WHAT IS SRI? National SRI Symposium Hyderabad, November 17, 2006 Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD Cornell University, USA
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is  many things  –  not just one thing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is more  pluralistic  than  mono...
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI was  developed in Madagascar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI originated from Fr. de Laulani é , SJ </li...
Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is still  a work in progress   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is  continually evolving , especially be...
Rake to mark field for transplanting, developed in Madagascar, also in India
 
Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; Reddy’s yiel...
Four-row weeder developed by Gopal Swaminathan, Kadiramangalam, Tamil Nadu,
Weeder designed by Nong Sovann, Kampong Spreu province, Cambodia; built for $3, with a $20 increase in value of rice
Simple weeder made by Govinda Dhakal , Indrapura-6, Belbari, Morang District,  costing only 15 rupees to make; 10 laborers...
 
SRI direct-seeder designed/built by Luis Romero in Cuba; transplanted rice gave 14 t/ha; the 40x40 cm spacing was too wide...
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is many things –  not just one thing </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is many different things </li></ul><ul...
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is a  set of practices  – always to  be  adapted to local circumstances  –  that accomplish  two ...
Single SRI plant – MTU 1071 Maruteru Agr. Res. Station
SRI plant on right and ‘normal’ plant on right on Cuban farm; same age (52 days) and same variety (VN 2084)
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is about  MORE THAN YIELD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is especially about  higher productivity </li>...
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is  more accessible to the poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no  capital requirement   </li></...
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is depends on creating a better  growing environment for plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It  improve...
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is -- or can be --  ‘organic’ </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is  not necessarily organic </li></ul><ul><ul...
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI depends on  farmer participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer innovation  is important  </li></ul...
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI depends also on  scientific work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much is still  not fully understood  and e...
SRI RAGI (FINGER MILLET), Rabi 2004-05 60 days after sowing – Varieties 762 and 708 VR 762 VR 708 10   15   21* *Age at wh...
System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on righ...
 
 
 
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI has the potential to  transform  the agricultural sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is already imp...
WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI IS NOT FINISHED  –  work in progress </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is both a  CHALLENGE  and an  OPPORTUN...
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0609 What is System of Rice Intensification?

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Presenter: Norman Uphoff

Audience: 1st National SRI Symposium Hyderabad

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  • Presentation prepared for meeting with the Poverty Alleviation Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal – November 9, 2006
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • This picture was provided by Association Tefy Saina, showing Fr. de Laulanie the year before his death in 1995, at age 75.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • Here the SRI field is being &apos;marked&apos; for transplanting with a simple wooden &apos;rake.&apos; This was the first technical innovation in SRI transplanting, to improve upon guiding square-grid transplanting with strings stretched across the paddy field. We find that if the soil is too wet, the lines made by the rake will not remain long enough for transplanting. There are drains within the field to carry excess water away from the root zone.
  • Here the seedlings are being set into the soil, very shallow (only 1-2 cm deep). The transplanted seedlings are barely visible at the intersections of the lines. This operation proceeds very quickly once the transplanters have gained some skill and confidence in the method. As noted already, these seedling set out with two leaves can already have a third leaf by the next day.
  • This was developed in 2003 by Mr. L. Reddy, to replace the use of strings and sticks to mark lines for planting, or the use of a wooden “rake” that could mark lines when pulled across the paddy in two directions. This implement, which can be built for any spacing desired, enables farmers, after it is pulled across the paddy in one direction, to plant SRI seedlings in a 25x250 cm square pattern. It saves as lot of labor time for transplanting because only one pass is needed across the field, and this is wider than a rake could be. Even wider ones have been built. Mr. Reddy is a very innovative and successful SRI farmer, with a superb yield last rabi season, measured and reported by the Department of Extension in Andhra Pradesh. This yield was the average for a 9-acre rice farm. In one plot, the yield measured by the Dept. staff was 20 t/ha; Reddy was disappointed that they would not report this separately. Instead, they just averaged this for the whole-farm statistic.
  • Gopal Swaminathan was one of the first SRI farmers in the Cauvery delta. His Kadiramangalam system was devised for delta areas where sun and wind desiccate tiny seedlings; so he transplants 15-day seedlings in clumps of 5 plants, at 30x30 cm spacing, and then re-transplants them at 30 days, as single plants per hill at that spacing. The extra labor means that there is almost zero mortality, and yields of 7.5 t/ha are assuredly attained.
  • This was built with a wooden axle, into which bent large nails were driven, with the axle mounted on a simple iron-rod frame. The ‘rake’ at the back was added to increase the soil aeration. Nong estimated that he got $20 more worth of rice yield from his small plot with this soil-aerating weeder, for the cost of $3 in materials and about 75 cents worth of labor.
  • This is Subasinghe Ariyaratna’s own design. He is a small rice farmer (2 ha) in Mahaweli System ‘H’ of Sri Lanka. He has also devised a method of crop establishment that is labor saving. Instead of transplanting young seedlings 10 days old, at a seed rate of 5 kg/ha, he germinates seed and broadcasts it on prepared muddy soil at a rate of 25 kg/ha. Then at 10 days, when the seedlings are established, he ‘weeds’ the field as recommended for SRI, with rows 25x25 cm, in both directions, removing (churning under) about 80% of the seedlings, leaving just 1 or maybe 2 or 3 plants at the intersections of his passes. This saves the labor of making and managing a nursery and of transplanting, at a cost of 20 kg of seed/ha. He says this can assure a yield of 7.5 t/ha. As his household labor supply is limited (he has two young children and his wife teaches), he needs to economize on labor.
  • Built by Luis Romero, one of the most successful SRI farmers in Cuba, to plant germinated seeds at 40x40 cm spacing. The seeds are put in the respective bins and dropped at the bins rotate. For his field, Luis found that 40x40 cm was too wide, because of weed problems. He has built one for 30x30 cm now. His neighbor built a seeder with 12 bins, four times as wide, that can be pulled by oxen to further save labor. The important thing to know is that farmers are working on their own ways to reduce SRI labor requirements because they see the benefits of wide spacing, aerated soil, etc.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • 0609 What is System of Rice Intensification?

