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0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
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0619 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

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Presenter: Norman Uphoff (CIIFAD) and Rajendra Uprety (DADO Morang) …

Presenter: Norman Uphoff (CIIFAD) and Rajendra Uprety (DADO Morang)

SRI Forum, Biratnagar

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  • Presentation prepared for Forum on SRI at ANGRAU, Hyderabad, October 7, 2006.
  • SRI was developed in Madagascar about 20 years ago as discussed in the next slide. This is a summary of the effects of changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients according to the insights brought together in SRI. The figures are based on over a dozen evaluations, including ones by IWMI, GTZ, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, China Agricultural University, Nippon Koei and other institutions.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This and the next two slides summarize 11 reports evaluating SRI in 8 countries. Most of the studies are already posted on the SRI home page (http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ ) and all can be provided upon request (ntu1@cornell.edu)
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields >15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
  • Picture provided by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Morang District, Nepal. Again, this is a single SRI plant grown from a single seed.
  • Picture sent by Prativa Sundaray, staff member with the NGO PRADAN which is introducing SRI in poor communities, especially tribal ones in Orissa, Jhakhand and West Bengal, even where there is no irrigation, adapting SRI concepts to rainfed conditions.
  • Picture provided by Mr. Shichi Sato, project leader for DISIMP project in Eastern Indonesia (S. Sulawasi and W. Nusa Tenggara), where > 1800 farmers using SRI on >1300 ha have had 7.6 t/ha average SRI yield (dried, unhusked paddy, 14% moisture content), 84% more than the control plots, with 40% reduction in water use, and 25% reduction in the costs of production.
  • Figures from a paper presented by Dr. Tao to international rice conference organized by the China National Rice Research Institute for the International Year of Rice and World Food Day, held in Hangzhou, October 15-17, 2004. Dr. Tao has been doing research on SRI since 2001 to evaluate its effects in physiological terms.
  • SRI departs from the usual concepts and practices, where one must use more and better inputs to get even more outputs. With SRI, one reduces inputs but capitalizes upon synergies and symbioses inherent within agroecological systems, particularly on the symbiosis between plants and beneficial soil organisms.
  • SRI departs from the usual concepts and practices, where one must use more and better inputs to get even more outputs. With SRI, one reduces inputs but capitalizes upon synergies and symbioses inherent within agroecological systems, particularly on the symbiosis between plants and beneficial soil organisms.
  • Picture provided by Dr. P. V. Satyanarayana, the plant breeder who developed this very popular variety, which also responds very well to SRI practices. Note the color of these roots – white, indicating healthiness – which contrast with the usual brown or even black color of continuously flooded rice plants whose roots are necrosing.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez. These two rice plants are ‘twins’ in that they were planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52 nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
  • This field was harvested in March 2004 with representatives from the Department of Agriculture present to measure the yield. Picture provided by George Rakotondrabe, Landscape Development Interventions project, which has worked with Association Tefy Saina in spreading the use of SRI to reduce land pressures on the remaining rainforest areas. The Ministry of Agriculture technician who measured the yield reported this as 17 t/ha.
  • Pictures follow of drought resistance and resistance to lodging. For information on the theory of “trophobiosis,” which appears to explain SRI plants’ resistance to biotic stresses, see Francis Chaboussou, Healthy Crops , Jon Anderson Press, Charnley, UK, 2004 (translation from the 1985 publication). Chaboussou was a senior plant pathologist with the French INRA for most of his career, and he synthesized a very interesting explanation for insect, bacterial, fungal and viral crop losses from the mainstream literature and his own research.
  • This picture from Sri Lanka shows two fields having the same soil, climate and irrigation access, during a drought period. On the left, the rice grown with conventional practices, with continuous flooding from the time of transplanting, has a shallower root system that cannot withstand water stress. On the right, SRI rice receiving less water during its growth has deeper rooting, and thus it can continue to thrive during the drought. Farmers in Sri Lanka are coming to accept SRI in part because it reduces their risk of crop failure during drought.
