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SRI Promotion in India: Overview of System Architecture
Why SRI. . . Stand Point organisations Programs Community level food security PRADAN, PSI, SDTT SDTT- program Drought adaptation WASSAN AP DAI Poverty alleviation/ Livelihoods SERP, RD CMSA, BRLP Water sector reforms: Irrigation Dept.,WWF TN-IAMWARM, APCBTMP, Dialogue project State food security Tripura Govt Tripura National food security NFSM NFSM Electricity reforms Seed Production Integral part of watershed development Govt. of MP, NABARD MPRLP, WDF Promotion of SRI Organic farming Yield increases Avoidance of agro-chemical use AME
SRI : Program Landscape Mainstream agencies and Programs have taken up SRI . . . Program Supported by Agency NFSM Govt of India Agrl Dept, ATMA Watershed development NABARD, Govt of India & state govts Govt and NGO PIAs MP- Rural Livelihoods Program DFID MPRLP / Govt. & NGOs Bihar Rural Livelihoods program World Bank ?? TN-IAMWARM World Bank Water Users' Assn & TNAU AP CBTMP World Bank NGOs and Irrigation Dept AP RPRP World Bank MMS AP DAI World Bank MMS IFAD SRI promotion through DATT Centres WWF & Govt. ANGR Agriculture University WWF-Dialogue project WWF NGOs SDTT NGOs
SRI at the national level…? Of the total rice area of 43 million ha with about 120 million farmers. . . SRI has reached a scale of about 2.5 lakh ha (about 0.6% of the rice area) across the country Showing… About 15% yield increase on an average (0.5 tons per ha) & about 0.5 to 1.0 ton per ha yield increases in subsistence systems. 30% of saving in water Substantial reduction in inputs (seeds, chemical inputs and importantly, water)
What SRI results (a 30% saving in water) can mean in this context…
Substantial SRI experience has been generated across the country through civil society initiatives. Resource persons are available. Institutions have taken up SRI as a mandate.. . .
SRI Total Rice More than 60% target of NFSM can be achieved thru SRI alone If we could cover 20 mil farmers under SRI: (Target : Household food security) Farmers coverage 20 million Holding 0.5 ac 0.202 ha Total area 4.049 mill ha Yield Increase 0.5 Tons Total Production 2.024 million tons About 20% target of the NFSM SRI covering about 15 m.ha (national food security) Area 15 m.ha yield increase 0.3 tons/ ha Tot Prod 4.5 million tons
What is SRI…? PRINCIPLES: Rationale of the Principle Best Practices Desirable Not-desirable 1 Utilise early vigour of seedlings prolonged and profuse tillering Young seedlings and quick transplanting upto 3 leaves stage/ less than 14 days old seedlings older than 3 leaves stage 2 Less competetion for light and nutrients higher use efficiency of sunlight and nutrients Wide spacing 25 x 25 cms no row-to-row spacing 3 less resource use (seeds, water, fertiliser, pesticides) Realising higher biological potential of rice plant with optimal resources in a sustained way single seedling / alternate wetting & drying / less chemical inputs single seedling per hill & a seed rate of 5 to 7.5 kgs / ha & upto 2.5 cms irrigation immediately after hairline cracks developing more than 2 seedlings per hill // continued inundation 4 Break soil anoxia condition Prevent negative effects of submergence (exit of poisonous gases) Intercultivation/ soil aeration with a weeder Using weeder at 10 day interval - 2 to 3 times & 1st weeder use at 10 to 12 days after transplanting no weeder usage / using chemical weedicides / 5 promote healthy root growth Reversing the inhibited root growth environment in normal paddy cultivation - all above practices. 6 Increased soil microbial activity Realise the biological potential of soils for better plant growth Green manure crops / use of green leaves / azolla / incorporation of crop residues / compost / FYM / Bio-fertiliser etc. usage of only chemical fertilisers 7 Enhance soil organic matter Feed the soils not the plants Addition of in situ / ex-situ organic matter
Constraints…? Farmers are hesitant to start SRI…
Continuous work for 4 to 5 seasons is needed in a geographical area for the practices to take strong roots and for the skills to develop.
Exposure visits / road shows
Doing is believing – start in a limited way and generate experience locally
Newly formed canals (water logging and salinity are not much of a problem)
Old canal areas – no inundation
Old canal areas – drainage a problem
Constraints…? Water Management : Typologies Important to evolve water management systems (physical and institutional) for SRI in all the above situations. Can a large pilot initiative in a canal area be taken up? SRI can TRIGGER farmer- management of water resources
A Special Vehicle for SRI within National Food Security Mission.
A National “SRI Mission” focusing on promotion of SRI, particularly with the objective of household food security
Can the civil society together work with government on a larger scale – intensive work in about 100 districts?
Allocation proposed under NFSM (Rs. crore) for the XI five year plan period (All India) What should be the share of SRI in the NFSM-Rice allocations? Year Rice Wheat Pulses Total 2007-08 70.8 234.6 96.9 402.3 2008-09 348.1 682.7 285.9 1316.8 2009-10 366.3 290.8 287.2 944.2 2010-11 428.3 341.5 286.4 1056.3 2011-12 508.8 370.8 283.4 1163.0 Total 1722.3 1920.3 1239.9 4882.5 http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2007-08/chapt2008/chap73.pdf
Need to rework the strategies presently followed in the mainstream programs…
Bring the civil society experiences into the design of larger government programs (on tanks, NFSM, watershed development, etc.)
Package of Support for Hybrid Rice and SRI under NFSM Sl. No. Components Amount per ha (Rs.) 1 Cost of critical inputs (seeds, fertilizers/ manures, PP chemicals and herbicides) 2,325 2 Organizing Farmers' day 200 3 Distribution of publicity material and display board 125 4 Visits of scientists excluding TA & DA of any kind but for hiring taxi/ POL, etc. 250 5 Contingencies/typing of results/minutes etc. 100 Total 3,000 Only additionality is support for weeders