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0819 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI):  Understanding this Resource-Saving, High-Yielding Rice Farming System and its Implications for Agricultural Science
 

0819 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Understanding this Resource-Saving, High-Yielding Rice Farming System and its Implications for Agricultural Science

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Norman Uphoff (CIIFAD) in cooperation with Nippon Koei

Norman Uphoff (CIIFAD) in cooperation with Nippon Koei

Kyoto University

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  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields >15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
  • Picture provided by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Morang District, Nepal. Again, this is a single SRI plant grown from a single seed.
  • Picture provided by Dr. P. V. Satyanarayana, the plant breeder who developed this very popular variety, which also responds very well to SRI practices.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez. These two rice plants are ‘twins’ in that they were planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52 nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
  • Data showing how SRI practices change the abundance of soil organisms, from a powerpoint presentation by Dr. T. M. Thiyagarajan, dean of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University college of agriculture at Killikulam, presented to World Rice Research Conference, Tsukuba, Japan, Nov. 7, 2004.
  • These data were reported in Prof. Robert Randriamiharisoa's paper in the Sanya conference proceedings. They give the first direct evidence to support our thinking about the contribution of soil microbes to the super-yields achieved with SRI methods. The bacterium Azospirillum was studied as an "indicator species" presumably reflecting overall levels of microbial populations and activity in and around the plant roots. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no significant difference in Azospirillum populations in the rhizosphere. But there were huge differences in the counts of Azospirillum in the roots themselves according to soil types (clay vs. loam) and cultivation practices (traditional vs. SRI) and nutrient amendments (none vs. NPK vs. compost). NPK amendments with SRI produce very good results, a yield on clay soil five times higher than traditional methods with no amendments. But compost used with SRI gives a six times higher yield. The NPK increases Azospirillum (and other) populations, but most/much of the N that produced a 9 t/ha yield is coming from inorganic sources compared to the higher 10.5 t/ha yield with compost that depends entirely on organic N. On poorer soil, SRI methods do not have much effect, but when enriched with compost, even this poor soil can give a huge increase in production, attributable to the largest of the increases in microbial activity in the roots. At least, this is how we interpret these findings. Similar research should be repeated many times, with different soils, varieties and climates. We consider these findings significant because they mirror results we have seen in other carefully measured SRI results in Madagascar. Tragically, Prof. Randriamiharisoa, who initiated this work, passed away in August, 2004, so we will no longer have his acute intelligence and probing mind to advance these frontiers of knowledge.
  • Figures from a paper presented by Dr. Tao to international rice conference organized by the China National Rice Research Institute for the International Year of Rice and World Food Day, held in Hangzhou, October 15-17, 2004. Dr. Tao has been doing research on SRI since 2001 to evaluate its effects in physiological terms.
  • Picture provided by Mr. Shichi Sato, project leader for DISIMP project in Eastern Indonesia (S. Sulawasi and W. Nusa Tenggara), where > 1800 farmers using SRI on >1300 ha have had 7.6 t/ha average SRI yield (dried, unhusked paddy, 14% moisture content), 84% more than the control plots, with 40% reduction in water use, and 25% reduction in the costs of production.
  • Picture provided by Dr. T. M. Thiyagarajan, dean of TNAU college of agriculture at Killikulam, who has been evaluating SRI since 2000 and has been promoting it since 2002. In 2006, the Tamil Nadu government is aiming to have at least 10% of its riceland under SRI methods.
  • This picture from Sri Lanka shows two fields having the same soil, climate and irrigation access, during a drought period. On the left, the rice grown with conventional practices, with continuous flooding from the time of transplanting, has a shallower root system that cannot withstand water stress. On the right, SRI rice receiving less water during its growth has deeper rooting, and thus it can continue to thrive during the drought. Farmers in Sri Lanka are coming to accept SRI in part because it reduces their risk of crop failure during drought.