  • Picture provided by Dr. T. M. Thiyagarajan, dean of TNAU college of agriculture at Killikulam, who has been evaluating SRI since 2000 and has been promoting it since 2002. In 2006, the Tamil Nadu government is aiming to have at least 10% of its riceland under SRI methods.
  • Provided by Max Whitten, former head of plant pathology for ACIAR in Australia, who is working with Farmer Field Schools in many Southeast Asian countries, including demonstrations of SRI.
  • Mr. Rajendra Uprety, district agricultural development officer for Morang district in Nepal, has kept detailed information from SRI users, increasing from 1 farmers (with 100m2) in 2003 to over 1400 in 2005. Results reported above in Slide 10.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web. Agronomists should be very interested in how more than doubled yield can be achieved in three weeks less time than ‘normally’ expected for this variety. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) evaluation of SRI in Andhra Pradesh state of India, conducted by ANGRAU, the state agricultural university, reported 7-10 day shorter maturation of SRI crops. In Cambodia, this has also been seen.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
  • Ditto
  • Here the SRI field is being 'marked' for transplanting with a simple wooden 'rake.' This was the first technical innovation in SRI transplanting, to improve upon guiding square-grid transplanting with strings stretched across the paddy field. We find that if the soil is too wet, the lines made by the rake will not remain long enough for transplanting. There are drains within the field to carry excess water away from the root zone.
  • Here the seedlings are being set into the soil, very shallow (only 1-2 cm deep). The transplanted seedlings are barely visible at the intersections of the lines. This operation proceeds very quickly once the transplanters have gained some skill and confidence in the method. As noted already, these seedling set out with two leaves can already have a third leaf by the next day.
  • This was developed in 2003 by Mr. L. Reddy, to replace the use of strings and sticks to mark lines for planting, or the use of a wooden “rake” that could mark lines when pulled across the paddy in two directions. This implement, which can be built for any spacing desired, enables farmers, after it is pulled across the paddy in one direction, to plant SRI seedlings in a 25x250 cm square pattern. It saves as lot of labor time for transplanting because only one pass is needed across the field, and this is wider than a rake could be. Even wider ones have been built. Mr. Reddy is a very innovative and successful SRI farmer, with a superb yield last rabi season, measured and reported by the Department of Extension in Andhra Pradesh. This yield was the average for a 9-acre rice farm. In one plot, the yield measured by the Dept. staff was 20 t/ha; Reddy was disappointed that they would not report this separately. Instead, they just averaged this for the whole-farm statistic.
  • This design by H. M. Premaratna is very popular with many farmers, as it speeds up their weeding operations, saving much time as there are no spokes to get clogged with weeds. Picture of Premaratne is shown below as someone who has also given leadership in the farmer-to-farmer dissemination of SRI.
  • Gopal Swaminathan was one of the first SRI farmers in the Cauvery delta. His Kadiramangalam system was devised for delta areas where sun and wind desiccate tiny seedlings; so he transplants 15-day seedlings in clumps of 5 plants, at 30x30 cm spacing, and then re-transplants them at 30 days, as single plants per hill at that spacing. The extra labor means that there is almost zero mortality, and yields of 7.5 t/ha are assuredly attained.
  • This was built with a wooden axle, into which bent large nails were driven, with the axle mounted on a simple iron-rod frame. The ‘rake’ at the back was added to increase the soil aeration. Nong estimated that he got $20 more worth of rice yield from his small plot with this soil-aerating weeder, for the cost of $3 in materials and about 75 cents worth of labor.
