0408 Opportunities for Rice Self-Sufficiency in Indonesia with Integrated Crop and Resources Management
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0408 Opportunities for Rice Self-Sufficiency in Indonesia with Integrated Crop and Resources Management

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Presenter: IrsaL Las, A. Gani and N. Widiarta / Indonesia Institute for Rice Research

Presenter: IrsaL Las, A. Gani and N. Widiarta / Indonesia Institute for Rice Research

Audience: World Rice Research Conference, Japan

Subject Country: Indonesia

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0408 Opportunities for Rice Self-Sufficiency in Indonesia with Integrated Crop and Resources Management 0408 Opportunities for Rice Self-Sufficiency in Indonesia with Integrated Crop and Resources Management Presentation Transcript

  • OPPORTUNITIES FOR RICE SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN INDONESIA WITH INTEGRATED CROP AND RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Irsal Las, A. Gani and N. Widiarta (Indonesian Institute for Rice Research) TAHUN PADI INTERNASIONAL 2 0 0 4 padi adalah kehidupan
  •  
    • Indonesia ranks third in production after China and India
    • Staple food for >90% Indonesian people, providing >70% national caloric needs
    • Grown by > 90% of small subsistence farmers
    • Livelihood for >60% Indonesian people
    • Relates to besides food safety and security, to security and politics, malnutrition and poverty, etc.
    RICE: The Strategic Commodity
  •  
    • LOWLAND RICE SITUATION
    • IN INDONESIA
      • Contributes 95% of total rice production in the country
      • Yields have become stagnant, even with decreasing production trend
      • Technology exhaustion is apparent
      • Water scarcity limits production
      • Soil degradation has been occuring
      • Unproductive and inefficient methods
      • Decreasing farmer’s motivation due to factors such as cost-price squeeze
  • Rice & Labor
    • Integrated Crop and Resources Management (ICM) is an innovative approach to increase the productivity and efficiency of rice farming through a systems approach. It seeks to improve farmer practices with technology that capitalizes on :
    • * synergistic effects,
    • * participatory approaches, and
    • * location-specific innovations.
    • ICM technology package seeks to match biophysical and socio-economic factors, being oriented to sustainable resource use and problem-solving
    ICM
      • ICM model (for Indonesia) considered :
        • Recommendations of the Agriculture and Environment Conference FAO (1991)
        • Agriculture and Environment Conference, Japan (1995)
        • Lowland Rice Research Consortium IRRI Approach (1999)
        • SRI experience, Madagascar/CIIFAD (1985-2000)
        • ICM was based on :
        • Experiences from IPM program, Mega project, lessons learned from National Rice Intensification Program, and SRI as the inspiration
    Chronology of ICM approach development and implementation
        • Implementation in the Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity Program (P3T) (2002-2004)
        • Continuing implementation in Improvement Intensification Quality Program (PMI) in 37 districts in 22 provinces (2003)
        • Replication on the PMI area in 199 districts in 24 provinces (2004)
      • Stages of ICM model development:
        • Initiation and technology component research (1998/99 >)
        • Field research and assessment linkage in 12 provinces (2001-2003)
  • Comparison of previous Supra Insus and current ICM strategy
    • Modeling & participatory approach
    • Scientific approach
    • Holistic
    • Mass movement
    • Less scientific approach
    • Partial
    • Methods for development and extension
    • Consider synergistic effects between technology components & technology package with resources and environment
