0413 Increasing the Productivity and Efficiency in Rice Production with the Ricecheck System

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Presenter: Nguu Van Nguyen …

Presenter: Nguu Van Nguyen

World Rice Research Conference

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  • Thank you Mr. Chairman. Good morning In the following minutes I will present my contribution with the title of Increasing the Productivity and Efficiency in Rice Production with the RiceCheck system
  • Rice occupies a prominent position in the food security of the world's population. Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population. About four-fifths of the world’s rice is produced by small-scale farmers in developing countries. Millions of households in Asia, Africa and the Americas depend on rice systems for their main source of employment and livelihood. The rice systems are hubs of biodiversity, which include fish, wildlife, livestock, plants that are important for enhancing nutrition and sustainable development.
  • As the world's population is still growing, the land and water resources for rice production will be diminishing, especially in Asia. In many countries the inefficient application of pesticides as part of the intensification of rice production during the Green Revolution period has increased the pressures of pest and diseases and the incidences of declining soil fertility. Economically, the declining prices of rice in the international markets since 1995 has caused a sharp reduction in the return from rice production. This has been one of the major causes of poverty and hardship for many small farmers in developing countries. The situation calls for efforts to enhance the productivity and efficiency in rice production in order to improve food security and to conserve the natural resources of the rice-based systems.
  • The Global Consultation on Yield Gap and Productivity Decline in Rice Production organized by the International Rice Commission in September 2000 in Rome, Italy, found that there is still a large yield gap in irrigated rice production and the closing of this gap could substantially increase the productivity of irrigated rice production systems. The Expert Consultation also identified the Australian RiceCheck system as a potential tool for increasing the productivity and efficiency in irrigated rice production. My presentation has 4 section namely Yield Gap in Irrigated Rice Production, Technologies for Managing Rice Crops and Systems for Their Dissemination, FAO Programme on Development and Dissemination of RiceCheck system, and Conclusions
  • Yield gap is literally defined as the difference between yield potential of rice and yields that are actually obtained by farmers. Different definitions and/or descriptions of yield gap as well as the quantification of the gap in rice production are available in the publication on “Yield Gap and Productivity Decline in Rice Production” Yield potential of traditional Indica varieties = 5 t/ha Japonica x Indica breeding in 1950s Yield potential of High-yielding Indica varieties = 10 t/ha in IR8 Yield potential of High-yielding Japonica varieties = 15 t/ha in YRL Yield potential of hybrid varieties = 18 t/ha in II-32A/Ming86 hybrid Rice crop is more likely to be able to express its yield potential under irrigated systems
  • About 75% of the global rice production comes from irrigated rice systems because of the fact that rice varieties are more likely to be able to express their yield potential when water supply is adequate. The Global Consultation on Yield Gap and Productivity Decline in Rice Production, September 2000 in Rome, Italy, after reviewing the progress in the area of increasing the yield potential of rice and the yields that have been actually obtained by farmers in different country around the world, agreed that (1) there is still a large yield gap in irrigated rice production today and 2) the closing of this yield gap could increase substantially rice production without further investment in land and water development.
  • The yield gap in irrigated rice production is graphically presented in this Figure. It shows the gap of about 4-6 t/ha in both Tropical (e.g. Philippines) and Sub-tropical Climate (e.g. Japan)
  • In order to better understanding of the possibility of closing the yield gap as a mean to increase the productivity of irrigated rice systems, a review of the existing technologies for managing rice crops and the systems for their dissemination is necessary. After the development of IR8 and other high-yielding rice varieties, considerable efforts have been devoted to the development and dissemination of improved technologies for managing rice crops, or production technologies, in order to fully benefit from the yield potential of the developed varieties. Different systems for dissemination of technologies for managing rice crops have been developed and modified at different times and places. Recently in a number of industrialized countries the management of rice and other crops is assisted with the “computer-based precision crop management systems”. Following are some examples of simpler dissemination systems and technologies for managing rice crops that were developed during the last 30 years or more:
  • This is an example of these packages of production technologies disseminated in Asia in 1970s and 1980s. It can be seen in this Box that the packages of production technologies formulated and disseminated in 1970s and early 1980s have the following characteristics: For each crop management area, recommendations are given regarding what needs to be done and how it should be done. A fixed rate and formula of chemical fertilisers are generally recommended without consideration of the local soil conditions, the planted variety or the conditions of the rice crop during the season. Similarly a fixed rate and formula of insecticides are recommended for insect control without taking into account the population of insects and their natural enemies as well as the conditions of the rice crop at the time of application. Farmers are told what they have to do, but are not advised on why they have to do so and/or on how to check if they are correctly following the recommended crop management technologies or practices.