  • Prof. Ma Jun in his paper to the Haerbin conference included data on rice quality that he had collected. They showed SRI rice grains (from three different spacings within the SRI range) to be clearly superior in two major respects to conventionally-grown grains (two spacings). A reduction in chalkiness makes the rice more palatable. An increase in outturn is a ‘bonus’ on top of the higher yields of paddy (unmilled) rice that farmers get with SRI methods. We have seen this kind of improvement in outturn rates in Cuba, India and Sri Lanka, about 15%. More research on other aspects of SRI grain quality should be done, including nutritional content.
  • This lists the sources for the following table..
  • This and the next two slides summarize 11 reports evaluating SRI in 8 countries. Most of the studies are already posted on the SRI home page (http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ ) and all can be provided upon request (ntu1@cornell.edu)
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web. Agronomists should be very interested in how more than doubled yield can be achieved in three weeks less time than ‘normally’ expected for this variety. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) evaluation of SRI in Andhra Pradesh state of India, conducted by ANGRAU, the state agricultural university, reported 7-10 day shorter maturation of SRI crops. In Cambodia, this has also been seen.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web. Agronomists should be very interested in how more than doubled yield can be achieved in three weeks less time than ‘normally’ expected for this variety. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) evaluation of SRI in Andhra Pradesh state of India, conducted by ANGRAU, the state agricultural university, reported 7-10 day shorter maturation of SRI crops. In Cambodia, this has also been seen.
  • This picture was sent by Thadeusz Niesiobedzki in Poland, of his winter wheat crop that is being grown with single seedlings, wide spacing, use of organic matter, etc. approximating SRI. He hit upon these practices by accident (a long story) and also discovered the SRI internet web page, and saw the similarities between his practices and SRI, thereafter contacting Cornell by email to open up dialogue.
  • Picture sent by enthusiastic SRI farmer in Tamil Nadu state.
  • Source for this table is given in the slide.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language,but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.

0819 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI):  Understanding this Resource-Saving, High-Yielding Rice Farming System and its Implications for Agricultural Science 0819 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Understanding this Resource-Saving, High-Yielding Rice Farming System and its Implications for Agricultural Science Presentation Transcript

  • The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Understanding this Resource-Saving, High-Yielding Rice Farming System and Its Implications for Agricultural Science Kyoto University, February 22, 2008 Norman Uphoff Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development (CIIFAD) in cooperation with Nippon Koei
  • Rice sector needs in 21 st century acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004
    • Increased land productivity -- higher yield
    • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop
    • Technology accessible for the poor
    • Environmental friendliness
    • More pest- and disease-resistance
    • More tolerance of abiotic stresses
    • Better grain quality for consumers
    • Greater profitability for farmers
  • SRI practice can meet all these needs:
    • Higher yields by 50-100% (78% in NT)
    • Water reductions of 25-50%
    • Capital expenditure -- not necessary
    • Neither are agrochemical inputs
    • Pest and disease resistance
    • Drought and lodging tolerance
    • Better grain quality
    • Lower costs of production by10-20%
  • Additional benefits of SRI practice:
    • Time to maturity reduced by 1-2 weeks
    • Milling outturn -- higher by about 15%
    • Other crops’ performance also being improved by SRI concepts and practices, e.g., sugar cane, millet, wheat, mustard
    • Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach
    • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture
  • SRI Not a Technology – 6 Core Ideas
    • Use young seedlings to preserve growth potential – although DIRECT SEEDING is becoming an option
    • Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly, shallow, no inversion of root tips that will halt growth
    • Give plants wider spacing – one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve ‘edge effect’
    • Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded – mostly aerobic, not continuously saturated, and
    • Actively aerate the soil -- as much as possible
    • Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible
    • Practices 1-3 stimulate plant growth ; while practices 4-6 enhance the growth and health of roots and soil biota
  • Alternative Agricultural Paradigms:
    • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to:
    • (a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and
    • (b) Increase the provision of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides, etc.