    1. 1. WHAT IS SRI? National SRI Symposium Hyderabad, November 17, 2006 Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD Cornell University, USA
    2. 2. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is many things – not just one thing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is more pluralistic than monolithic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is better understood and referred to as an adjective than as a noun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SRI is different things to different people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But nobody has any monopoly on SRI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are no patents, no royalties, no IPR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This may cause some occasional discomfort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But so be it – benefits outweigh the costs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI was developed in Madagascar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI originated from Fr. de Laulani é , SJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often called ‘the Madagascar system’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SRI is spreading around the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ SRI effect’ demonstrated in 24 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soon to add Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Iran </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
    5. 5. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is still a work in progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is continually evolving , especially being improved by farmer innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many examples: from Madagascar, India, Cambodia, Nepal, Cuba, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Rake to mark field for transplanting, developed in Madagascar, also in India
    7. 8. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; Reddy’s yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 17.25 t/ha paddy (dry wt)
    8. 9. Four-row weeder developed by Gopal Swaminathan, Kadiramangalam, Tamil Nadu,
    9. 10. Weeder designed by Nong Sovann, Kampong Spreu province, Cambodia; built for $3, with a $20 increase in value of rice
    10. 11. Simple weeder made by Govinda Dhakal , Indrapura-6, Belbari, Morang District, costing only 15 rupees to make; 10 laborers can weed 1 hectare vs. 25-30 laborers manually
    11. 13. SRI direct-seeder designed/built by Luis Romero in Cuba; transplanted rice gave 14 t/ha; the 40x40 cm spacing was too wide; his neighbor built 12-row seeder to be ox-drawn
    12. 14. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is many things – not just one thing </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is many different things </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is not yet finished </li></ul><ul><li>SRI was developed in Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is spreading around the world </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is NOT A TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is a methodology; a set of ideas; insights; philosophy – not set ‘package’ </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is a set of practices – always to be adapted to local circumstances – that accomplish two main things : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigorous grown and health of roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant, diverse and active soil biota </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THESE ARE THE KEY TO SRI SUCCESS </li></ul><ul><li>SRI may be called ‘the root revolution’ (N. Subba Rao, Achanta, October 2003) </li></ul>
    14. 16. Single SRI plant – MTU 1071 Maruteru Agr. Res. Station
    15. 17. SRI plant on right and ‘normal’ plant on right on Cuban farm; same age (52 days) and same variety (VN 2084)
    16. 18. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is about MORE THAN YIELD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is especially about higher productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher productivity of LAND (kg/ha) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher productivity of LABOUR (kg/hour) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher productivity of WATER (kg/m 3 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher productivity of CAPITAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater return on investment (kg/Rs.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher net farmer income per hectare </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WE SHOULD NOT OVER-EMPHASIZE YIELD! </li></ul>
    17. 19. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is more accessible to the poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no capital requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So no need for loans or for credit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Might want to give yield guarantees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need to change varieties or to purchase agrochemical inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI requires mostly knowledge and skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> and motivation </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is depends on creating a better growing environment for plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It improves the E in the GxE equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is not ‘against’ genetic improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always want to start with most appropriate genotype – then produce best phenotype ! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HYVs and hybrids give highest SRI yields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But local varieties give very good yields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>LET FARMERS DECIDE FOR THEMSELVES </li></ul>
    19. 21. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI is -- or can be -- ‘organic’ </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is not necessarily organic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical fertilizers used with other SRI practices give higher yields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest SRI yields have come with organic soil fertilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LET FARMERS DECIDE FOR THEMSELVES -- SRI IS ABOUT GIVING THEM OPTIONS </li></ul>
    20. 22. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI depends on farmer participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer innovation is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer-to-farmer spread most effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource development is goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The name of Association Tefy Saina , the NGO promoting SRI in Madagascar, does not mean “grow more rice” but instead it means “improve the mind” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 23. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI depends also on scientific work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much is still not fully understood and everything about SRI can be explained in sound scientific terms – no magic! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI probably still not optimum because it was developed empirically/inductively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There may be future problems that scientific research can help us avoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing the principles will should help us extend SRI insights to other crops ! </li></ul></ul>
    22. 24. SRI RAGI (FINGER MILLET), Rabi 2004-05 60 days after sowing – Varieties 762 and 708 VR 762 VR 708 10 15 21* *Age at which seedlings were transplanted from nursery Results of trials being being done by ANGRAU
    23. 25. System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on right, picture courtesy of PRADAN
    24. 29. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI has the potential to transform the agricultural sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is already improving the production of sugar cane, ragi, cotton, maybe other crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The increases in rice productivity should enable farmers to redeploy land, labor, water and capital into producing other crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That give higher income and are more nutritious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>SRI should lead to diversification in agriculture, and also modernization </li></ul>
    25. 30. WHAT IS SRI? <ul><li>SRI IS NOT FINISHED – work in progress </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is both a CHALLENGE and an OPPORTUNITY for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher productivity – better incomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water saving – coping with climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty reduction – reduce food insecurity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental protection – water, soil and air quality, conservation of biodiversity </li></ul></ul>
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