0913 SRI Promotion in India: Overview of System Architecture

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  • 1. SRI Promotion in India: Overview of System Architecture
  • 2. Why SRI. . . Stand Point organisations Programs Community level food security PRADAN, PSI, SDTT SDTT- program Drought adaptation WASSAN AP DAI Poverty alleviation/ Livelihoods SERP, RD CMSA,  BRLP Water sector reforms:   Irrigation Dept.,WWF TN-IAMWARM, APCBTMP, Dialogue project State food security Tripura Govt Tripura National food security NFSM NFSM Electricity reforms     Seed Production     Integral part of watershed development Govt. of MP, NABARD MPRLP, WDF Promotion of SRI   Organic farming     Yield increases     Avoidance of agro-chemical use AME  
  • 3. SRI : Program Landscape Mainstream agencies and Programs have taken up SRI . . . Program Supported by Agency NFSM Govt of India Agrl Dept, ATMA Watershed development NABARD, Govt of India & state govts Govt and NGO PIAs MP- Rural Livelihoods Program DFID MPRLP / Govt. & NGOs Bihar Rural Livelihoods program World Bank ?? TN-IAMWARM World Bank Water Users' Assn & TNAU AP CBTMP World Bank NGOs and Irrigation Dept AP RPRP World Bank MMS AP DAI World Bank MMS IFAD SRI promotion through DATT Centres WWF & Govt. ANGR Agriculture University WWF-Dialogue project WWF NGOs   SDTT NGOs
  • 4. SRI at the national level…? Of the total rice area of 43 million ha with about 120 million farmers. . . SRI has reached a scale of about 2.5 lakh ha (about 0.6% of the rice area) across the country Showing… About 15% yield increase on an average (0.5 tons per ha) & about 0.5 to 1.0 ton per ha yield increases in subsistence systems. 30% of saving in water Substantial reduction in inputs (seeds, chemical inputs and importantly, water)
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. What SRI results (a 30% saving in water) can mean in this context…
  • 8. Substantial SRI experience has been generated across the country through civil society initiatives. Resource persons are available. Institutions have taken up SRI as a mandate.. . .
  • 9. SRI Total Rice More than 60% target of NFSM can be achieved thru SRI alone If we could cover 20 mil farmers under SRI:   (Target : Household food security) Farmers coverage 20 million Holding 0.5 ac   0.202 ha Total area 4.049 mill ha Yield Increase 0.5 Tons Total Production 2.024 million tons About 20% target of the NFSM SRI covering about 15 m.ha   (national food security) Area 15 m.ha yield increase 0.3 tons/ ha Tot Prod 4.5 million tons
  • 10. What is SRI…?   PRINCIPLES: Rationale of the Principle Best Practices Desirable Not-desirable 1 Utilise early vigour of seedlings prolonged and profuse tillering Young seedlings and quick transplanting upto 3 leaves stage/ less than 14 days old seedlings older than 3 leaves stage 2 Less competetion for light and nutrients higher use efficiency of sunlight and nutrients Wide spacing 25 x 25 cms no row-to-row spacing 3 less resource use (seeds, water, fertiliser, pesticides) Realising higher biological potential of rice plant with optimal resources in a sustained way single seedling / alternate wetting & drying / less chemical inputs single seedling per hill & a seed rate of 5 to 7.5 kgs / ha & upto 2.5 cms irrigation immediately after hairline cracks developing more than 2 seedlings per hill // continued inundation 4 Break soil anoxia condition Prevent negative effects of submergence (exit of poisonous gases) Intercultivation/ soil aeration with a weeder Using weeder at 10 day interval - 2 to 3 times & 1st weeder use at 10 to 12 days after transplanting no weeder usage / using chemical weedicides / 5 promote healthy root growth Reversing the inhibited root growth environment in normal paddy cultivation   - all above practices.   6 Increased soil microbial activity Realise the biological potential of soils for better plant growth   Green manure crops / use of green leaves / azolla / incorporation of crop residues / compost / FYM / Bio-fertiliser etc. usage of only chemical fertilisers 7 Enhance soil organic matter Feed the soils not the plants Addition of in situ / ex-situ organic matter
  • 11. Constraints…? Farmers are hesitant to start SRI…
      • Continuous work for 4 to 5 seasons is needed in a geographical area for the practices to take strong roots and for the skills to develop.