    • Synergistic effects between technology components and technology package with resources and environment not considered
    • Technology package status
    • Location-specific recommendations
    • General recommendations
    • Recommended technology
    • Bottom-up (participatory)
    • Top-down (coercive)
    • Choice of technology component
    • More technical & social approach
    • Political impetus
    • Dimension
    Strategy of ICM Strategy of Supra Insus Characteristics
    • Synergism
    • Suitable to location characteristics and local problem (if any)
    • Compatible to socio-economic conditions
    • Based on local resources and sustainable environment
    Characteristics of ICM technology component Technology Package for ICM
        • Single young seedling (10-15 day)
        • Organic matter/manure application
        • Soil aeration improvement (intermittent irrigation)
        • Site specific nutrient management (SSNM) : Leaf color chart (LCC), Soil analysis or Omission plot approaches
    Main components of ICM
      • Selected variety and good seed quality
      • Weed control
      • IPM
      • Post harvest handling
      • Etc.
    Supporting components of ICM
  • ICM evaluation and development in some provinces of Indonesia 2001 2002 2003
  • Results of ICM evaluation (assessment) in 13 provinces of Indonesia, 2001-2002
    • Average yield increases:
    • * Season I = 16.4 % [0.4 – 2.7 t/ha]
    • * Season II = 28.4 % [0.4 – 1.9 t/ha]
    • * Season III = 18.5 % [0.5 – 1.7 t/ha]
    • Saving seed 15-40 kg/ha
    • Saving Urea 140-200 kg/ha
    • Price at harvest tends to be higher
    • More resistant to diseases ??
    Become part of national rice production programs
  • Performance of New Varieties applied in ICM assessment (1) 24.5 6,277 7,815 Sintanur 14.1 7,773 8,867 HV Maro 24.4 6,865 8,685 NPT-Fatmawati 13.4 7,984 9,050 HV Rokan 24.3 6,200 8,220 Memberamo 22.2 5,603 6,845 Tukad Balian 31.3 5,160 7,413 Way Apoburu 15.6 6,795 8,660 Ciherang 19.9 5,655 6,780 IR-64 Increment (%) Non-ICM (kg/ha) ICM (kg/ha) New variety
  • Performance of new varieties in ICM assessment (2) 17.6 6,360 7,480 Average of Non IR64 19.9 5,655 6,786 Average IR64 22.5 5,700 6,980 Cirata 20.2 5,920 7,115 Towuti 13.4 7,022 7,966 Batang Gadis 9.8 7,423 8,151 Code Increment (%) Non-ICM (kg/ha) ICM (kg/ha) New variety
  • Cultural techniques, yield, cost and income of ICM implementation of 28 sites of Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity Program 940-1200 -
    • Added Profit (Rp 000/ha)
    3,691 2.659
    • Profit (Rp 000/ha)
    3,926 3,628
    • Total cost (Rp 000/ha)
    6.27 5.24
    • Average yield (t/ha)
    0.9 0
    • Organic matter applied (t/ha)
    46 26
    • K-fertilizer used (kg KCl/ha)
    79 83
    • P-fertilizer used (kg SP-36/ha)
    216 255
    • N-fertilizer used (kg urea/ha)
    3 >5
    • Seedling/hill
    18 25
    • Seed age (day)
    24 40
    • Seed sowed (kg/ha)
    ICM Non-ICM
    • Parameter
  • Potency of increasing rice yield through ICM approach
    • Research (plot & demonstration farm of 1-2.5 ha)
    • Yield : 5.8–9.2 t/ha (7.9 t/ha)
    • Yield Increment : 26.6 – 47.8% (37%)
    • R/C : 1.5 >>> 2.44
    • Assessment (On-Farm Trial of 1.0 -5.0 ha, )
    • Yield : 5.3–8.8 t/ha (7.2 t/ha)
    • Yield Increment : 8.7 – 38.6% (27%)
    • R/C : 1.3 >>> 2.67
    • Implementation at farmers’ field (50-100 ha, 30 locations of P3T)
    • Yield : 4.2 – 8.8 t/ha (5.8 t/ha)
    • Yield Increment : 1.14 t0/ha (3.2 – 27.7% (16%)
  • CONCLUSION
    • Irrigated areas will be exploited in more intensive ways
    • Water scarcity and soil problems threatens the sustainability of rice production
    • Change the strategy, methodology, and approach
    • Increasing yield, farmers' income, and improving soil fertility through the ICM are the objectives of rice development
    • ICM is a new systems of rice intensification
    • ICM is one of a approach for Rice Sufficient in Indonesia
  • Terima Kasih Thank You