablers 46 38 8 7 5 10 24 Evaluators 33 26 7 10 3 9 11 Sages/ Advisors 16 13 3 3 4 6 3 Well-wishers 25 20 5 3 5 8 9 Angels 10 9 1 0 1 0 9 243 192 50 39 25 55 124
    24. 25. How to Understand Dynamics ? <ul><li>SRI is unprecedented : both (a) as an agricultural innovation (less  more) and (b) as a social movement ( email/ internet have changed many dynamics ) </li></ul><ul><li>Still, there are some interesting ‘precedents’ in history and fiction </li></ul><ul><li>Following thoughts are musings more than explanations -- </li></ul><ul><li>Need to consider two kinds of causation </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism vs. process causation? </li></ul>
    25. 26. Some Historical and Fictional Precedents? … Musings <ul><li>My role in all this can be over estimated as easily as it may be under estimated… Perspective is unavoidably egocentric… </li></ul><ul><li>Apostolic Movement? </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to Orthodoxy? </li></ul><ul><li>Long and Difficult Quest? </li></ul><ul><li>Main conclusion so far is that we should: Avoid orthodoxy! </li></ul>
    26. 27. Precedent from Previous Work in Development: Gal Oya <ul><li>Transformation of most run-down irrigation system in Sri Lanka – through Institutional Organizers and Farmer Organization network – how achieved? </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship </li></ul><ul><li>These 3 factors drive ‘SRI movement’ </li></ul>
    27. 28. SRI-Inspired Phenomena <ul><li>Rainfed SRI – 7 t/ha average </li></ul><ul><li>Other crops – wheat, sugar cane, finger millet, teff, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversified smallholder farming systems (Cambodia) </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation of plant-microbial interactions and of epigenetics </li></ul>
    28. 30. <ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with: </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water, and </li></ul><ul><li>25% reduction in chemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The inspiration for putting </li></ul><ul><li>this package together is </li></ul><ul><li>from the successful </li></ul><ul><li>approach of SRI – System </li></ul><ul><li>of Rice Intensification.’ </li></ul>
    29. 31. Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet) Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 2007 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60 Wheat (Irrig.) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63
    30. 32. Comparison of SRI and usual rice plants – Miyatty Jannah, Crawuk village, Ngawi, E. Java
    31. 33. THANK YOU <ul><li>Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>or [email_address] </li></ul>

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