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Presenter: Amod K. Thakur and Ashwani Kumar …

Presenter: Amod K. Thakur and Ashwani Kumar

Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region (ICAR) Bhubaneswar

Published in Technology , Travel , News & Politics
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  • 1. SRI: Experience and Evaluation Dr. Amod K. Thakur and Dr. Ashwani Kumar Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region (ICAR) Bhubaneswar, Orissa
  • 2. SRI results in 13 countries – 4,504 farmers - Average yields: 4.8-12.4 t/ha - Maximum yields: 7.1-15.3 t/ha IWMI Research Report No. 75 (2004): - SRI doubled farmer’s net income per hectare System of Rice Intensification responds to 21 st century needs (N. Uphoff, Rice Today , July-Sept., 2004, p. 42) SRI would permit small farmers to unlock currently untapped production potential of rice (Stoop et al., Agricultural Systems , 71:249-274 (2002) As of October, 2004……………
  • 3. Articles critical of SRI: “ Fantastic yields in SRI: fact or fallacy?” -- Sheehy et al. Field Crops Research , 88: 1-8 (2004): SRI has no inherent advantage over the conventional system, and extraordinarily high yields are likely to be the consequence of error “ SRI: Agronomic UFOs” -- and Cassman, Field Crops Research , 88: 9-10 (2004) “ Agronomic UFOs waste valuable scientific resources” -- Sinclair, Rice Today , July-Sept., 2004, p. 43 SRI: A debatable issue
  • 4. There is a need for obtaining a more scientific understanding about SRI and research must focus on key processes involved Dobermann, Agricultural Systems 79: 261-281 (2004) Research requires intensive investigations by those trained to understand the theoretical context by undertaking critical experiments Sinclair, Rice Today July-Sept., 2004, p. 43 Many institutions and individuals should join in helping to improve the understanding and spread of this innovation Stoop et al., (2002) and N. Uphoff (2004) SRI: A researchable issue……
  • 5. Objectives: Evaluate
    • Varietal performance
    • Impact of spacing
    • Effect of different water & N-level
    • Comparative performance
  • 6. Results with SRI Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
  • 7. Varietal performance Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar Khandagiri (short-duration) Surendra (medium-duration) CRHR-7 (hybrid) Lalat (medium-duration – popular variety) Savitri (long-duration)
  • 8. Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
    • All the varieties performed better under SRI than conventional transplanted rice. SRI showed 36-49% higher yield than TP
    • Short-duration variety (Khandagiri): 36%,
    • Medium-duration and hybrid varieties: 42-45 %,
    • Long-duration: 49% more yield than TP
    • Tiller & panicle number per hill 2-3-times more than TP
    • However, tiller & panicle number per m 2 lower in SRI
    • In SRI, panicle length, grains per spike, % grain ripening are major factors responsible for higher yield than TP
    Salient Findings
  • 9. Effect of spacing Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar Grain Yield (t/ha) under different spacings in SRI and TP In a column, means followed by same letter (s) do not differ significantly at 5% level by DMRT (n= 6) Khandagiri Surendra Savitri Treatment Yield (t/ha) % Change in yield Yield (t/ha) % Change in yield Yield (t/ha) % Change in yield 30cm x 30cm 2.97c -1.65 2.94d -33.48 3.86d -14.49 25cm x 25cm 3.42b 13.12 4.26bc -3.58 6.72a 49.00 20cm x 20cm 4.14a 36.93 6.27a 41.89 5.06b 34.37 15cm x 15cm 3.01c -0.39 4.21bc -4.71 4.40c -2.48 10cm x 10cm 2.88c -4.80 4.16c -5.84 4.23c -6.28 TP 3.02c - 4.42b - 4.51c -
  • 10. As spacing decreases (from 30 cm x 30 cm to 10 cm x 10 cm), number of panicles per m 2 increases but with shorter panicles At wider spacing (more than 20 cm x 20 cm): Yield reduced due to lesser panicle number/m 2 At closer spacing (less than 20 cm x 20 cm) : Yield reduced due to shorter panicles Optimum spacing: For short -and medium-duration varieties, with SRI best is 20 cm x 20 cm; for long-duration varieties, 25 cm x 25 cm At optimum spacing, the highest leaf area index (LAI) and greatest light interception by canopy were measured Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar Salient Findings
  • 11. E ffect of different water & N-levels
  • 12. Grain yield (t/ha) under different irrigation and nitrogen levels under SRI and TP rice (var: Surendra) CF: Continuous flooding (5-6 cm), DAD: days after disappearance of water TP: CF and 3 DAD irrigation – No significant difference in yield 5 DAD created water stress and reduced the yield level SRI: 3 DAD and 5 DAD gave higher yield than CF 5 DAD – No yield reduction Nitrogen level Grain yield (t/ha) TP SRI CF 3 DAD 5 DAD MEAN CF 3 DAD 5 DAD MEAN N 0 1.91 1.81 1.62 1.78 1.99 1.90 1.85 1.91 N 60 3.56 3.46 3.13 3.38 3.89 4.19 4.17 4.08 N 90 4.19 4.13 3.76 4.03 6.01 6.30 6.27 6.19 N 120 4.20 4.13 3.59 3.97 5.78 6.05 5.98 5.93 MEAN 3.47 3.38 3.03 4.42 4.61 4.57 LSD (0.05) N- 1.42 I- 0.31 N X I- 0.26 N- 1.56 I- 0.09 N X I- 0.22
  • 13.