    • AGROECOLOGY (SRI) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients to:
      • (a) Promote the growth of root systems , and
      • (b) Increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits
    • These produce bigger/better PHENOTYPES
  • Cambodia, Takeo Province: rice plant grown from single seed, with SRI methods and trad. variety
  • Nepal, Morang District: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods
  • SRI NON-SRI India: Punjabi farmer showing difference in rice phenotypes
  • INDONESIA: Dried rice plants in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
  • India, Maruteru Research Station, AP: roots of a single rice plant (MTU 1071)
  • Cuba: Two plants, same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  • Microbial populations in rice rhizosphere as measured in TNAU analysis Micro-organisms Conventional rhizospheres SRI practice rhizospheres Total bacteria 88 x 10 6 105 x 10 6 Azospirillum 8 x 10 5 31 x 10 5 Azotobacter 39 x 10 3 66 x 10 3 Phospho-bacteria 33 x 10 3 59 x 10 3
  •  
  • 47.9% 34.7% “ Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field” Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  • CNRRI factorial trials, 2004 and 2005, using two super-rice hybrid varieties, seeking to break the plateauing of S-R yields
    • Standard Rice Mgmt
    • 30-day seedlings
    • 20x20 cm spacing
    • Continuous flooding
    • Fertilization:
      • 100% chemical
    • New Rice Mgmt (SRI)
    • 20-day seedlings
    • 30x30 cm spacing
    • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD)
    • Fertilization:
      • 50% chemical,
      • 50% organic
  • Average super-rice YIELDS (kg ha -1 ) with new rice management (SRI) vs. standard rice management at different plant densities ha -1
  • Comparison of rice plant roots in North Bharat Chandra Nagar, Rajnagar Subdistrict, Tripura State Conventional rice plants (3) on left; and SRI rice plant (1) on left
  • 1. INCREASED YIELD Data from Department of Agriculture, State of Tripura, Rajnagar Subdistrict Office Area under paddy (ha) Paddy production (mt) Ave. yield (mt/ha) Area under SRI (ha) SRI production (mt) Ave. SRI yield (mt/ha) No. of fami-lies 2005-06 15,613 49,976 3.009 24.5 170.08 6.942 122 2006-07 15,632 50,976 3.261 2,300 15,669.9 6.813 5,335
  • Indonesia, Lombok Province: Rice plants same variety, same age
  • Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI in Indonesia, by Nippon Koei, 2002-06
    • No. of trials: 12,133
    • Total area: 9,429.1 hectares
    • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha -- 78%
    • Reduction in water requirements : 40%
    • Reduction in fertilizer use : 50%
    • Reduction in costs of production : 20%
    • Bali, DS 2006: 24 farmers on 42 hectares: SRI + Longping hybrids: 13.3 t/ha vs. 8.4
  • 2. REDUCED WATER USE
    • Application of minimum of water to meet the plants’ needs – either by:
      • Small daily applications to maintain soil moisture, according to soil type, with some periods of soil drying, or
      • Alternate wetting and drying – may give lower yield but saves on labor
    • Getting higher yield with less water means greater water productivity and achieving goal of ‘more crop per drop’
  • Trend in Decreasing Water Table Level in Punjab Statistics of DOA Punjab Year Affected area Depth of water level (in feet) 1973-74 3% 30 2005-06 30% 70 2023 Whole of Punjab? 160
  • SRI Saving of Irrigation Water in Punjab Dr. Amrik Singh, MANAGE, Gurdaspur Method of cultivation No. of irrigations per acre Time to irrigate one acre (4” delivery pipe) Saving of water under SRI Conven-tional methods 25 4 hours 50-55 % SRI 13 2 hours
    • If we apply SRI method of cultivation on 26 lakh hectares of rice area in Punjab, then it is estimated that 50% of water can be saved.