  • This is Subasinghe Ariyaratna’s own design. He is a small rice farmer (2 ha) in Mahaweli System ‘H’ of Sri Lanka. He has also devised a method of crop establishment that is labor saving. Instead of transplanting young seedlings 10 days old, at a seed rate of 5 kg/ha, he germinates seed and broadcasts it on prepared muddy soil at a rate of 25 kg/ha. Then at 10 days, when the seedlings are established, he ‘weeds’ the field as recommended for SRI, with rows 25x25 cm, in both directions, removing (churning under) about 80% of the seedlings, leaving just 1 or maybe 2 or 3 plants at the intersections of his passes. This saves the labor of making and managing a nursery and of transplanting, at a cost of 20 kg of seed/ha. He says this can assure a yield of 7.5 t/ha. As his household labor supply is limited (he has two young children and his wife teaches), he needs to economize on labor.
  • Built by Luis Romero, one of the most successful SRI farmers in Cuba, to plant germinated seeds at 40x40 cm spacing. The seeds are put in the respective bins and dropped at the bins rotate. For his field, Luis found that 40x40 cm was too wide, because of weed problems. He has built one for 30x30 cm now. His neighbor built a seeder with 12 bins, four times as wide, that can be pulled by oxen to further save labor. The important thing to know is that farmers are working on their own ways to reduce SRI labor requirements because they see the benefits of wide spacing, aerated soil, etc.
  • This plot of Liu Zhibin’s was harvested just before my visit, with an official certificate for a yield of 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, when Liu first used SRI methods, on soil that has been kept well supplied with organic matter, he got a yield of 16 t/ha which helped to persuade Prof. Yuan Long-ping, ‘the father of hybrid rice’ in China, to become more interested in SRI. Liu is manager for the seed farm that produces hybrid seed for Prof. Yuan’s operations.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
  • This picture was sent by Thadeusz Niesiobedzki in Poland, of his winter wheat crop that is being grown with single seedlings, wide spacing, use of organic matter, etc. approximating SRI. He hit upon these practices by accident (a long story) and also discovered the SRI internet web page, and saw the similarities between his practices and SRI, thereafter contacting Cornell by email to open up dialogue.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
  • The Paraboowa Farmers Association has a dozen ‘wild rice’ varieties that it can grow for marketing or for export. The rice is grown ‘organically’ so can get a premium price in overseas markets. 17 tons have been exported to Italy already. The farmers want to preserve these varieties for future generations, and SRI enables them to do this.l
  • These are serious challenges, and ones that are becoming more serious year by year. There is need to re-think the way that agricultural is practiced in light of changing conditions.
  • These are serious challenges, and ones that are becoming more serious year by year. There is need to re-think the way that agricultural is practiced in light of changing conditions.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language,but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) SRI Forum, Biratnagar November 4, 2006 Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD Cornell University, USA
    • 2. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a ‘work in progress’ – not finished <ul><li>SRI methods usually enable rice farmers to: </li></ul><ul><li>Raise their production by 50% or more </li></ul><ul><li>While at same time reducing their: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed requirements -- by 80-90% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation water -- by 25-50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence on agrochemicals , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of production -- by 10-25% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With no need for new varieties of seeds and </li></ul><ul><li>higher net income/ha , by 50-100% or more, </li></ul><ul><li>and with favorable environmental impacts </li></ul>