    • Optimum level of nitrogen in SRI was found to be 90 kg/ha.
    • Optimum water management practice in SRI is irrigation applied 5 days after disappearance of ponded water
    • In SRI, continuous flooding reduced yield by 5-7% yield; SRI is more drought-tolerant because of greater root growth
    • The highest water use efficiency (WUE) was found with SRI in 5 DAD treatment (i.e., 7.74 kg/ha-mm)
    • Water saving about 22-35% was attained with SRI mainly due to reduction in seepage and percolation losses, reduced nursery demand, and lesser need for land preparation
    Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar Salient Findings
  • 14. Comparison SRI vs. TP Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
  • 15. Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar Management practices SRI Recommended management practices (RMP) Seedling age at transplanting 10 days 21 days Plant spacing and density One seedling/hill 20 cm x 20 cm Three seedlings/hill 20 cm x 10 cm Weed control Three weedings by cono-weeder @10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT) Hand weeding (manual) @ 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT) Water management AWD applied 5 DAD during vegetative stage Flooding with 5-6 cm depth of water during the vegetative stage Nutrient management Organic manure @ 5 t ha -1 Chemical fertilizers: 80 kg N ha -1 , 40 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 , 40 kg K 2 O ha -1 Entire amount of P was applied at the time of final land preparation. N and K were applied in three splits, i.e., 25% at 10 DAT, 50% at tillering stage (30 DAT), and 25% at panicle initiation stage (60 DAT)
  • 16. Root Growth & activity SRI hills had better root development (deeper roots, more dry weight, root volume, and root length) and higher root activity (greater amount of root exudates and higher root exudation rate) than crop grown under RMP Tillering under SRI The number of tillers and panicles per hill significantly increased (2.5 times -- up to 34 tillers) in SRI than TP, mainly because SRI plants were able to complete a greater number of phyllochrons (10 th phyllochron in SRI, and 8 th phyllochron in RMP) before the onset of reproductive stage of growth. However, the number of tillers/panicles per unit area was found to be less or not significantly different in SRI compared with TP Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
  • 17. Leaf development Canopy structure & light Interception Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
    • The number of leaves/hill, leaf area/hill, and area of flag leaves significantly higher in SRI than RMP
    • The size of individual leaf under SRI is more (14.72 cm 2 ) than leaves under RMP (9.18 cm 2 )
    • SRI plots had higher LAI than RMP
    • More SLW of leaves under SRI shows greater thickness of leaf.