  • The application of these packages of production technologies in the cultivation of high-yielding varieties had helped to increase substantially rice yield and production. The growth rate of rice yield in Asia increased from 1.88 percent per year in the 1970s to 2.86 percent per year during the 1980s. The application of these production technology packages, however, also led to considerable damage to agricultural biodiversity, environmental degradation and pollution as well as to the development of new pests and pest-pressures and the mining of soil fertility. Efforts have been given to improve these packages and they are now called the conventional management systems.
  • The undesirable effects created by the application of the packages of production technologies for managing rice crops in 1970s and early 1980s have led to the development and dissemination of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in 1986. The IPM system teaches farmers to observe the insect population, the damage caused by the insects, the natural enemies of the insects, the condition of the plant growth and other factors before formulating their pest management measures. The IPM systems have been widely disseminated for rice production in Asia, especially in Indonesia, during late 1980s and 1990s, using the Farmer Field School approach.
  • The IPM system was considered a success; The quantity of pesticides consumed in rice production in Indonesia reduced greatly with the application of the IPM system. This led to less pollution and promoted the growth of fish and other aquatic organisms in rice fields. The success of IPM system led to the development and dissemination of the Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) and the site-specific nutrient management systems, which promote the balance application of organic, biological and in-organic fertilizers based on soil and/or plant tests. From management of insect pests, the IPM system expanded to cover disease, weed, and community pests at present The study on the evolution of rice yield in Indonesia, however, indicates that, although the use of pesticides in rice production was greatly reduced with IPM system, the growth in rice yield in the country did not increase substantially.
  • The Indonesia rice yield has remained stagnant around 4.3-4.4 t/ha since 1990 as shown in this Figure. The failure of the IPM system to sustain the yield growth may be due to the fact that it deals only with one crop management area, which is pest management. Rice growth, development and yield are known to be significantly affected by climatic conditions during growing season, rice variety, water supply, plant density, weed competition, disease infection, nutrient availability and water supply. Also, it is well known that Management factors during a rice crop are interrelated and interdependent. For example good land preparation reduces weed growth during the early phases of the crop; good weed control and water management increases the efficiency of nitrogen application; and so on.
  • Système de riz intensification or system of rice intensification – popularly known as SRI – was developed in Madagascar in early 1980s and its dissemination in Madagascar began in 1986. The SRI promotes the planting of very young rice seedlings (< 10 day-old) at wide spacing (e.g. 50cm x 50cm), the application of organic fertilizer, the application of intermittent irrigation, and intensive weed control for better rice production (Table 1). Recently, a number of scientists and non-governmental organisations have tried to pupularize the SRI again in Madagascar and a number of Asian countries. In 2002, IRRI scientists and Chinese collaborators conducted in China a series of field trials to evaluate the performance of SRI and conventional management
  • However, it has not been widely adopted by the population in spite of the fact that rice is the staple food of the people and the country does not produce enough rice to meet the demand. The main factor of the poor performance of the rice production in Madagascar is the low and stagnated yield. Madagascar’s national rice yield in 1988 was about 2 t/ha and has hardly improved since then The proponents of the SRI, however, reported very high yields of rice with SRI. For example, In Cotabato, Philippines it was reported that SRI produced yields of 7-8 t/ha in upland systems and 12 t/ha in irrigated systems. Similarly, it was reported that extremely high yields (16 to 21 t/ha) were obtained with SRI in Madagascar and others countries in Asia (Uphoff, 2004). However, the results of the trial conducted by IRRI scientists and Chinese collaborators in China in 2002 showed that yields obtained from both systems are more or less equal. Major point = scientific contention: Yields obtained from SRI even with traditional varieties are higher than the yield potential of HYV (10 t/ha for Indica , 15/ha for Japonica ) and hybrid varieties (18 t/ha) as mentioned earlier.
