0602 Water Saving for Paddy Cultivation by SRI: Experience of Decentralized irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (DISIMP)
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0602 Water Saving for Paddy Cultivation by SRI: Experience of Decentralized irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (DISIMP)

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Presenter: Shuichi Sato

Presenter: Shuichi Sato

Audience: IRRI Workshop, Indonesia

Subject Country: Indonesia

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    0602 Water Saving for Paddy Cultivation by SRI: Experience of Decentralized irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (DISIMP) 0602 Water Saving for Paddy Cultivation by SRI: Experience of Decentralized irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (DISIMP) Presentation Transcript

    • Water Saving for Paddy Cultivation by SRI (System of Rice Intensification) Experience of Decentralized Irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (DISIMP) JBIC ODA Loan 7 March 2006 by Shuichi SATO Team Leader of the Consultant for DISIMP Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
    • Irrigation Development in Eastern Indonesia Characteristics of Eastern Indonesia Irrigation Development in Eastern Indonesia
      • Limited water resources
      • Agriculture-based economy
      • Remote location / poor transport infrastructure
      • Less development / investment in the past
      • Government policies to develop eastern Indonesia started in the 1980s.
      • Since 1990, SSIMP-DISIMP has continued to play a key role for water
      • resources and irrigation development
      • in eastern Indonesia.
      SSIMP = Small Scale Irrigation Management Project DISIMP = Decentralized Irrigation System Improvement Project in Eastern Region of Indonesia (= SSIMP-IV)
    • Outline of SSIMP-DISIMP Project Objective Poverty alleviation by improving agricultural productivity and farmers’ income through water resources and irrigation development / improvement and capacity building in Eastern Region of Indonesia . Performance of SSIMP-DISIMP (JBIC Loan)
    • Unique Points of SSIMP-DISIMP
      • Comprehensive Project Management to Cover the Whole Project Cycle
      • (Project Formulation – Planning – Engineering – Guidance - Monitoring)
      • Continuous Learning Process by Project Continuity Made Possible
      • by GOI and JBIC
      • Hard – Soft Integrated Approach
      • Flexible Project Formulation to Meet Local Needs (Bottom-up)
      •    Component (hard) = Water source, Irrigation, Water supply,
      • Rural development,
      • Component (soft) = Capacity building, Farm guidance, O&M guidance,
      • Special study
      • Water source type = Dam, Pond, Weir, Groundwater well
      • Development type = Improvement, New
      • Size of sub-project = 200 ha (groundwater) – 60,000 ha ( improvement )
      • Stage-wise Development
      • Strong Quality Control (Task concept for supervision)
      • SSIMP-DISIMP = rapid realization of real benefits for the people.
    • SRI System of Rice Intensification
    • SRI (System of Rice Intensification)
      • SRI was developed in the 1980s in Madagaskar,
      • but became widely known only after 1999.
      • SRI is an innovative paddy cultivation method
      • attaining higher paddy yields with lower resources
      • utilization (>40% reduction for water, 50% reduction for
      • chemical fertilizer and insecticide).
      • SRI is a set of principles for rice cultivation:
      • (1) Unique transplanting method
      • Single planting of younger seedling (7-14 days after seeding)
      • at wider spacing (30 cm x 30 cm for DISIMP)
      • (2) Intermittent irrigation
      • SRI will increase the burdens of water management and
      • weeding, but this can accepted by farmers owing to a
      • strong incentives from yield increases.
      • Note: a) Application of organic fertilizers is recommended,
      • but is not the “Must”. (Experience of DISIMP)
      • b) Value of transplanting of younger seedling was confirmed
      • in Japan by many researchers by 1990.
    • SRI under DISIMP
      • SRI was introduced in DISIMP in 2002.
      • SRI area is: 2 ha in 2002, 15 ha in 2003, 365 ha in 2004, 982 ha in 2005, and >4,000 ha in 2006.
      • Yield of SRI paddy (2002-2005 average) was 7.23
      • t/ha, 84% higher than non-SRI paddy of 3.92 t/ha.
      • Irrigation water use for SRI is 40% less than
      • non-SRI plots.
      • 4. Water saving by SRI will contribute to:
      • Equitable water distribution in weir irrigation
      • scheme by introducing SRI in the upstream areas
      • Efficient use of expensive water by dam and pond
      • Cost saving for groundwater schemes
      • Success with the SRI method needs good water
      • management, which in turn needs strong farmer
      • groups, which needs a high level of
      • participation.