    • 3. Basic SRI Practices: <ul><li>Start with young seedlings – 8-12 days old ( &lt;15 days) have more potential for profuse growth of tillers/roots (D-S okay) </li></ul><ul><li>Use single seedlings -- widely spaced – plant in a square , quickly, gently, shallow </li></ul><ul><li>Apply minimum water – with no standing water in fields, enough to keep soil moist </li></ul><ul><li>Weed with a ‘rotating hoe’ to aerate soil, control weeds and returned to soil </li></ul><ul><li>Provide organic matter -- as much as possible -- for soil organisms and plants </li></ul>
    • 4. Better Stated in terms of Ideas: <ul><li>If you transplant, use young seedlings , preferably 8-12 days old, but less than 15 days to preserve tillering/rooting potential. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct seeding is an option being experimented with by farmers in many countries to save labor. </li></ul></ul>
    • 5. Better Stated in terms of Ideas: <ul><li>If you transplant, use young seedlings . </li></ul><ul><li>Use wider spacing – single seeding per hill and square pattern of transplanting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not maximum spacing – need to maximize number of tillers per sq. meter, not per plant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment to determine the optimum , which can increase over time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not crowd the plants together or their roots and canopies cannot grow their best. </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. Better Stated in terms of Ideas: <ul><li>If you transplant, use young seedlings . </li></ul><ul><li>Use wider spacing – single seeding per hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the soil moist but unflooded . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both plant roots and soil organisms need oxygen to grow, so need to ensure that they have both water and air . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust water management schedule to soil type . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not need to maintain thin layer of water during reproductive stage (after PI). </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. Better Stated in terms of Ideas: <ul><li>If you transplant, use young seedlings . </li></ul><ul><li>Use wider spacing – single seeding per hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the soil moist but unflooded . </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter to the soil, as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizer can enhance SRI yields, but the best yields with other SRI methods come when the soil has been enriched with organic matter. </li></ul></ul>
    • 8. Better Stated in terms of Ideas: <ul><li>If you transplant, use young seedlings . </li></ul><ul><li>Use wider spacing – single seeding per hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the soil moist but unflooded . </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter to the soil, as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively aerate the soil with a rotary hoe, as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual weeding or the use of herbicides is effective for weed control, but neither stimulates plant roots and soil organisms. </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. This is SRI in summary: <ul><li>If you transplant, use young seedlings . </li></ul><ul><li>Use wider spacing – single seeding per hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the soil moist but unflooded . </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter to the soil, as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively aerate the soil as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Undertake other beneficial practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seedbed solarization – healthy seedlings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed selection/priming – start with best seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine best variety for local conditions, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. Review of SRI Results: <ul><li>Bangladesh – IRRI-funded evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia – GTZ evaluation; plus CEDAC evaluation of long-term users (3 years) </li></ul><ul><li>China – China Agricultural University </li></ul><ul><li>India – ANGRAU, TNAU, IWMI-India </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia – Nippon Koei evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Nepal – DADO Morang record-keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka – IWMI evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam – farmer field school reporting </li></ul>
    • 11. SRI use in village had gone from 7 in 2003, to 398 in 2004; farmers considered labor-saving main benefit [N=82] 64% 7.4% [ext. service promoting fertilizer &amp; new seeds] 44% 29% China Agric. University (Li et al., 2005) CHINA 120 farmers who had used SRI for 3 years 89% 44% 50% 105% CEDAC (Tech, 2004) Long-term Users Survey of 500 farmers (400 SRI users, 100 non-users), randomly sampled in 5 provinces; use of SRI has grown to &gt;40,000 farmers in 5 years 74% 56% Flooding at TP reduced 96.3%-&gt;2.5% 41% GTZ (Anthofer et al., 2004) CAM-BODIA National Survey On-farm evaluations [N=1,073] , funded by IRRI PETRRA project 59% (32-82%) 7% NC 24% BRAC/SAFEBRRI/Syng-enta BD Ltd (Hossain, 2004) BANGLADESH IRRI-funded evaluation Comments Increase in Net Income Cost Reduction Water-Saving Yield Increase Evaluation done by/for: Country
    • 12. 3 years of evaluation in E. Indonesia; [ 1,849 trials conducted on 1,363 ha] 412% 24% 40% 84% Nippon Koei- DISIMP (Sato, 2006) INDO-NESIA SRI use in villages had gone from 4 farmers to 150 in 3 seasons [N=108] 67% 35% Rainfed version of SRI 32% IWMI-India (Sinha and Talati, 2005) West Bengal On-farm trials supervised by ANGRAU and State extension service [N=1,535] NA NA 40% 38% Andhra Pradesh Agr. Univ. (Satyanara-yana, 2005) Andhra Pradesh 100 on-farm comparison trials in the Tamiraparani Basin, supervised by TNAU and State extension service 112% 11% 40-50% 28% Tamil Nadu Agr. Univ. (Thiyagarajan et al., 2004) INDIA Tamil Nadu Comments Increase in Net Income Cost Reduction Water-Saving Yield Increase Evaluation done by/for: Country
    • 13. 128% 25% 44% 52% AVER-AGE Record-keeping by Farmer Field School alumni on SRI results 65% 24% 60% 21% National IPM Program (Dông Trù village) VIET-NAM Survey of 120 farmers (60 SRI users, 60 non-users), randomly sampled in 2 districts 90-117% 11.9-13.3% 24% 44% IWMI (Namara et al., 2004) SRI LANKA Morang district users from 1 in 2003 to &gt;1,400 in 2005; data from 412 farmers 163% 2.2% [but rotary hoes not widely available] 43% 82% Morang District Agric. Dev. Office (Uprety, 2005) NEPAL Comments Increase in Net Income Cost Reduction Water-Saving Yield Increase Evaluation done by/for: Country
    • 14. Two Different Paradigms of Production <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, fertilizer, insecticides, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>SRI (AGROECOLOGY) changes the way that plants, soil, water and nutrients are managed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) Promote the growth of root systems and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) Increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These changes -&gt; better PHENOTYPES </li></ul>
    • 15. Ms. Im Sarim, Cambodia, with rice plant grown from a single seed, using SRI methods and traditional variety -- yield of 6.72 t/ha
    • 16. Morang District, Nepal - 2005
    • 17. Mahto Oraon, Malai village, Gumla district, Jharkhand state, India -- Khandagiri, 110-day variety with 65 tillers, grown as ‘rainfed’ SRI rice
    • 18. Eastern Indonesia --- Nippon Koei Irrigation Project 2004
    • 19. Mey Som, Cambodian farmer, showing SRI/non-SRI rice plants
    • 20. FFS farmer in D ông Trù village, Hanoi Province, Vietnam, 2005
    • 21. 47.9% 34.7% “ Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field” Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
