RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN TEFF, ETHIOPIA’S MOST IMPORTANT CEREAL AND GIFT TO THE WORLD <br />TarekeBerhe ( Ph. D )<br />t.ber...
OUTLINE<br />I. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TEFF<br />II. DIETARY IMPORTANCE OF TEFF<br />III. PRODUCTION DIFFICULTIES OF TEFF<...
I. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TEFF<br />
TEFF: THE MOST IMPORTANT STAPLE FOOD CROP OF ETHIOPIA<br />IN ETHIOPIA ALONE:<br /><ul><li>Over 2.5 metric tons of grain p...
Staple food for over 50 million people</li></li></ul><li>TEFF IS THE MAJOR CEREALOF ETHIOPIA COVERING OVER 2.5 MILLION HEC...
TEFF  OCCUPIES  A  LARGE  PLACE  IN  THE  GRAIN  MARKET<br />Current price of teff  grain in Ethiopia = $700-1000/ton<br /...
II. NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF TEFF<br />
MERITS OF TEFF<br /><ul><li>WIDE ADAPTATION: Grows in range of altitudes, temperatures, soils, water regimes = significant...
MINIMAL STORAGE PROBLEMS
FOOD SECURITY CROP FOR ETHIOPIAN FARMERS
VERY NUTRITIOUS: high in Fe, Ca, and lysine with good balance of amino acids
NO GLUTEN, LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX: Being developed as a health food in Europe and USA</li></li></ul><li>TEFF ENJARA: ETHIOPIAN...
TEFF STRAW IS A COMMERCIAL PRODUCT: Livestock Feed and for Construction<br />
III. PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS OF TEFF<br />
PROBLEM # 1 IN TEFF<br /><ul><li>LOW YIELD</li></ul>ETHIOPIA: National ave. = &lt; 1ton/hectare<br />     Maximum yield = ...
MAIN CAUSES<br /><ul><li>LODGING  DUE  TO  HIGH </li></ul>   PLANTING  DENSITY <br /><ul><li> 25-50 LBS/ACRE  IN ETHIOPIA ...
LONG PEDUNCLE
TEFF RUST        (Uromyces sp.)</li></li></ul><li>PROBLEM # 2CULTURAL PRACTICES: All Manual– Labor Intensive<br />LAND PRE...
PROBLEM # 3: Politics<br /> RESTRICTIONS ON MATERIAL TRANSFER<br /> OPPOSITION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY<br /> LOW INVESTMENT BY GO...
INNOVATIVE APPROACHES/TOOLS/TECHNIQUES UNDER TEST<br />REDUCTION OF PLANT DENSITY<br />USE OF TRANSPLANTING TECHNIQUES<br ...
IV. UNEXPLOITED POTENTIALS<br /><ul><li>AGRONOMY– System of Teff Intensification ( STI )
BREEDING – Conventional and Non-Conventional
MECHANIZATION: Planting, Harvesting, Threshing
UTILIZATION: Cereal Mixtures (e.g., rice or grain amaranth) to Reduce Pressure on Teff</li></li></ul><li>TAREKE BERHE, 197...
SPACE IN PLANTING AND IN ROWS, DEBRE ZEIT, 2008 <br />
HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING<br />
FIRST TRIALS, 2008 –Duplication of Earlier Findings <br />YIFRU ( 1998 ) <br />M. Sc. THESIS<br />Reported yield of 4-5 to...
SECOND TRIALS, 2009COMPOUND FERTILIZER + SPACINGVariety: DZ-01-974 (3 replications I-III)<br />* YIELD LEVELS NEVER REPORT...
PELLETING DAP PROVED EASIER THAN PELLETING TEFF SEEDS<br />
TEFF FERTILIZER POT EXPERIMENTS<br />
IRRIGATED TEFF: OFF-SEASON<br />
NEW TOOL: GYNOGENESIS<br />
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0940 Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia's Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World

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CIIFAD Forum Seminar

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0940 Recent Developments in Teff, Ethiopia's Most Important Cereal and Gift to the World