  • 3. ACCESSIBILITY TO POOR
    • SRI requires no purchases of external inputs, although these can be used
      • All varieties respond to SRI practices – so no need to purchase new seeds , although highest yields with HYVs/hybrids
      • Decomposed biomass suffices for soil nutrition – so no need to buy fertilizers ; fertilizer gives good but not best results
      • No/little need for agrochemical protection
    • Credit is not necessary -- no need for households to borrow and go into debt
  • INDIA: South Tripura District, Rajnagar Subdivision: Dimatali -- all tribal village, 21/78 farmers using SRI -- 6.5 t/ha SRI yield vs. 2.5 t/ha conventional -- two years earlier not even doing row planting
  • Socially Marginal Villages Visited in Teliamura Agricultural Sub-Division, West Tripura District, India Data from Tripura State Dept. of Agriculture G.P. Area Population Culti-vators SRI Culti-vators Paddy Area (ha) SRI Area (ha) North Maharanipur 1800 (90% STs) 632 143 (79%) 180 100 (56%) Maiganga 3648 (70% SCs) 822 200 (24%) 248 100 (40%) East Howaibari 1832 (40% SCs, 20% STs) 270 92 (34%) 85 54 (64%)
  • Paddy Yield by Socially Marginal Villages, Teliamura Sub-Division, by season, 2006-07
  • 4. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENEFICIAL PRODUCTION
    • Lower water requirement reduces pressure on natural ecosystems
    • Reduced N fertilizer application preserves water quality (less NO 3 )
    • Reduced use of agrochemicals benefits both soil and water quality
    • Not flooding abates CH 4 (GHG) -- although still need to assess N 2 O
  • 5. PEST/DISEASE RESISTANCE
    • SRI rice plants are more resistant to pests and diseases
    • Little or no need for agrochemical protection
      • Although IPM crop management is always recommended
    • Some agrochemicals can be used on an ‘ as-needed’ basis
  • Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder 63.4* 107.7* 41.1% 61.8* 122.3* 49.5% Brown plant hopper 542* 1,440* 62.4% 545* 3,214* 83.0% AVERAGE *Insects/ m 2 55.5% 70.7%
  • Pest abundance in nursery (TNAU) Figures in parentheses are transformed values ** Significant difference (P<0.001) Insects (damage or population size) SRI cultivation (mean ± SE) Conventional cultivation (mean ± SE) t value (difference) (SRI reduction) Cut worm (% damaged leaves per seedling) 0.0 ± 0.0 (0.0) 20.4 ± 4.8 (19.1) 16.1** ( ∞ ) Thrips (per seedling) 0.5 ± 0.2 (0.9) 6.1 ± 0.5 (2.5) 19.3** ( 92% ) Green leaf hopper (per seedling) 0.1 ± 0.0 (0.8) 0.4 ± 0.1 (0.9) 14.8** ( 75% ) BPH (per seedling) 0.0 ± 0.0 (0.0) 0.2 ± 0.0 (0.8) 11.5** ( ∞ ) Whorl maggot (% damaged leaves per seedling) 0.8 ± 0.2 (0.9) 9.3 ± 2.6 (9.1) 12.5** ( 91% )
  • Pest abundance in main field (TNAU) Figures in parentheses are transformed values ** significant difference (P<0.001) Insects (damage or Population size) SRI cultivation (mean ± SE) Conventional cultivation (mean ± SE) t value (difference) (SRI reduction) Whorl maggot (% damaged leaves per hill) 17.9 ± 1.9 (18.0) 23.2 ± 2.0 (19.1) 6.6** ( 23% ) Thrips (per hill) 6.6 ± 0.1 (2.2) 20.2 ± 2.0 (4.1) 12.2** ( 67% ) Green leaf hopper (per hill) 0.6 ± 0.1 (1.0) 1.1 ± 0.2 (1.2) 10.7** ( 45% ) BPH (per hill) 1.1 ± 0.2 (1.2) 2.7 ± 0.2 (1.8) 14.4** ( 60% ) Whorl maggot (% truncated leaves per hill) 5.6 ± 1.8 (5.9) 8.8 ± 1.4 (9.1) 4.5** ( 36% )
  • 6. RESISTANCE TO ABIOTIC STRESSES
