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0940 Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia's Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World
 

0940 Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia's Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World

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Presenter: Tareke Berhe

Presenter: Tareke Berhe

CIIFAD Forum Seminar

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    0940 Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia's Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World 0940 Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia's Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World Presentation Transcript

    • RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN TEFF, ETHIOPIA’S MOST IMPORTANT CEREAL AND GIFT TO THE WORLD
      TarekeBerhe ( Ph. D )
      t.berhe@vip.cgnet.com
      CIIFAD Forum Seminar, July 23, 2009
    • OUTLINE
      I. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TEFF
      II. DIETARY IMPORTANCE OF TEFF
      III. PRODUCTION DIFFICULTIES OF TEFF
      IV. UNEXPLOITED POTENTIALS & RECENT
      DEVELOPMENTS
      V. WHAT NEXT?
    • I. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TEFF
    • TEFF: THE MOST IMPORTANT STAPLE FOOD CROP OF ETHIOPIA
      IN ETHIOPIA ALONE:
      • Over 2.5 metric tons of grain produced/year
      • Staple food for over 50 million people
    • TEFF IS THE MAJOR CEREALOF ETHIOPIA COVERING OVER 2.5 MILLION HECTARES/YEAR
    • TEFF OCCUPIES A LARGE PLACE IN THE GRAIN MARKET
      Current price of teff grain in Ethiopia = $700-1000/ton
      Current price of teff flour in the USA = $2,990/ton
    • II. NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF TEFF
    • MERITS OF TEFF
      • WIDE ADAPTATION: Grows in range of altitudes, temperatures, soils, water regimes = significant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses
      • MINIMAL STORAGE PROBLEMS
      • FOOD SECURITY CROP FOR ETHIOPIAN FARMERS
      • VERY NUTRITIOUS: high in Fe, Ca, and lysine with good balance of amino acids
      • NO GLUTEN, LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX: Being developed as a health food in Europe and USA
    • TEFF ENJARA: ETHIOPIANS’ DAILY BREAD
    • TEFF STRAW IS A COMMERCIAL PRODUCT: Livestock Feed and for Construction
    • III. PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS OF TEFF
    • PROBLEM # 1 IN TEFF
      • LOW YIELD
      ETHIOPIA: National ave. = < 1ton/hectare
      Maximum yield = 2.5 tons/ha
      2. Holland and USA (Idaho): 1.3 – 2.5 tons/ha
    • MAIN CAUSES
      • LODGING DUE TO HIGH
      PLANTING DENSITY
      • 25-50 LBS/ACRE IN ETHIOPIA VS. 2.5 -3.0 LBS/ACRE IN EUROPE AND USA
      • LONG PEDUNCLE
      • TEFF RUST (Uromyces sp.)
    • PROBLEM # 2CULTURAL PRACTICES: All Manual– Labor Intensive
      LAND PREPARATION
      WEED CONTROL
      HARVESTING
      THRESHING
    • PROBLEM # 3: Politics
      RESTRICTIONS ON MATERIAL TRANSFER
      OPPOSITION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY
      LOW INVESTMENT BY GOVERNMENT
    • INNOVATIVE APPROACHES/TOOLS/TECHNIQUES UNDER TEST
      REDUCTION OF PLANT DENSITY
      USE OF TRANSPLANTING TECHNIQUES
      USE OF IRRIGATION FOR OFF-SEASON CROP
      USE OF MORE COMPLETE FERTILIZERS WITH MICRONUTRIENTS
      USE OF CONVENTIONAL & NON–CONVENTIONAL (GYNOGENESIS) BREEDING TO SPEED UP VARIETY DEVELOPMENT
    • IV. UNEXPLOITED POTENTIALS
      • AGRONOMY– System of Teff Intensification ( STI )
      • BREEDING – Conventional and Non-Conventional
      • MECHANIZATION: Planting, Harvesting, Threshing
      • UTILIZATION: Cereal Mixtures (e.g., rice or grain amaranth) to Reduce Pressure on Teff
    • TAREKE BERHE, 1979, SCOTTS BLUFF, NE
      HAILU TEFERRA
      2000, DZ, ETHIOPIA
    • SPACE IN PLANTING AND IN ROWS, DEBRE ZEIT, 2008
    • HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING
    • FIRST TRIALS, 2008 –Duplication of Earlier Findings
      YIFRU ( 1998 )
      M. Sc. THESIS
      Reported yield of 4-5 tons/ha for
      non-lodged teff
      vs.
      2-3 t/ha for lodged teff
    • SECOND TRIALS, 2009COMPOUND FERTILIZER + SPACINGVariety: DZ-01-974 (3 replications I-III)
      * YIELD LEVELS NEVER REPORTED BEFORE
    • PELLETING DAP PROVED EASIER THAN PELLETING TEFF SEEDS
    • TEFF FERTILIZER POT EXPERIMENTS
    • IRRIGATED TEFF: OFF-SEASON
    • NEW TOOL: GYNOGENESIS
    • GOOD GYNO GENOTYPES NOTED IN THE FIELD
    • GYNO TEFF EXPERIMENTS - DEBRE ZEIT, 2009
    • MECHANIZATION
    • UTILIZATION & COMPANION CROPS
      GRAIN AMARANTHE
      NERICA RICE
    • COMPANION CROPS CAN BE MIXED WITH TEFF TO MAKE ENJARA
    • V. WHAT NEXT?
      POSSIBLE DONORS
      • McKnight Foundation
      • Rockefeller Foundation
      • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
      • AGRA
      • Sasakawa African Assoc.
      • PUT ALL PROMISING TECHNOLOGIES TO WORK
      • FULL TIME IN ETHIOPIA
      • FULL TIME IN USA
      • ETHIOPIA:USA – 50:50
    • BON APPETIT TO EVERYONE
      THE END