  • This figure show that rice yield in Madagascar remained at about 2 tons/ha since 1990.
  • The Markbrouk-4 system was developed and disseminated for rice production in 1985 with the objective of obtaining 4 t/fedan or about 9 t/ha. It has 10 crop management areas, from the selection of rice variety and seed to harvesting From 1980 to 1988 rice yield in Egypt fluctuated between to 6 t/ha. The wide adoption of the Markboouk-4 system in 1990 together with the introduction of new high-yielding varieties have helped the rice yield in Egypt to steadily increase from about 6 t/ha in 1989 to above 9 tons/ha in 2002 as shown in the figure on the left side.
  • The P-7 package was developed and tested in the Kou Valley in Burkina Faso during 1992-93 period. P-7 means package of technologies for 7 t/ha in irrigated rice. It has 7 crop management areas, from variety selection to harvesting. It was tested with 20 farmers co-operators in Kou Valley during 1992-93 period. From its initial test site, the P-7 was disseminated by the Special Programme for Food Security in Burkina Faso and in Senegal since 1994. P-7 increased yield of farmers-co-operators from 4-5 t/ha to 6-7 t/ha
  • Since 1995, WARDA and its partners started to develop Rice-ICM system for irrigated rice cropping in the Sahel zone of West Africa. It is similar to P-7 but for each crop management area, a number of alternative technologies or practices were recommended. A farmer, depending on available resources, selects the most suited recommendation (to his/her situation) to apply.
  • This table show that the application of Rice-ICM system increased rice yield by about 1.7 tons/ha and a net benefit of Euro 184 to 241/ha (Table 2). WARDA scientists concluded that through Rice-ICM system farmers were able to increase rice productivity, while maintaining or even enhancing the quality of the natural resource base
  • The Australian RiceCheck system was developed and transferred in 1986. It covers 7 crop management areas . For each crop management area, the RiceCheck system provides (1) the reason why the recommendations should be followed, (2) the recommended actions or management practices, and (3) the outputs of the correct application of the recommended actions or management practices for farmers to check if they did correctly, thereby empowering the farmer and ensuring sustainable improvements and yield growth . The principles of IPM and INM are included for insect pest and nutrient management. The RiceCheck system encourages farmers to monitor the management process and to keep some record of the results in order to ensure continued evaluation and improved production into the future.
  • This slide show the Guidelines for Crop Establishment and Crop Nutrition in the Australian RiceCheck The provision of KeyCheck or Expected Outputs is perhaps the most innovative aspects of the RiceCheck system. With the KeyCheck farmers could evaluate by themselves if they performed the crop management at this stage or area correctly. This could help them to rectify in the next season or to intelligently discuss the issue with researcher or extension officer for possible improvement through research.
  • This figure shows that from 1970 to 1985, rice yield in Australia stagnated at around 6 t/ha. After the dissemination of the RiceCheck system in 1986, the Australian national yield increased rapidly and steadily from about 6 t/ha in 1987 to above 9 t/ha in 2000. Australian rice scientists considered that 50% of the observed yield increases since 1986 can be attributed to the adoption of the RiceCheck system . They also reported that application of the RiceCheck system also increase the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer application in rice production.
  • The Expert Consultation, after reviewing the available technologies for rice crop management and the systems for their dissemination observed that the Australian RiceCheck system is the most promising for closing the yield gap in rice production in a sustainable manner, and Recommended FAO and its member countries to develop and disseminate similar RiceCheck system to close the yield gap for improving the productivity and efficiency of irrigated rice systems in their countries.