    • 22. FACTORIAL TRIAL RESULTS (T/Ha), MORONDAVA, 2000 [N=288] Variety CONVENTIONAL HYV Traditional Average SS/16/3/NPK 2.84 (6) 2.11 (6) 2.48 (12) 1 SRI Practice SS/ 16 / 3 / C 2.69 (6) 2.67 (6) SS/16/ 1 /NPK 2.74 (6) 2.28 (6) SS/ 8 /3/NPK 4.08 (6) 3.09 (6) AS /16/3/NPK 4.04 (6) 2.64 (6) 3.34 (24)(.021) 2.67 (24) (.007) 3.01 (48) 2 SRI Practices SS/16/ 1 / C 2.73 (6) 2.47 (6) SS / 8 / 3 / C 3.35 (6) 4.33 (6) AS /16/ 1 /NPK 4.10 (6) 2.89 (6) AS /16/ 3 / C 4.18 (6) 3.10 (6) SS/ 8 / 1 /NPK 5.00 (6) 3.65 (6) AS / 8 /3/NPK 5.75 (6) 3.34 (6) 4.28 (36)(.000) 3.24 (36)(.000) 3.78 (72) 3 SRI Practices SS/ 8 / 1 / C 3.85 (6) 5.18 (6) AS /16/ 1 / C 3.82 (6) 2.87 (6) AS / 8 / 3 / C 4.49 (6) 4.78 (6) AS / 8 / 1 /NPK 6.62 (6) 4.29 (6) 4.69 (24)(.000) 4.28 (24)(.000) 4.48 (48) ALL SRI PRACTICES AS / 8 / 1 / C 6.83 (6)(.000) 5.96 (6)(.000) 6.40 (12)
    • 23. FACTORIAL TRIAL RESULTS (T/ha), ANJOMAKELY, 2001 [N=240] CONVENTIONAL Clay Loam Average SS/20/3/NPK 3.00 (6) 2.04 (6) 2.52 (12) 1 SRI Practice SS/ 20 / 3 / C 3.71 (6) 2.03 (6) SS/20/ 1 /NPK 5.04 (6) 2.78 (6) SS/ 8 /3/NPK 7.16 (6) 3.89 (6) AS /20/3/NPK 5.08 (6) 2.60 (6) 5.25 (24) 2.83 (24) 4.04 (48) 2 SRI Practices SS/20/ 1 / C 4.50 (6) 2.44 (6) SS / 8 / 3 / C 6.86 (6) 3.61 (6) AS /20/ 1 /NPK 6.07 (6) 3.15 (6) AS /20/ 3 / C 6.72 (6) 3.41 (6) SS/ 8 / 1 /NPK 8.13 (6) 4.36 (6) AS / 8 /3/NPK 8.15 (6) 4.44 (6) 6.74 (36) 3.57 (36) 5.16 (72) 3 SRI Practices SS/ 8 / 1 / C 7.70 (6) 4.07 (6) AS /20/ 1 / C 7.45 (6) 4.10 (6) AS / 8 / 3 / C 9.32 (6) 5.17 (6) AS / 8 / 1 /NPK 8.77 (6) 5.00 (6) 8.31 (24) 4.59 (24) 6.45 (48) ALL SRI PRAC TICES AS / 8 / 1 / C 10.35 (6) 6.39 (6) 8.37 (12)
    • 24. COMPARISONS OF FACTOR EFFECTS, Anjomakely [for each average reported, N = 120 -- except for fertilization, each N = 96] Young seedling effect + 2.48 t/ha 8 days old 6.28 t/ha vs. 20 days old 3.80 t/ha Water management effect + 1.41 t/ha Water control 5.75 t/ha vs. Flooding 4.34 t/ha Fertilization (average for both types of soil) + 1.01 t/ha Compost 5.49 t/ha NPK fertilizer 4.48 t/ha Average on clay soils w/o fertilization = 4.25 t/ha Plants per hill effect + 0.78 t/ha 1 plant/hill 5.43 t/ha vs. 3 plants/hill 4.65 t/ha Spacing effect (note: both spacings are within SRI range) + 0.08 t/ha 30 x 30 cm 5.08 t/ha vs. 25 x 25 cm 5.00 t/ha Soil effect (for equal number of trials with compost and NPK fertilization) Clay (better) soil 6.75 t/ha vs. Loam (poorer) soil 3.72 t/ha
    • 25. Comparison of root pulling results (RPR), in kg, at different stages of growth (Barison, 2002) 40.95 20.67 35.00 22.00 Conventional system 39.40 30.00 49.67 36.33 SRA without fertilization 38.30 34.11 55.33 44.00 SRA with NPK + urea 28.29 49.67 68.67 61.67 SRI without compost 28.69 55.19 77.67 53.00 SRI with compost % decrease in RPR between anthesis and maturity RPR at maturity RPR at anthesis RPR at panicle initiation Treatments
    • 26. Root length density (cm cm -3 ) under SRI, SRA and conventional systems (Barison, 2002) 0.06 0.13 0.36 1.19 1.28 4.11 Conventional system 0.07 0.15 0.31 0.55 0.85 3.24 SRA without fertilization 0.09 0.18 0.34 0.65 0.99 3.73 SRA with NPK and urea 0.20 0.25 0.32 0.57 0.71 3.33 SRI without compost 0.23 0.30 0.33 0.61 0.75 3.65 SRI with compost 40-50 30-40 20-30 10-20 5-10 0-5 Soil layers (cm) Treatments
    • 27. Linear regression relationship between N uptake and grain yield for SRI vs. conventional methods using QUESTS model (Barison, 2002)
    • 28. Average Super-rice YIELD (kg ha -1 ) with New Rice Management (SRI) vs. Standard Rice Management at different plant densities (CNRRI data, 2 yrs)
    • 29. Average Super-rice YIELD (kg ha -1 ) with New Rice Management (SRI) vs. Standard Rice Management at different N application rates ha -1 (CNRRI data, 2 yrs)
