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0602 Water Saving for Paddy Cultivation by SRI: Experience of Decentralized irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (DISIMP)
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0602 Water Saving for Paddy Cultivation by SRI: Experience of Decentralized irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (DISIMP)


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Presenter: Shuichi Sato …

Presenter: Shuichi Sato

Audience: IRRI Workshop, Indonesia

Subject Country: Indonesia

Published in: Technology, Business

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  • 1. Water Saving for Paddy Cultivation by SRI (System of Rice Intensification) Experience of Decentralized Irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (DISIMP) JBIC ODA Loan 7 March 2006 by Shuichi SATO Team Leader of the Consultant for DISIMP Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
  • 2. Irrigation Development in Eastern Indonesia Characteristics of Eastern Indonesia Irrigation Development in Eastern Indonesia
    • Limited water resources
    • Agriculture-based economy
    • Remote location / poor transport infrastructure
    • Less development / investment in the past
    • Government policies to develop eastern Indonesia started in the 1980s.
    • Since 1990, SSIMP-DISIMP has continued to play a key role for water
    • resources and irrigation development
    • in eastern Indonesia.
    SSIMP = Small Scale Irrigation Management Project DISIMP = Decentralized Irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (= SSIMP-IV)
  • 3. Outline of SSIMP-DISIMP Project Objective Poverty alleviation by improving agricultural productivity and farmers’ income through water resources and irrigation development / improvement and capacity building in Eastern Region of Indonesia . Performance of SSIMP-DISIMP (JBIC Loan)
  • 4. Unique Points of SSIMP-DISIMP
    • Comprehensive Project Management to Cover the Whole Project Cycle
    • (Project Formulation – Planning – Engineering – Guidance - Monitoring)
    • Continuous Learning Process by Project Continuity Made Possible
    • by GOI and JBIC
    • Hard – Soft Integrated Approach
    • Flexible Project Formulation to Meet Local Needs (Bottom-up)
    •    Component (hard) = Water source, Irrigation, Water supply,
    • Rural development,
    • Component (soft) = Capacity building, Farm guidance, O&M guidance,
    • Special study
    • Water source type = Dam, Pond, Weir, Groundwater well
    • Development type = Improvement, New
    • Size of sub-project = 200 ha (groundwater) – 60,000 ha ( improvement )
    • Stage-wise Development
    • Strong Quality Control (Task concept for supervision)
    • SSIMP-DISIMP = rapid realization of real benefits for the people.
  • 5. SRI System of Rice Intensification
  • 6. SRI (System of Rice Intensification)
    • SRI was developed in the 1980s in Madagaskar,
    • but became widely known only after 1999.
    • SRI is an innovative paddy cultivation method
    • attaining higher paddy yields with lower resources
    • utilization (>40% reduction for water, 50% reduction for
    • chemical fertilizer and insecticide).
    • SRI is a set of principles for rice cultivation:
    • (1) Unique transplanting method
    • Single planting of younger seedling (7-14 days after seeding)
    • at wider spacing (30 cm x 30 cm for DISIMP)
    • (2) Intermittent irrigation
    • SRI will increase the burdens of water management and
    • weeding, but this can accepted by farmers owing to a
    • strong incentives from yield increases.
    • Note: a) Application of organic fertilizers is recommended,
    • but is not the “Must”. (Experience of DISIMP)
    • b) Value of transplanting of younger seedling was confirmed
    • in Japan by many researchers by 1990.
  • 7. SRI under DISIMP
    • SRI was introduced in DISIMP in 2002.
    • SRI area is: 2 ha in 2002, 15 ha in 2003, 365 ha in 2004, 982 ha in 2005, and >4,000 ha in 2006.
    • Yield of SRI paddy (2002-2005 average) was 7.23
    • t/ha, 84% higher than non-SRI paddy of 3.92 t/ha.
    • Irrigation water use for SRI is 40% less than
    • non-SRI plots.
    • 4. Water saving by SRI will contribute to:
    • Equitable water distribution in weir irrigation
    • scheme by introducing SRI in the upstream areas
    • Efficient use of expensive water by dam and pond
    • Cost saving for groundwater schemes
    • Success with the SRI method needs good water
    • management, which in turn needs strong farmer
    • groups, which needs a high level of
    • participation.
  • 8. Comparison of Seedlings, SRI vs. Non-SRI Non-SRI Seedlings (30 days) SRI Seedling (10 days)
  • 9. Young Seedlings Transplanting in Japan