  • The rice production systems in Australia and their conditions, however, are very different to those in developing countries. For this reason FAO has collaborated with its member countries when implementing the recommendations of the Expert Consultation in 2000. The initial results of the field tests carried out by the International Rice Commission and its member countries in recent years demonstrated that the RiceCheck system is also effective for closing the yield gap in irrigated rice production in developing countries. For example: Indonesia: RiceCheck with 5 crop management areas A target of 270 tillers/ sq.m at 22 days after transplanting is required for yield of 8t/ha Transplanting 2-3 seedlings/hill at 20cm x 20cm increased N-use efficiency by 17% Farmers achieved 5 target values increased yield by 23% and benefit by 165% Vietnam: Saved 50% of seed used in direct seeding and reduced N-rate by 20% Brazil and Venezuela: Increased yield by 30%
  • Upon the requests from governments concerned, FAO is currently providing funding support for the training of researchers, extension officers and farmer leaders in Fiji, Philippines, Rwanda and Thailand on the development and dissemination of the RiceCheck system. Similarly as requested by FLAR (Fund for Irrigated Rice in Latin America) FAO helped in the formulation of a project to train researchers, extension officers and farmer leaders in Brazil and Venezuela and the funding support for the projects’ activities was approved by the Common Fund for Commodity. As recommended by the Informal International Working Group for the International Year of Rice in February 2004, the training of researchers, extension officers and farmer leaders in Ghana and Sierra Leone on the development and dissemination of the RiceCheck system will be carried out during the implementation of the projects on NERICA and improved rice technologies, which were recently approved by Japan and United Nations. Recently, FAO also received requests for assistance from Indonesia, Sudan and Vietnam for similar activities.
  • Expert Consultation 2000 Observed that the situation of global rice production calls for efforts to enhance the productivity and efficiency in rice production Observed that there is still a large yield gap and the closing of this gap could substantially increase the productivity of irrigated rice production systems. Identified that the Australian RiceCheck system as a potential tool for closing yield gap and increasing the productivity and efficiency in irrigated rice production
  • FAO Programme on RiceCheck Initial results demonstrated that the modified versions of the Australian RiceCheck systems are promising for closing yield gap and increasing the productivity of irrigated rice production in developing countries. They also indicated that potentially, the RiceCheck system can be updated for achieving the rice production that respects the environment, once environmental indicators (e.g. level of pesticides in water, content of cadminum in rice grain, etc..) are made available by research. FAO will continue to collaborate with member countries and all stake-holders concerned in the development and dissemination of RiceCheck systems.

Transcript

  • 1. INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY IN RICE PRODUCTION WITH THE RICECHECK SYSTEM Nguu Van Nguyen Executive Secretary, International Rice Commission Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations International Year of Rice 2004
  • 2.
    • Importance of Rice and
    • Rice systems
    • Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population
    • Rice systems provide incomes and employment to millions of households
    • Rice systems are important for enhancing nutrition and sustainable development
    International Year of Rice 2004
  • 3. Issues of Rice-based Systems
    • Diminishing land and water resources
    • Increased pressures of pest and diseases
    • Declining soil fertility
    • Poverty in rice producing population
    • Need efforts to enhance the productivity and efficiency in rice production
    International Year of Rice 2004
  • 4. RiceCheck system for Increasing Productivity and Efficiency
    • Outline of Presentation
    • Yield Gap in Irrigated Rice Production
    • Technologies for Managing Rice Crops and Systems for their Dissemination
    • FAO Programme on Development and Dissemination of RiceCheck System
    • Conclusions
    International Year of Rice 2004
  • 5. THE YIELD GAP IN IRRIGATED RICE PRODUCTION
    • Yield Potential in Rice
    • Yield potential of traditional Indica varieties = 5 t/ha
    • Japonica x Indica breeding in 1950s
    • Yield potential of High-yielding Indica varieties = 10 t/ha in IR8
    • Yield potential of High-yielding Japonica varieties = 15 t/ha in YRL
    • Yield potential of hybrid varieties = 18 t/ha in II-32A/Ming86 hybrid
    International Year of Rice 2004
  • 6. THE YIELD GAP IN IRRIGATED RICE PRODUCTION
    • Major Observations of the Expert Consultation in 2000
    • There is still a large yield gap in irrigated rice production today
    • The closing of this yield gap could increase substantially rice production without further investment in land and water development
    International Year of Rice 2004
  • 7. International Year of Rice 2004 Fig. 1 Graphical expression of yield gaps in irrigated rice production under tropical (left) and temperate (right) climate areas Hybrid 12 t/ha HY 10 t/ha Best farmer 7-8 t/ha Avg farmer 4-5 t/ha TROPICAL CLIMATE Hybrid 15 t/ha HY 14 t/ha Best farmer 9-10 t/ha Avg farmer 6-7 t/ha SUB-TROPICAL CLIMATE
  • 8.