    • 30. COST OF CULTIVATION PER HECTARE (TNAU STUDY) COST SAVING in SRI system vs. conventional system = Rs. 2,369 ( 11 % ) 19,060 21,429 167.5 222.5 85.5 52 2 2 8.5 9.5 Total 3,500 3,500 75 75 12.5 12.5 - - 1 1 Harvesting 660 660 2 2 2 2 - - - - Plant Protection 240 300 - - 6 7.5 - - - - Irrigation 1,520 3,200 - 80 38 - - - - - Weeding 3,200 2,400 75 55 5 5 - - - - Transplanting 7,254 7,254 10 10 7 7 - - - - Manures &amp; Fertilizers 2,005 2,005 - - 12 12 2 2 7.5 7.5 Main Field Preparation 681 2,110 5.5 0.5 3 6 - - - 1 Nursery Preparation SRI Conv. SRI Conv. SRI Conv SRI Con SRI Conv. Cost (Rs.) Women’s Labour @ Rs. 40 / man-day Men’s Labour @ Rs. 40 / man-day Bullock pair @ Rs. 200 / hr Tractor hours @ Rs. 150 / hr Practices
    • 31. Economics of Cultivation (returns ha -1 ) Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ. study (N=100) 2.25 1.52 B : C ratio US$ 519 US$ 242 Net return US$ 414 US$ 466 Cost of cultivation US$ 933 US$ 708 Gross return US$ 63 US$ 49 Income from straw (Rs. 0.25 / kg) US$ 870 US$ 659 Income from grains (Rs. 5.00 / kg) SRI practices Conventional practices
    • 32. SRI gets MORE from LESS by mobilizing biological processes <ul><li>SRI requirements include: </li></ul><ul><li>More labor while learning the method, but SRI can become labor-saving </li></ul><ul><li>Water control needed for best results </li></ul><ul><li>Access to biomass for compost to get best results -- can use fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Skill and motivation from farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Crop protection in some cases </li></ul>
    • 33. The Element of SRI Success are below-ground, out of sight <ul><li>Greater ROOT GROWTH </li></ul><ul><li>More abundant, diverse and active COMMUNITIES OF SOIL ORGANISMS </li></ul>
    • 34. Bourema, Burkina Faso farmer, with SRI plant – summer 2006
    • 35. Roots of a single rice plant (MTU 1071) grown at Maruteru Agricultural Research Station, AP, India, kharif 2003
    • 36. Cuba – Two plants the same age (52 DAP) and same variety (VN 2084)
    • 37. Madagascar SRI field, traditional variety, 2003 – no lodging
    • 38. Resistance to Abiotic and Biotic Stresses: <ul><li>Drought tolerance/resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to lodging to better tolerate wind, rain and storm damage </li></ul><ul><li>Cold tolerance – has been seen </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity tolerance? – no evidence yet </li></ul><ul><li>Cope better with climate change ? </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread reports of resistance to pests and diseases – trophobiosis ? </li></ul>
    • 39. Rice fields in Sri Lanka: same variety, same irrigation system, and same drought : conventional methods (left), SRI (right)
    • 40. Rice in Tamil Nadu, India: normal foreground; SRI crop in center, no lodging
    • 41. Rice in D ô ng Tr ù , Vietnam: normal methods on right; SRI with close spacing in middle; SRI with wider spacing on left
    • 42. Shortening of Crop Cycle <ul><li>Reported in more and more situations: </li></ul><ul><li>Best data from District Agricultural Development Office/Morang in Nepal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter crop cycle reduces the risks of biotic and abiotic stresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also may permit additional cropping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We see that weeding , i.e., active soil aeration, is shortening the crop cycle and raises crop yield – saving water </li></ul>
    • 43. Nepal: Monsoon Season, 2005 <ul><li>51 farmers in Morang district who planted popular Bansdhan variety using SRI methods (usual maturity @ 145 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Age of N of Days to Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>seedling farmers harvest (in days) </li></ul><ul><li>&gt; 14 d 9 138.5 6.5 </li></ul><ul><li>10 - 14 d 37 130.6 14.4 </li></ul><ul><li>8 - 9 d 5 123.6 21.4 </li></ul><ul><li>[WWF/AP evaluation: 7-10 days reduction] </li></ul>
    • 44. Nepal: Weeding Effect <ul><li>412 farmers in Morang district using SRI methods in monsoon season, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Data show that WEEDINGS can raise yield </li></ul><ul><li>Ave. SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha, vs. control = 3.1 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li> ----------- </li></ul><ul><li>No. of No. of Average Range </li></ul><ul><li>weedings farmers yield of yields </li></ul><ul><li>1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6) </li></ul><ul><li>2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0) </li></ul><ul><li>3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4) </li></ul>