  1. 1. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN TEFF, ETHIOPIA’S MOST IMPORTANT CEREAL AND GIFT TO THE WORLD <br />TarekeBerhe ( Ph. D )<br />t.berhe@vip.cgnet.com<br />CIIFAD Forum Seminar, July 23, 2009<br />
  2. 2. OUTLINE<br />I. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TEFF<br />II. DIETARY IMPORTANCE OF TEFF<br />III. PRODUCTION DIFFICULTIES OF TEFF<br />IV. UNEXPLOITED POTENTIALS & RECENT <br /> DEVELOPMENTS<br />V. WHAT NEXT? <br />
  3. 3. I. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TEFF<br />
  4. 4. TEFF: THE MOST IMPORTANT STAPLE FOOD CROP OF ETHIOPIA<br />IN ETHIOPIA ALONE:<br /><ul><li>Over 2.5 metric tons of grain produced/year
  5. 5. Staple food for over 50 million people</li></li></ul><li>TEFF IS THE MAJOR CEREALOF ETHIOPIA COVERING OVER 2.5 MILLION HECTARES/YEAR<br />
  6. 6. TEFF OCCUPIES A LARGE PLACE IN THE GRAIN MARKET<br />Current price of teff grain in Ethiopia = $700-1000/ton<br />Current price of teff flour in the USA = $2,990/ton<br />
  7. 7. II. NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF TEFF<br />
  8. 8. MERITS OF TEFF<br /><ul><li>WIDE ADAPTATION: Grows in range of altitudes, temperatures, soils, water regimes = significant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses
  9. 9. MINIMAL STORAGE PROBLEMS
  10. 10. FOOD SECURITY CROP FOR ETHIOPIAN FARMERS
  11. 11. VERY NUTRITIOUS: high in Fe, Ca, and lysine with good balance of amino acids
  12. 12. NO GLUTEN, LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX: Being developed as a health food in Europe and USA</li></li></ul><li>TEFF ENJARA: ETHIOPIANS’ DAILY BREAD<br />
  13. 13. TEFF STRAW IS A COMMERCIAL PRODUCT: Livestock Feed and for Construction<br />
  14. 14. III. PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS OF TEFF<br />
  15. 15. PROBLEM # 1 IN TEFF<br /><ul><li>LOW YIELD</li></ul>ETHIOPIA: National ave. = &lt; 1ton/hectare<br /> Maximum yield = 2.5 tons/ha <br />2. Holland and USA (Idaho): 1.3 – 2.5 tons/ha <br />
  16. 16. MAIN CAUSES<br /><ul><li>LODGING DUE TO HIGH </li></ul> PLANTING DENSITY <br /><ul><li> 25-50 LBS/ACRE IN ETHIOPIA VS. 2.5 -3.0 LBS/ACRE IN EUROPE AND USA
  17. 17. LONG PEDUNCLE
  18. 18. TEFF RUST (Uromyces sp.)</li></li></ul><li>PROBLEM # 2CULTURAL PRACTICES: All Manual– Labor Intensive<br />LAND PREPARATION<br />WEED CONTROL<br />HARVESTING<br />THRESHING<br />
  19. 19. PROBLEM # 3: Politics<br /> RESTRICTIONS ON MATERIAL TRANSFER<br /> OPPOSITION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY<br /> LOW INVESTMENT BY GOVERNMENT<br />
  20. 20. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES/TOOLS/TECHNIQUES UNDER TEST<br />REDUCTION OF PLANT DENSITY<br />USE OF TRANSPLANTING TECHNIQUES<br />USE OF IRRIGATION FOR OFF-SEASON CROP<br />USE OF MORE COMPLETE FERTILIZERS WITH MICRONUTRIENTS<br />USE OF CONVENTIONAL & NON–CONVENTIONAL (GYNOGENESIS) BREEDING TO SPEED UP VARIETY DEVELOPMENT<br />
  21. 21. IV. UNEXPLOITED POTENTIALS<br /><ul><li>AGRONOMY– System of Teff Intensification ( STI )
  22. 22. BREEDING – Conventional and Non-Conventional
  23. 23. MECHANIZATION: Planting, Harvesting, Threshing
  24. 24. UTILIZATION: Cereal Mixtures (e.g., rice or grain amaranth) to Reduce Pressure on Teff</li></li></ul><li>TAREKE BERHE, 1979, SCOTTS BLUFF, NE<br />HAILU TEFERRA<br />2000, DZ, ETHIOPIA<br />
  25. 25. SPACE IN PLANTING AND IN ROWS, DEBRE ZEIT, 2008 <br />
  26. 26. HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING<br />
  27. 27. FIRST TRIALS, 2008 –Duplication of Earlier Findings <br />YIFRU ( 1998 ) <br />M. Sc. THESIS<br />Reported yield of 4-5 tons/ha for<br />non-lodged teff<br />vs.<br />2-3 t/ha for lodged teff<br />
  28. 28. SECOND TRIALS, 2009COMPOUND FERTILIZER + SPACINGVariety: DZ-01-974 (3 replications I-III)<br />* YIELD LEVELS NEVER REPORTED BEFORE<br />
  29. 29. PELLETING DAP PROVED EASIER THAN PELLETING TEFF SEEDS<br />
  30. 30. TEFF FERTILIZER POT EXPERIMENTS<br />
  31. 31. IRRIGATED TEFF: OFF-SEASON<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. NEW TOOL: GYNOGENESIS<br />
  34. 34. GOOD GYNO GENOTYPES NOTED IN THE FIELD<br />
  35. 35. GYNO TEFF EXPERIMENTS - DEBRE ZEIT, 2009<br />
  36. 36. MECHANIZATION<br />
  37. 37. UTILIZATION & COMPANION CROPS<br />GRAIN AMARANTHE<br />NERICA RICE<br />
  38. 38. COMPANION CROPS CAN BE MIXED WITH TEFF TO MAKE ENJARA<br />
  39. 39. V. WHAT NEXT?<br />POSSIBLE DONORS<br /><ul><li> McKnight Foundation
  40. 40. Rockefeller Foundation
  41. 41. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  42. 42. AGRA
  43. 43. Sasakawa African Assoc.
  44. 44. PUT ALL PROMISING TECHNOLOGIES TO WORK
  45. 45. FULL TIME IN ETHIOPIA
  46. 46. FULL TIME IN USA
  47. 47. ETHIOPIA:USA – 50:50</li></li></ul><li>BON APPETIT TO EVERYONE<br />THE END<br />

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