    • The Asian packages of production technologies in 1970s and early 1980s
    • The integrated pest management (IPM) system in mid-1980s and associated systems
    • The System of Rice Intensification in Madagascar in early 1980s
    • The Marbrouk-4 System in Egypt in 1985
    • The P-7 package in Burkina Faso in 1992-93
    • The WARDA Rice-Integrated Crop Management System in 1995, and
    • The RiceCheck system in Australia in 1986
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 9. International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
    • BOX 1: Package of Production Technologies for Transplanted Rice in the Philippines in the 1970s
    • Cardenas et.al, 1980)
      • Application of Basal Fertilizer: Broadcast approximately 3/4 of the nitrogen fertilizer recommended in the form of urea 45% N uniformly in the field; harrow the field to puddle thoroughly in preparation for transplanting.
      • Transplanting: Use 18-day-old seedlings and soak the roots in 12% concentration of carbofuran solution for 12 to 24 hours before transplanting; transplant 2-3 seedlings/hill at 20 cm x 20 cm spacing in straight rows.
      • 1-2 DAT: Apply carbofuran granules at 0.5 kg a.i./ha or diazinon at 1.0 kg a.i./ha
      • 4-5 DAT: Apply 0.8 kg a.i./ha 2.4 D IPE G 3.2% if 2-3 cm depth of water is present in the paddy
      • 6-8 DAT: If field is flooded and 2,4 D IPE G 3.2% cannot be applied at 4-5 DAT, apply butachlor or benthiocarb at rate of 1.5 kg a.i./ha
      • 15-20 DAT: Spray 2,4 D IPE EC 48% or MCPA liquid herbicide at 0.8 kg a.i./ha if granular herbicide cannot be applied; handweeding of field if necessary to remove weeds that escaped herbicide treatment.
      • 20 DAT: Broadcast carbofuran granules at 0.5 kg a.i./ha or 1.0 kg a.i./ha diazinon if there is standing water in the paddy or spray insecticides to control stemborers and green leafhoppers.
      • 20-25 DAT: Broadcast 100 kgs ammonium sulfate 21% N as topdressing at panicle initiation.
      • 20-45 DAT: If there is 10% or more deadheart, apply 0.5 kg a.i./ha of carbufuran.
      • 45 DAT: If there is 10% or more deadheart, apply 1.0 kg a.i./ha of carbufuran.
      • 50-55 DAT: At milk stage, spray insecticides to control rice bugs if there are more than 5 insect/m 2 .
      • 85-90 DAT: Harvest the crop.
  • 10.
    • Results of Application
    • Yield increase: Growth rate of Asian rice yield
      • 1970s: 1.88% per year
      • 1980s: 2.86% per year
    • Negative effects:
      • Pollution due to applied pesticides
      • New insect pests (e.g., brown planthopper type 3) and insect pest pressure
      • Decrease in soil fertility, especially minor elements, e.g. zinc
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 11.
    • IPM system
    • Developed and disseminated in 1986
    • Teaches farmers to observe the following in their development of strategies for insect pest management
      • the insect population
      • the condition of the crop and the damage caused by the insects
      • the natural enemies of the insects
    • Started in Indonesia and widely adopted in Asia
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 12.