    • 45. Farmer Innovation Is Important <ul><li>New and better implements – are reducing SRI labor requirements </li></ul><ul><li>New and better methods of crop establishment are also saving labor </li></ul><ul><li>Extrapolation of SRI concepts and practices to other crops promising </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer-to-farmer dissemination has been essential for SRI’s spread </li></ul>
    • 46. &nbsp;
    • 47. &nbsp;
    • 48. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; Reddy’s yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 17.25 t/ha paddy (dry wt)
    • 49. Cono-weeder designed by H. M. Premaratna, Sri Lanka, locally manufactured for $10
    • 50. Four-row weeder developed by Gopal Swaminathan, Cauvery Delta, Tamil Nadu, India; Gopal also devised the Kadiramangalam variation of SRI for production in high-temperature regions
    • 51. Weeder designed by Nong Sovann, Kampong Spreu province, Cambodia; built for $3, with a $20 increase in value of rice
    • 52. &nbsp;
    • 53. SRI Seeder Developed in Cuba Designed/built by Luis Romero (14 t/ha), 40x40 cm spacing -- too wide; his neighbor built 12-row seeder to be ox-drawn
    • 54. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in his raised-bed, no-till SRI field; measured yield was 13.4 t/ha; in 2001, his SRI yield of 16 t/ha set Sichuan yield record
    • 55. SRI concepts and practices being extended to other crops <ul><li>Winter wheat in Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Millet (ragi) in Karnataka state, India </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar cane in AP state, India </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton in TN state, India </li></ul><ul><li>Chickens in Cambodia </li></ul>
    • 56. Winter wheat crop (Poland) before going into winter dormancy
    • 57. SRI RAGI (FINGER MILLET), Rabi 2004-05 60 days after sowing – Varieties 762 and 708 VR 762 VR 708 10 15 21* *Age at which seedlings were transplanted from nursery Results of trials being being done by ANGRAU
    • 58. &nbsp;
    • 59. &nbsp;
    • 60. &nbsp;
    • 61. &nbsp;
    • 62. Ms. Im Sarim, Cambodia, with rice plant grown from a single seed, using SRI methods and traditional variety -- yield of 6.72 t/ha
    • 63. &nbsp;
    • 64. ‘ MODERN AGRICULTURE’ faces many challenges <ul><li>Costs of production are increasing with diminishing returns to inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on petrochemical inputs is becoming more uncertain and costly </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse environmental impacts are increasing and becoming less acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Global climate change requires some reorientation in strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variability is more disruptive than warming </li></ul></ul>
    • 65. SRI suggests directions for ‘post-modern agriculture’ <ul><li>21st century needs systems of production more intensive/less extensive than in 20th </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy costs rising, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land and water resources must be used more productively, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts must be reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-modern agriculture is most modern! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building on advances in biology, ecology and microbiology (Mattoo and Abdul-Baki, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21st century will be ‘the century of biology’ </li></ul></ul>
    • 66. THANK YOU <ul><li>Web page: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] or [email_address] or </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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