    • Comparison of Seedlings, SRI vs. Non-SRI Non-SRI Seedlings (30 days) SRI Seedling (10 days)
    • Young Seedlings Transplanting in Japan
      • In Japan, since 1980, research on translanting of young seedling
      • has been done from viewpoint of cost saving .
      • Results of findings on use of younger seedlings were the same as SRI.
      • By 1990, mechanized trasnplating technology for younger seedling
      • was estabsliched and a manual was published.
      Nursery Bed for Young Seedlings Transplanter of Young Seedling (3 hrs/ha)
    • Field Preparation for SRI Digging of filed drain in plot for SRI Intermittent Irrigation Drainage pipe at plot bund Marking for transplanting (30 cm x 30 cm)
    • Preparation of Seedlings and SRI Transplanting Seeding on nursery plate young seedling (10 days after seeding) SRI Transplanting of single young seedling (7 – 14 days after seeding) at wider spacing (30 cm x 30 cm) Nursery plate rack
    • Weeding by Weeder SRI Rotary Weeder Developed by DISIMP Consultant Conventional Weeder from Java Weeder ( for Muddy soil)
    • Rice Plant Growth (1) 10 DAT DAT = Day After Transplanting 21 DAT 41 DAT 62 DAT
    • Rice Plant Growth (2) 72 DAT 89 DAT 105 DAT
    • Paddy Yield of SRI in DISIMP (2002-05) Note: * = Dry un-husked rice (14% moisture content)
    • Lessons Learned of SRI under DISIMP
      • SRI method can offer high paddy yield with less production costs
      • (seeds, fertilizers, chemcals) as well as water saving.
      • Labor burden increases by SRI, but farmers can overcome due
      • to strong incentive of high productivity of paddy cultivation.
      • Without use of organic fertilizers (reduced chemical fertilizer only)
      • high yield of paddy can be obtained. Use of organic fertilizers is
      • preferable but not the “Must” for SRI.
      • If use of organic fertilizers is the must, expansion of SRI is difficult.
      • SRI is water saving attaining about 40% reduction in quantity in lot
      • (variable by soil and filed conditions) due to intermittent irrigation.
      • However, farmers will never agree to dry up their field without
      • reliable water source . Therefore, introduction of SRI should be
      • in irrigation area of relatively good conditions such as upstream
      • of the system.
      • For successful introduction of SRI, involvement of local government
      • offices as well as experts (consultant) is necessary for technical
      • support and advice.
    • Intermittent Irrigation Wet Dry Wet-Dry Cycle is different by lot condition, soil type, and water availability. Dry for 3 weeks
    • Sambelia SRI Experimental Station, DISIMP Test Plot (5 m x 5 m, 24 plots) General Layout of Sambelia SRI Experimental Station Water Measurement System To Mataram (2 hours)
    • SRI Trial in Sambelia Station, DISIMP First Planting Test 2005/2006 Land Preparation (30-Sep-05) 3 DAT (14-Oct-05) 27 DAT (7-Nov-05) 43 DAT (23-Nov-05) 72 DAT (22-Dec-05) 115 DAT (4-Feb-06) DAT = Days After Transplanting
    • Field Test for Intermittent Irrigation Case-1: Case-2: Case-3: Case-4: SRI Transplanting (10-day seedling, 30cm x 30 cm, 1 each) + Intermittent Irrigation SRI Transplanting (10-day seedling, 30cm x 30 cm, 1 each) + Intermittent Irrigation Non-SRI Transplanting (25-day seedling, 20cm x 25 cm, 4 each) + Continuous Irrigation Non-SRI Transplanting (25-day seedling, 20cm x 25 cm, 4 each) + Intermittent Irrigation Field Test Test Results Case-1: Case-2: Case-3: Case-4: Total Irrigation Supply = 816 mm Total Irrigation Supply = 1,152 mm Total Irrigation Supply = 1,368 mm Total Irrigation Supply = 1,136 mm Paddy Yield = 5.12 t/ha Paddy Yield = 4.46 t/ha Paddy Yield = 2.95 t/ha Paddy Yield = 3.40 t/ha Case-1: Case-2: Case-3: Case-4: Rice Variety = Cihereng Irrigation stopped on 1-Jan-06 due to rainfall Irrigation Practice Oct. 2005 Nov. 2005 Dec. 2005 Jan. 2006 Feb. 2006 11 Oct. 11 Oct. 26 Oct. 26 Oct. 3 Feb. 4 Feb. 3 Feb. 4 Feb. Harvest Transplanting
    • Water Savings by SRI Methods Field water measurement using V-notch has started in DISIMP schemes in 2006.
      • Less water for 2 nd land preparation
      • Less water for nursery bed
      • Less irrigation during plant growing under intermittent irrigation
      Water-Saving Effects of SRI Field observation shows an amount of irrigation water use for SRI is about 40% less than non-SRI (continuous ponding). Water-Saving Effects of SRI
      • Contribution to mitigate upsteam-downstream problem in
      • a scheme by introducing SRI in the upstream areas and increase
      • water for downsteam areas for equitable water diestribution.
      • => Sustainable Participatory Water-saving
      • Cost saving for groundwater irrigation
      • Effective use of impounding water by dam and pond
      Benefits of SRI Water-Saving
    • The End SRI will contribute to mitigate present and future global issues of Food , Poverty , Water , & Environment