    • In Japan, since 1980, research on translanting of young seedling
    • has been done from viewpoint of cost saving .
    • Results of findings on use of younger seedlings were the same as SRI.
    • By 1990, mechanized trasnplating technology for younger seedling
    • was estabsliched and a manual was published.
    Nursery Bed for Young Seedlings Transplanter of Young Seedling (3 hrs/ha)
  • 10. Field Preparation for SRI Digging of filed drain in plot for SRI Intermittent Irrigation Drainage pipe at plot bund Marking for transplanting (30 cm x 30 cm)
  • 11. Preparation of Seedlings and SRI Transplanting Seeding on nursery plate young seedling (10 days after seeding) SRI Transplanting of single young seedling (7 – 14 days after seeding) at wider spacing (30 cm x 30 cm) Nursery plate rack
  • 12. Weeding by Weeder SRI Rotary Weeder Developed by DISIMP Consultant Conventional Weeder from Java Weeder ( for Muddy soil)
  • 13. Rice Plant Growth (1) 10 DAT DAT = Day After Transplanting 21 DAT 41 DAT 62 DAT
  • 14. Rice Plant Growth (2) 72 DAT 89 DAT 105 DAT
  • 15. Paddy Yield of SRI in DISIMP (2002-05) Note: * = Dry un-husked rice (14% moisture content)
  • 16. Lessons Learned of SRI under DISIMP
    • SRI method can offer high paddy yield with less production costs
    • (seeds, fertilizers, chemcals) as well as water saving.
    • Labor burden increases by SRI, but farmers can overcome due
    • to strong incentive of high productivity of paddy cultivation.
    • Without use of organic fertilizers (reduced chemical fertilizer only)
    • high yield of paddy can be obtained. Use of organic fertilizers is
    • preferable but not the “Must” for SRI.
    • If use of organic fertilizers is the must, expansion of SRI is difficult.
    • SRI is water saving attaining about 40% reduction in quantity in lot
    • (variable by soil and filed conditions) due to intermittent irrigation.
    • However, farmers will never agree to dry up their field without
    • reliable water source . Therefore, introduction of SRI should be
    • in irrigation area of relatively good conditions such as upstream
    • of the system.
    • For successful introduction of SRI, involvement of local government
    • offices as well as experts (consultant) is necessary for technical
    • support and advice.
  • 17. Intermittent Irrigation Wet Dry Wet-Dry Cycle is different by lot condition, soil type, and water availability. Dry for 3 weeks
  • 18. Sambelia SRI Experimental Station, DISIMP Test Plot (5 m x 5 m, 24 plots) General Layout of Sambelia SRI Experimental Station Water Measurement System To Mataram (2 hours)
  • 19. SRI Trial in Sambelia Station, DISIMP First Planting Test 2005/2006 Land Preparation (30-Sep-05) 3 DAT (14-Oct-05) 27 DAT (7-Nov-05) 43 DAT (23-Nov-05) 72 DAT (22-Dec-05) 115 DAT (4-Feb-06) DAT = Days After Transplanting
  • 20. Field Test for Intermittent Irrigation Case-1: Case-2: Case-3: Case-4: SRI Transplanting (10-day seedling, 30cm x 30 cm, 1 each) + Intermittent Irrigation SRI Transplanting (10-day seedling, 30cm x 30 cm, 1 each) + Intermittent Irrigation Non-SRI Transplanting (25-day seedling, 20cm x 25 cm, 4 each) + Continuous Irrigation Non-SRI Transplanting (25-day seedling, 20cm x 25 cm, 4 each) + Intermittent Irrigation Field Test Test Results Case-1: Case-2: Case-3: Case-4: Total Irrigation Supply = 816 mm Total Irrigation Supply = 1,152 mm Total Irrigation Supply = 1,368 mm Total Irrigation Supply = 1,136 mm Paddy Yield = 5.12 t/ha Paddy Yield = 4.46 t/ha Paddy Yield = 2.95 t/ha Paddy Yield = 3.40 t/ha Case-1: Case-2: Case-3: Case-4: Rice Variety = Cihereng Irrigation stopped on 1-Jan-06 due to rainfall Irrigation Practice Oct. 2005 Nov. 2005 Dec. 2005 Jan. 2006 Feb. 2006 11 Oct. 11 Oct. 26 Oct. 26 Oct. 3 Feb. 4 Feb. 3 Feb. 4 Feb. Harvest Transplanting
  • 21. Water Savings by SRI Methods Field water measurement using V-notch has started in DISIMP schemes in 2006.
    • Less water for 2 nd land preparation
    • Less water for nursery bed
    • Less irrigation during plant growing under intermittent irrigation
    Water-Saving Effects of SRI Field observation shows an amount of irrigation water use for SRI is about 40% less than non-SRI (continuous ponding). Water-Saving Effects of SRI
    • Contribution to mitigate upsteam-downstream problem in
    • a scheme by introducing SRI in the upstream areas and increase
    • water for downsteam areas for equitable water diestribution.
    • => Sustainable Participatory Water-saving
    • Cost saving for groundwater irrigation
    • Effective use of impounding water by dam and pond
    Benefits of SRI Water-Saving
  • 22. The End SRI will contribute to mitigate present and future global issues of Food , Poverty , Water , & Environment