0940 Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia's Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World
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0940 Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia's Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World

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Presenter: Tareke Berhe

Presenter: Tareke Berhe

CIIFAD Forum Seminar

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0940 Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia's Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World Presentation Transcript

  • 1. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN TEFF, ETHIOPIA’S MOST IMPORTANT CEREAL AND GIFT TO THE WORLD
    TarekeBerhe ( Ph. D )
    t.berhe@vip.cgnet.com
    CIIFAD Forum Seminar, July 23, 2009
  • 2. OUTLINE
    I. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TEFF
    II. DIETARY IMPORTANCE OF TEFF
    III. PRODUCTION DIFFICULTIES OF TEFF
    IV. UNEXPLOITED POTENTIALS & RECENT
    DEVELOPMENTS
    V. WHAT NEXT?
  • 3. I. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TEFF
  • 4. TEFF: THE MOST IMPORTANT STAPLE FOOD CROP OF ETHIOPIA
    IN ETHIOPIA ALONE:
    • Over 2.5 metric tons of grain produced/year
    • 5. Staple food for over 50 million people
  • TEFF IS THE MAJOR CEREALOF ETHIOPIA COVERING OVER 2.5 MILLION HECTARES/YEAR
  • 6. TEFF OCCUPIES A LARGE PLACE IN THE GRAIN MARKET
    Current price of teff grain in Ethiopia = $700-1000/ton
    Current price of teff flour in the USA = $2,990/ton
  • 7. II. NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF TEFF
  • 8. MERITS OF TEFF
    • WIDE ADAPTATION: Grows in range of altitudes, temperatures, soils, water regimes = significant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses
    • 9. MINIMAL STORAGE PROBLEMS
    • 10. FOOD SECURITY CROP FOR ETHIOPIAN FARMERS
    • 11. VERY NUTRITIOUS: high in Fe, Ca, and lysine with good balance of amino acids
    • 12. NO GLUTEN, LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX: Being developed as a health food in Europe and USA
  • TEFF ENJARA: ETHIOPIANS’ DAILY BREAD
  • 13. TEFF STRAW IS A COMMERCIAL PRODUCT: Livestock Feed and for Construction
  • 14. III. PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS OF TEFF
  • 15. PROBLEM # 1 IN TEFF
    • LOW YIELD
    ETHIOPIA: National ave. = < 1ton/hectare
    Maximum yield = 2.5 tons/ha
    2. Holland and USA (Idaho): 1.3 – 2.5 tons/ha
  • 16. MAIN CAUSES
    • LODGING DUE TO HIGH
    PLANTING DENSITY
    • 25-50 LBS/ACRE IN ETHIOPIA VS. 2.5 -3.0 LBS/ACRE IN EUROPE AND USA
    • 17. LONG PEDUNCLE
    • 18. TEFF RUST (Uromyces sp.)
  • PROBLEM # 2CULTURAL PRACTICES: All Manual– Labor Intensive
    LAND PREPARATION
    WEED CONTROL
    HARVESTING
    THRESHING
  • 19. PROBLEM # 3: Politics
    RESTRICTIONS ON MATERIAL TRANSFER
    OPPOSITION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY
    LOW INVESTMENT BY GOVERNMENT
  • 20. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES/TOOLS/TECHNIQUES UNDER TEST
    REDUCTION OF PLANT DENSITY
    USE OF TRANSPLANTING TECHNIQUES
    USE OF IRRIGATION FOR OFF-SEASON CROP
    USE OF MORE COMPLETE FERTILIZERS WITH MICRONUTRIENTS
    USE OF CONVENTIONAL & NON–CONVENTIONAL (GYNOGENESIS) BREEDING TO SPEED UP VARIETY DEVELOPMENT
  • 21. IV. UNEXPLOITED POTENTIALS
    • AGRONOMY– System of Teff Intensification ( STI )
    • 22. BREEDING – Conventional and Non-Conventional
    • 23. MECHANIZATION: Planting, Harvesting, Threshing
    • 24. UTILIZATION: Cereal Mixtures (e.g., rice or grain amaranth) to Reduce Pressure on Teff
  • TAREKE BERHE, 1979, SCOTTS BLUFF, NE
    HAILU TEFERRA
    2000, DZ, ETHIOPIA
  • 25. SPACE IN PLANTING AND IN ROWS, DEBRE ZEIT, 2008
  • 26. HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING
  • 27. FIRST TRIALS, 2008 –Duplication of Earlier Findings
    YIFRU ( 1998 )
    M. Sc. THESIS
    Reported yield of 4-5 tons/ha for
    non-lodged teff
    vs.
    2-3 t/ha for lodged teff
  • 28. SECOND TRIALS, 2009COMPOUND FERTILIZER + SPACINGVariety: DZ-01-974 (3 replications I-III)
    * YIELD LEVELS NEVER REPORTED BEFORE
  • 29. PELLETING DAP PROVED EASIER THAN PELLETING TEFF SEEDS
  • 30. TEFF FERTILIZER POT EXPERIMENTS
  • 31. IRRIGATED TEFF: OFF-SEASON
  • 32.
  • 33. NEW TOOL: GYNOGENESIS
  • 34. GOOD GYNO GENOTYPES NOTED IN THE FIELD
  • 35. GYNO TEFF EXPERIMENTS - DEBRE ZEIT, 2009
  • 36. MECHANIZATION
  • 37. UTILIZATION & COMPANION CROPS
    GRAIN AMARANTHE
    NERICA RICE
  • 38. COMPANION CROPS CAN BE MIXED WITH TEFF TO MAKE ENJARA
  • 39. V. WHAT NEXT?
    POSSIBLE DONORS
    • McKnight Foundation
    • 40. Rockefeller Foundation
    • 41. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
    • 42. AGRA
    • 43. Sasakawa African Assoc.
    • 44. PUT ALL PROMISING TECHNOLOGIES TO WORK
    • 45. FULL TIME IN ETHIOPIA
    • 46. FULL TIME IN USA
    • 47. ETHIOPIA:USA – 50:50
  • BON APPETIT TO EVERYONE
    THE END