    • Results of IPM application
    • Quantity of pesticides applied in rice production was greatly reduced, especially in Indonesia
    • Less pesticide pollution, and more growth of agricultural biodiversity
    • Promotion of the development of INM systems
    • Initially developed for insect pest management, but has expanded to cover diseases, weed and community pests at present
    • Cannot sustain yield growth
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 13. International Year of Rice 2004 Figure 2. Indonesian rice yield, 1980-2002 (FAOSTAT) IPM
  • 14.
    • SRI system
    • Developed and disseminated in Madagascar in 1986
    • Promote the application of the following practices:
      • Young seedlings (<10 days old)
      • Wide spacing (25 x 25 cm or wider, up to 50cm x 50cm)
      • Intermittent irrigation – field should not be kept flooded
      • Application of organic fertilizer as much as possible
      • Intensive hand/mechanical weed control
    • Recently promoted by a number of scientists and non-governmental organizations
    • Recently evaluated by IRRI and IWMI
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 15.
    • SRI system
    • In Madagascar: Limited adoption without significant effect on yield
    • Recently reported by its proponents: SRI produced high upland yield: 7 t/ha under rainfed condition in Philippines, up to 12-21 t/ha under irrigated conditions
    • Evaluation by IRRI: SRI and Conventional Management system produced equal yields
    • Major point of scientific contention: Yields reported for SRI, some even with traditional varieties, are higher than the predicted yield potential of HYV (10 t/ha for Indica , 15/ha for Japonica ) and hybrid varieties (18 t/ha)
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 16. International Year of Rice 2004 Figure 3. Madagascar rice yield, 1980-2002 (FAOSTAT) SRI
  • 17.
    • Markbouk- 4 System
    • Developed and disseminated in Egypt in 1985
    • Markbouk-4 = 4 t/fedan or 9 t/ha
    • Has 10 crop management areas from variety to harvest
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 18.
    • P-7 Package
    • Developed and tested in Burkina Faso in 1992-93
    • P-7 = 7 t/ha for irrigated rice
    • Has 7 crop management areas from variety selection to harvest
    • Disseminated by Special Programme for Food Security in Burkina Faso and Senegal since 1994
    • Increase yield of farmers-co-operators from 4-5 t/ha to 6-7 t/ha
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 19.
    • WARDA Rice-ICM
    • Developed in 1995 and tested Senegal and Mauritania in 1998-99
    • Similar to P-7, but
    • For each crop management area a number of alternative technologies are recommended
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 20. International Year of Rice 2004 Table 2 Yield and net benefit of irrigated rice production in Mauritania and Senegal under traditional farmer practices (TF) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) Parameter System Unit Mauri-tania Senegal Number of site 4 1 Number of farmers 17 10 Yield TF t/ha 3.9 3.8 ICM t/ha 5.7 5.5 ICM - TF t/ha 1.8 1.7 Net revenue TF Euro 284 215 ICM Euro 525 399 ICM - TF Euro 241 184
  • 21.
    • Australian RiceCheck
    • Developed and disseminated in 1996
    • Has 7 crop management areas, from field layout to harvest
    • For each crop management area, RiceCheck provides:
      • Reason why recommendations should be followed
      • Recommended actions or management practices
      • Expected outputs from correct application of the recommended action
    • Principles of IPM and INM were included in RiceCheck for respective crop management areas
    International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION
  • 22. International Year of Rice 2004
    • Box 2. Guidelines for Crop Establishment and Crop Nutrition in the Australian RiceCheck (Lacy et. al., 1993)
    • CROP ESTABLISHMENT
    • Reason: Adequate plant population is the first step required to increase yield.
    • Recommended Actions: Undertake major field layout improvement prior to winter. Start ground preparation early enough to ensure sowing on time. Land surface should be level and uniform enough to suit sowing method. Depending on variety, field layout and soil conditions, sow 125 kg seed/ha when aerial sowing and 135 kg seed/ha when drill sowing.