    • LODGING & STORM DAMAGE
    • DROUGHT – WATER STRESS
    • TEMPERATURE EXTREMES
    • Why? Because of larger, stronger root systems -- and possibly more uptake of silicon when paddy soils are not kept saturated
    • Climate-proofing to deal w/ climate change
  • India, Tamil Nadu: rice plot in foreground is normal rice; no lodging on SRI plot in center
  • Vietnam: FFS farmer in D ông Trù village, Hanoi Province – after typhoon
  • Sri Lanka: rice fields of same variety, same irrigation system, and same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
  • 7. GRAIN QUALITY
    • More milled rice per bushel of SRI paddy
      • Fewer unfilled grains – less chaff
      • Fewer broken grains – less shattering
    • Less chalkiness – maybe other quality improvements? Should be studied
    • More nutritional value ? More protein? Possible due to increased N uptake
    • More micronutrients ? Likely with larger, deeper root system and denser grains
  • Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conventional SRI Methods Characteristic Methods (3 spacings) Difference Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China, Haerbin, 8/2004 Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 ↓ 30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 ↓ 65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 ↑ 16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 ↑ 17.5%
  • 8. HIGHER PROFITABILITY INCREASED PRODUCTION + LOWER COSTS OF PRODUCTION = MORE NET INCOME FOR FARMERS Average cost reduction/ha across 10 evaluations in 8 countries = 25% On-farm comparisons: N = 4,214
    • Bangladesh – IRRI-funded evaluation (N=1,073)
    • Cambodia – GTZ evaluation (N=500); CEDAC evaluation of 3-year SRI users (N=120)
    • China – China Agricultural University (N=82)
    • India – TNAU (N=100), IWMI-India (N=108)
    • Indonesia – Nippon Koei evaluation (N=1,849)
    • Nepal – DADO Morang record-keeping (N=412)
    • Sri Lanka – IWMI evaluation (N=120)
    • Vietnam – farmer field school reporting (N=60)
  • Country Evaluation by/for: Yield Increase Water-Saving Cost Reduction Increase in Net Income Comments BANGLADESH On-farm Evaluations (N=1,073) BRAC/SAFEBRRI/Syng-enta BD Ltd (Husain et al., 2004) 24% n.d. 7% 59% (32-82%) On-farm evaluations funded by IRRI under its PETRRA project with DFID CAM-BODIA National Survey (N=500) GTZ (Anthofer et al., 2004) 41% Flooding at TP reduced 96.3%->2.5% 56% 74% Survey of SRI and non-SRI users randomly sampled in 5 provinces; SRI use has grown to >70,000 farmers in 5 years Long-term Users (N=120) CEDAC (Tech, 2004) 105% 50% 44% 89% Small farmers who had used SRI methods consecutively for 3 years CHINA Village Study (N=82) China Agric. University (Li et al., 2005) 29% 44% 7.4% [ext. service promoting fertilizer & new seeds] 64% SRI use in village had gone from 7 in 2003, to 398 in 2004; farmers considered labor-saving main benefit (N=82)
  • Country Evaluation by/for: Yield Increase Water-Saving Cost Reduction Increase in Net Income Comments INDIA Tamil Nadu (N=100) Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ. (Thiyaga-rajan et al., 2004) 28% 40-50% 11% 112% On-farm comparisons in Tamiraparani Basin, supervised by TNAU and extension service Andhra Pradesh (N=1,535) Andhra Pradesh Agric. Univ. (Satyanara-yana, 2005) 38% 40% NA NA On-farm trials supervised by ANGRAU and State extension service centers West Bengal (N=108) IWMI-India (Sinha and Talati, 2005) 32% Rainfed version of SRI 35% 67% SRI use in villages had gone from 4 farmers to 150 in 3 seasons; now > 6,500 INDO-NESIA (N=1,849) Nippon Koei (Sato, 2006) 84% 40% 24% 412% 3 years of evaluation in Eastern. Indonesia; trials conducted on 1,363 ha