      • Exposure visits / road shows
      • Doing is believing – start in a limited way and generate experience locally
      • Must invest in field-level SRI facilitators
  • 12. Constraints…? Weeders A Problem… ?
      • Labour-scarce situations
      • Labour-surplus / family-labour situations
      • Each requires different approach
      • Experience shows that both in subsistence farming and where family labour is available .. SRI is resulting in SAVING of labour.
  • 13. Constraints…? Weeders A Problem… ?
      • While motorised solutions for weeding are yet to emerge, the following are the issues in the supply of manual weeders & markers:
      • Making available adequate number of implements
      • Ensuring quality
      • At low cost
      • That can be fabricated locally
      • User- and women-friendly
      • Different designs for different situations (soils)
      • Institutional mechanisms for managing (custom hiring or with Panchayats/CBOs, etc.)
      • Subsidies to farmers or manufacturers?
  • 14. Constraints…? Weeders A Problem… Emerging Action points
      • Subsidise weeding for some years (experiences are available)
      • Compile all available designs and field test at different agro-climatic regions / soils
      • Based on the compilation – evolve newer designs.
      • Improve the skill of local black-smiths / fabricators
      • Support local fabrication units
      • Direct support to farmers (allow them to chose the weeder) rather than manufacturers.
      • Invest in training of labourers and support them
      • Evolve contractual weeding / transplanting systems rather than continue to rely on daily wage-labour.
  • 15.
    • In rainfed situations:
      • Support ways of providing critical irrigation (farm ponds, wells, etc.)
      • Local small irrigation support systems (Guhls) to be in the hands of community
    • Where inundation is unavoidable:
      • Practice all other principles
    • Invest in irrigation systems and evolve more appropriate systems of water management.
    • Land levelling and field drainage are important
    Constraints…? Water Management
  • 16.
    • Bore well irrigation
    • Tank-based systems
    • System-tank based (large command areas)
    • Newly formed canals (water logging and salinity are not much of a problem)
    • Old canal areas – no inundation
    • Old canal areas – drainage a problem
    Constraints…? Water Management : Typologies Important to evolve water management systems (physical and institutional) for SRI in all the above situations. Can a large pilot initiative in a canal area be taken up? SRI can TRIGGER farmer- management of water resources
  • 17. Research…
    • 4 years of convincing data available with DRR
    • 2 publications are already prepared
    • <SRI & CC> and why yields in SRI in farmers’ fields higher than research stations… new themes
    • A collaborative research anchored by DRR and Dr.TM Thiagarajan proposed to prepare a “Status of SRI In the Country”.
  • 18. Policy Directions..
    • A Special Vehicle for SRI within National Food Security Mission.
    • A National “SRI Mission” focusing on promotion of SRI, particularly with the objective of household food security
    • Can the civil society together work with government on a larger scale – intensive work in about 100 districts?
  • 19. Allocation proposed under NFSM (Rs. crore) for the XI five year plan period (All India) What should be the share of SRI in the NFSM-Rice allocations? Year Rice Wheat Pulses Total 2007-08 70.8 234.6 96.9 402.3 2008-09 348.1 682.7 285.9 1316.8 2009-10 366.3 290.8 287.2 944.2 2010-11 428.3 341.5 286.4 1056.3 2011-12 508.8 370.8 283.4 1163.0 Total 1722.3 1920.3 1239.9 4882.5 http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2007-08/chapt2008/chap73.pdf
  • 20.
    • Need to rework the strategies presently followed in the mainstream programs…
    • Bring the civil society experiences into the design of larger government programs (on tanks, NFSM, watershed development, etc.)
  • 21. Package of Support for Hybrid Rice and SRI under NFSM Sl. No. Components Amount per ha (Rs.) 1 Cost of critical inputs (seeds, fertilizers/ manures, PP chemicals and herbicides) 2,325 2 Organizing Farmers' day 200 3 Distribution of publicity material and display board 125 4 Visits of scientists excluding TA & DA of any kind but for hiring taxi/ POL, etc. 250 5 Contingencies/typing of results/minutes etc. 100 Total 3,000 Only additionality is support for weeders
  • 22. Policy Directions..
    • Engage with political bodies .. Parliamentary Standing Committee on rural development for e.g.,
    • Engage with media
    • Establish larger Learning Alliances with the mainstream programs to strengthen their SRI promotional initiatives?