    • KeyCheck or Expected Outputs: Achieve 150 to 300 plants/m 2 established through permanent watering at 25 days after seeding.
    • CROP NUTRITION:
    • Reason: Split Nitrogen Strategy - two steps which are important to high yields.
    • Recommended Actions: Apply sufficient pre-flood nitrogen to achieve optimum growth at panicle initiation, apply phosphorus if a deficiency is indicated by paddock and/or soil test, and top dress nitrogen at panicle initiation based on shoot counts and NIR analysis using the Rice NIR Tissue Test.
    • KeyCheck or Expected Outputs: At panicle initiation the Amaroo, Bogan, Illabong and Jarrah (rice varieties) should have 700 - 1100 shoots/m 2 and a leaf nitrogen content (NIR) of 1.2 - 2.2% N; while the Pelde, Doongara, Goolarah, YRF9 and YRL34 (rice varieties) should have 500-900 shoots/m 2 and a NIR 1.2 - 2.0%.
  • 23. International Year of Rice 2004 Figure 4 Australian rice yield, 1970 to 2000 (Source: FAOSTAT)
  • 24.
    • 2000 Expert Consultation
    • Observed that the closing of the existing yield gap would require an integrated system that has technologies for all activities in rice production
    • The integrated system should have a built-in mechanism aiming at enhancing farmer’s knowledge in crop management
    • The Australian RiceCheck system is the most promising for closing the yield gap in rice production in a sustainable manner
    • Recommended that FAO and its member countries develop and disseminate the RiceCheck system to close the exisiting yield gap.
    International Year of Rice 2004 FAO PROGRAMME ON DEVELOPMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF RICECHECK
  • 25.
    • Activities during 2001-2003
    • Collaboration with member countries to develop and test modified version of RiceCheck
    • Indonesia: RiceCheck with 5 crop management areas
      • A target of 270 tillers/m 2 at 22 days after transplanting is required for yield of 8 t/ha
      • Transplanting 2-3 seedlings/hill at 20cm x 20cm increased N-use efficiency by 17%
      • Farmers achieved 5 target values increased yield by 23% and benefit by 165%
    • Vietnam: Saved 50% of seed used in direct seeding and reduced N-rate by 20%
    • Brazil and Venezuela: Increased yield by 30%
    International Year of Rice 2004 FAO PROGRAMME ON DEVELOPMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF RICECHECK
  • 26.
    • Present and Future Activities
    • TCP project in Fiji, Philippines, Rwanda and Thailand
    • CFC funded project in Brazil and Venezuela through FLAR
    • Japan-UN funded projects in Ghana and Sierra Leone, recently approved
    • Assist Indonesia, Sudan and Vietnam to formulate TCP as requested
    International Year of Rice 2004 FAO PROGRAMME ON DEVELOPMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF RICECHECK
  • 27.
    • Expert Consultation 2000
    • Noted that the situation of global rice production calls for efforts to enhance the productivity and efficiency in rice production
    • Observed that there is still a large yield gap and the closing of this gap could substantially increase the productivity of irrigated rice production systems, and that the e ffective closing of the existing yield gap requires integrated systems approach
    • Identified the Australian RiceCheck system as a potential tool for closing yield gap and for increasing productivity and efficiency in irrigated rice production
    International Year of Rice 2004 CONCLUSIONS
  • 28.
    • FAO Programme on RiceCheck
    • Initial results demonstrated that the modified versions of the Australian RiceCheck systems are promising for closing yield gap and increasing the productivity of irrigated rice production in developing countries.
    • They also indicated that potentially, the RiceCheck system can be updated for achieving the rice production that respects the environment, once environmental indicators (e.g., level of pesticides in water, content of cadmium in rice grain, etc.) are made available by research.
    • FAO will continue to collaborate with member countries and all stake-holders concerned in the development and dissemination of RiceCheck systems.
    International Year of Rice 2004 CONCLUSIONS
  • 29. International Year of Rice 2004 THANK YOU