  • Country Evaluation by/for: Yield Increase Water-Saving Cost Reduction Increase in Net Income Com-ments NEPAL (N=412) Morang District Agr. Dev. Office (Uprety, 2005) 82% 43% 2.2% [rotary hoes not widely available] 163% Morang district users from 1 in 2003 to >1,400 in 2005, and > 2,000 in 2006 SRI LANKA District Surveys (N=120) Intl. Water Managemt Institute (IWMI) (Namara et al., 2004) 44% 24% 11.9-13.3% 90-117% Survey of SRI users and non-users who were randomly sampled in 2 districts , 60 farmers in each, half SRI, half non-SRI VIET-NAM FFS (N=60) National IPM Program (Dông Trù village) 21% 60% 24% 65% Record-keeping by Farmer Field School alumni on SRI results AVER-AGE 52% 44% 25% 128%
  • 9. Reduced Time to Maturity
    • 51 SRI farmers in Morang district, Nepal, monsoon season, 2005, who planted popular Bansdhan (145-day) variety
    • Age of N of Days to Reduction
    • seedling farmers harvest (in days)
    • > 14 d 9 138.5 6.5
    • 10 - 14 d 37 130.6 14.4
    • 8 - 9 d 5 123.6 21.4
    • With doubling of yield from 3.1 to 6.3 t/ha -- and reduced water use
  • Impact of Soil-Aerating ‘Weeding’
    • 412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005
    • Ave. SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha, vs. control = 3.1 t/ha
    • Data show that weedings can raise yield
    • No. of No. of Average Range
    • weedings farmers yield of yields
    • 1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6)
    • 2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0)
    • 3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4)
  • 10. Extrapolation to Other Crops
    • Farmers in India are taking SRI concepts and practices and are applying them to other crops:
    • Sugar cane (Andhra Pradesh)
    • Finger millet ( Elusine coracana ) (Jharkand, Karnataka)
    • Wheat (Himachal Pradesh)
    • Mustard (Orissa)
    • SRI IS NOT A TECHNOLOGY – rather it is a set of insights and concepts
  •  
  •  
  • System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on right, picture courtesy of PRADAN, Jharkand
  • Winter wheat in Poland before going into winter dormancy
  • Liu Zhibin, seed multiplication farm, Meishan, Sichuan planting on raised beds with zero-tillage – 13.4 t/ha yield
  • SRI crop of G. Moghanraj Yadhav, Nagipattanam district, Tamil Nadu
  • SRI is still ‘a work in progress’
    • Contributing to ‘post-modern agriculture’ – which is the most modern agriculture
    • Building on advances in biology and ecology
      • Especially in microbiology and soil ecology
      • New perspectives on plant-soil-microbial ‘systems’
  • Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leave, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology Feng Chi et al., Applied and Envir. Microbiology , 71 (2005), 7271-7278 Rhizobium test strain Total plant root vol/pot (cm 3 ) Shoot dry wt/pot (g) Net photo-synthetic rate (μmol -2 s -1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm 2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36 A 63 ± 2 A 16.42 ± 1.39 A 3.62 ± 0.17 BC 17.64 ± 4.94 ABC 86 ± 5 A SM-1021 180 ± 26 A 67 ± 5 A 14.99 ± 1.64 B 4.02± 0.19 AB 20.03 ± 3.92 A 86 ± 4 A SM-1002 168 ± 8 AB 52 ± 4 BC 13.70 ± 0.73 B 4.15 ± 0.32 A 19.58 ± 4.47 AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23 A 61 ± 8 AB 13.85 ± 0.38 B 3.36 ± 0.41 C 18.98 ± 4.49 AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16 A 67 ± 4 A 13.86 ± 0.76 B 3.18 ± 0.25 CD 16.79 ± 3.43 BC 77 ± 5 A Control 130 ± 10 B 47 ± 6 C 10.23 ± 1.03 C 2.77 ± 0.69 D 15.24 ± 4.0 C 51 ± 4 C
  • “ Productivity is increased [with SRI], and at the same time the environment is saved. . . . I want to urge everybody, starting with the Minister of Agriculture and everyone else -- let us support this SRI method with our maximum capacity.” -- Pres. S. B. Yudhoyono speaking at SRI Harvest Festival, Cianjur, July 30, 2007
  • THANK YOU
    • Web page: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/
    • Email: [email_address] or [email_address] or
    • [email_address]
  • Factorial Trial Results, Madagascar
    • Morandava, 2000:
    • sea level, tropical climate, poor soils
    • HYV vs. tradl. varieties
    • 8 vs. 16 days
    • aerated (AS) vs. saturated soil (SS)
    • 1 vs. 3 plants per hill
    • compost vs. NPK
    • 25 vs. 30 cm spacing (no difference)
    • all same weeding
    • Anjomakely, 2001:
    • 1200m, temperate climate, good soils
    • better vs. poorer soils
    • 8 vs. 20 days
    • aerated (AS) vs. saturated soil (SS)
    • 1 vs. 3 plants per hill
    • compost vs. NPK
    • 25 vs. 30 cm spacing (only 80 kg/ha difference)
    • all same weeding
  • FACTORIAL RESULTS (t/ha), ANJOMAKELY, 2001 [N=240] CONVENTIONAL Clay Loam Average Addition SS/20/3/NPK 3.00 (6) 2.04 (6) 2.52 (12) 1 SRI Practice SS/ 20 / 3 / C 3.71 (6) 2.03 (6) SS/20/ 1 /NPK 5.04 (6) 2.78 (6) SS/ 8 /3/NPK 7.16 (6) 3.89 (6) AS /20/3/NPK 5.08 (6) 2.60 (6) 5.25 (24) 2.83 (24) 4.04 (48) +1.52 2 SRI Practices SS/20/ 1 / C 4.50 (6) 2.44 (6) SS / 8 / 3 / C 6.86 (6) 3.61 (6) AS /20/ 1 /NPK 6.07 (6) 3.15 (6) AS /20/ 3 / C 6.72 (6) 3.41 (6) SS/ 8 / 1 /NPK 8.13 (6) 4.36 (6) AS / 8 /3/NPK 8.15 (6) 4.44 (6) 6.74 (36) 3.57 (36) 5.16 (72) +1.12 3 SRI Practices SS/ 8 / 1 / C 7.70 (6) 4.07 (6) AS /20/ 1 / C 7.45 (6) 4.10 (6) AS / 8 / 3 / C 9.32 (6) 5.17 (6) AS / 8 / 1 /NPK 8.77 (6) 5.00 (6) 8.31 (24) 4.59 (24) 6.45 (48) +1.29 ALL SRI PRAC TICES AS / 8 / 1 / C 10.35 (6) 6.39 (6) 8.37 (12) +1.92
  • FACTORIAL RESULTS (t/ha), MORONDAVA, 2000 [N=288] CONVENTIONAL HYV Traditional Average Addition SS/16/3/NPK 2.84 (6) 2.11 (6) 2.48 (12) 1 SRI Practice SS/ 16 / 3 / C 2.69 (6) 2.67 (6) SS/16/ 1 /NPK 2.74 (6) 2.28 (6) SS/ 8 /3/NPK 4.08 (6) 3.09 (6) AS /16/3/NPK 4.04 (6) 2.64 (6) 3.34 (24)(.021) 2.67 (24)(.007) 3.01 (48) + 0.53 2 SRI Practices SS/16/ 1 / C 2.73 (6) 2.47 (6) SS / 8 / 3 / C 3.35 (6) 4.33 (6) AS /16/ 1 /NPK 4.10 (6) 2.89 (6) AS /16/ 3 / C 4.18 (6) 3.10 (6) SS/ 8 / 1 /NPK 5.00 (6) 3.65 (6) AS / 8 /3/NPK 5.75 (6) 3.34 (6) 4.28 (36)(.000) 3.24 (36)(.000) 3.78 (72) + 0.77 3 SRI Practices SS/ 8 / 1 / C 3.85 (6) 5.18 (6) AS /16/ 1 / C 3.82 (6) 2.87 (6) AS / 8 / 3 / C 4.49 (6) 4.78 (6) AS / 8 / 1 /NPK 6.62 (6) 4.29 (6) 4.69 (24)(.000) 4.28 (24)(.000) 4.48 (48) + 0.70 ALL SRI PRACTICES AS / 8 / 1 / C 6.83 (6)(.000) 5.96 (6)(.000) 6.40 (12) +1.92