    SRI: Leaves are more erect with open-type canopy structure RMP: Closed-canopy structure SRI: Erect leaves with spreading canopy intercept more light without shading RMP: In more closed canopy, lower leaves experience more shading
  • 18. Physiological Observations Crop Growth Rate (CGR) Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar Initially , CGR was found higher in TP crop due to higher number of plants per unit area. In later phase (60 DAG), CGR in SRI crop was still increasing, while in TP crop, it started declining The increase in CGR in SRI crops was mainly due to maintenance of leaf area (lower leaf senescence) Lower rate of leaf senescence is due to larger amount of cytokinins transported from roots (root exudates) SRI had higher chlorophyll content, and maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm) and actual quantum yield ( Φ PS-II) compared to RMP crop show better light utilization Similarly, crops under SRI showed higher photosynthetic rate (23.15 vs. 12.23 μ mol m -2 s -1 in RMP) and lower transpiration rate (6.41 vs. 7.59 m mol m -2 s -1 in RMP), which indicates SRI plant is more efficient in water-use than transplanted rice plant
  • 19. Yield and yield-contributing characters Results showed that SRI crop had more number of longer panicles, greater number of grains in spikes, higher 1000-grain weight, and more grain- ripening percent than in TP crop mainly responsible for higher grain yield Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar Parameters SRI RMP Computed-t Ave. panicle number (hill -1 ) 16.9 ± 1.23 8.6 ± 0.59 6.040 Panicles (m -2 ) 421.7 ± 4.02 430.0 ± 5.46 -1.229 ns Ave. panicle length (cm) 21.61 ± 0.18 18.77 ± 0.21 10.090 Grains/panicle 141.9 ± 2.88 84.2 ± 1.68 17.377 Unfilled grains/panicle 9.80 (6.9) 8.17 (9.7) 4.256 Ripened grains (%) 93.1 90.3 -- 1000-grain wt (g) 22.46 ± 0.14 20.68 ± 0.14 8.964 Grain yield (t ha -1 ) 6.38 ± 0.06 4.49 ± 0.05 24.292
  • 20. Distribution of panicles according to their length under SRI and TP Short: >10 cm - 17 cm Medium: 17.1 cm - 20 cm Long: 20.1 cm - 24 cm Extra-long: 24.1 cm - <26 cm Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
  • 21. Panicle length Grains per spike Grain filling Roots growth and activity Canopy development Light utilization Higher yield in SRI Tiller number Panicle number
  • 22. Estimated average productivity of inputs on SRI and RMP Seed Fertilizer Labour Land Water SRI enhances paddy yields, increasing returns and saving labour and water. The productivity of the key inputs is raised with more output of paddy per unit of seed, fertilizer, labour and water. Units SRI RMP Kg per kg seed 797.13 59.83 Kg per kg fertilizer 12.99 9.14 Kg per man-days 35 23 Kg per ha land 6377 4487 Liter water per kg 1571 2801 Money per ha (Rs.) 25009 12115
  • 23. On-Farm Demonstration Variety: Surendra Spacing: 20cm x 20cm Grain yield (t/ha) % increase with SRI SRI Farmers’ practices Kharif 2007 5.03 2.87 75% Rabi 2008 5.50 2.50 120% Kharif 2008 5.31 2.19 142%
  • 24. Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
  • 25. Farmers Training on SRI at WTCER Farm on 3 rd Nov., 2007
        • Training on “System of Rice Intensification” to various line department personnel under national-level training programme at WTCER, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar.
        • Seven one-day training programmes conducted for farmers of Daspalla (Nayagarh district), Nimapara (Puri), and Balipatna (Khurda district) on various aspects of SRI
        • Training given to 50 farmers on SRI under “Scaling of water productivity in agriculture for livelihood,” 12-18 March, 2008 at Deras Research Farm, WTCER, Bhubaneswar
    Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
  • 26. Future Research Needs
      • Biochemical and hormonal changes inside the plants responsible for changes in physiological processes and phenotypic alterations in SRI plants need to be studied
      • Changes in soil-root environment that occur with SRI due to aerobic field condition need to be addressed for future research
    Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
  • 27. Future Research Needs
      • There is a need to conduct studies on nutrient-budgeting in SRI.
      • Initial findings have indicated that SRI is drought-tolerant, so a critical experiment will be to assess and establish this fact
      • For kharif season, there is need to develop a system to deal with stagnant water on SRI fields so that rice yields and water productivity can be enhanced
    Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
  • 28. Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar Limitations for SRI
    • Resistance to acceptance of SRI
    • Lack of training and extension facilities
    • Absence of proper water management
    • Lack of well-leveled field topography
    • Weed management (cono-weeder)
    • Erratic power supply
  • 29. In spite of greater adoption in 33 countries around the world with benefits to farmers, SRI still faces criticism due to fundamental knowledge gaps and lack of studies to address the synergies of individual SRI components. McDonald et al., Field Crops Research , 108:188-191 (2004), Reported that there is no evidence that SRI outyields BMPs beyond Madagascar – this statement is contestable Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar
  • 30. SRI: Still has a long way to go… Dr. Amod K. Thakur Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region (ICAR) Bhubaneswar
  • 31. Thanks