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0402 SRI: Pabinhi Farmers' Experience
 

0402 SRI: Pabinhi Farmers' Experience

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Presenter: Rene Jaranilla, Dionito Enano and Gerry Garingalao

Presenter: Rene Jaranilla, Dionito Enano and Gerry Garingalao

Pabinhi Guimaras Report

Subject Country: Philippines

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    0402 SRI: Pabinhi Farmers' Experience 0402 SRI: Pabinhi Farmers' Experience Presentation Transcript

    • System of Rice Intensification System of Rice Intensification: Pabinhi Farmers’ Experience Rene Jaranilla, Dionito Eñano and Gerry Garingalao
    • Guimaras Facts
      • Located southeast of Panay island & northwest of Negros island in Western Visayas
      • Topography generally gently sloping to rolling, with land elevation from 0-300m above sea level
      • Dry season: Nov. to April
      • Wet season: May to Oct.
      • Population: 141,450
      • Major agricultural products: palay (rice), coconut, mango, cashew, vegetables, citrus, camote, corn, cassava, legumes, livestock, poultry, and fish
      • Major industries: mining & quarrying, lime production, fruit processing, and tourism.
    • System of Rice Intensification
      • Objective: Increase rice production without
      • having to make any significant new investment
      • Transplant very young seedlings (with 2 leaves)
      • Plant individual seedlings, one by one spaciously, not in clumps
      • Weed the rice early and repeatedly (if possible with rotary weeder)
      • Minimum use of water, and letting soil dry our periodically during first months
      Key principles
      • Nursery
      • Pre-transplant
      • Transplant
      • Weeding
      • Water management
      S.R.I Basics: How and Why
    • Nursery
      • Pre-Germination Practices
      • Soak seeds for 12-24 hrs in water 35-40 degrees Celsius
      • Second day -- place in a warm place
      • Garden-Type Nursery
      • Spread out sowing in nursery over several days, to insure that very young seedlings are available during the whole transplanting period
      • Small and close to the farm (10 sq. m = 1000 sq. m)
      • Keep nursery soil moist, never flooded
      • Cover nursery with mulch during the first days
      • Water in morning and evening, never in full sun
    • Pre-transplant
      • Seedling should have just 2 leaves with the seed sac still attached
      • Keep seedling together with seed and some soil around its roots
      • Uproot a few seedlings at a time, transporting right away to the field and plant seedlings no more than ½ hour later
      • The less trauma, the better for the plant
    •  
    • Transplant
      • Transplant single seedlings -- not in clumps
        • Transplanting several seedlings in a clump makes the plants compete with each other for nourishment and light
      • Transplant the seedlings within 30 minutes after uprooting, transport in small batches -- not all at once
      • Level and muddy the field
        • Not liquid but sticky, with no standing water
        • Field should be well-leveled so that water can reach all the plants
        • Start puddling and nursery at the same time
      Transplant
    • Transplant
      • Transplant in squares
        • 40X40 cm, 30X30 cm, or 25X25 cm
        • Give space so roots can spread
      • Do not set in too deeply
      • Plant extra seedlings along perimeter to replace damaged ones
      • Do not push it in like this
      • but slip it into the
      • mud like this
    • Weeding
      • Mechanical rotary weeder or rotating hoe is best so oxygenate and aerate soil while weeds are removed
      • Weed field 2-3x before the panicles develop
      • First weeding will be done 10 days after transplanting (replace any damaged plants)
      • Weed again every 15 days thereafter
    • Water Management
      • Minimum water use
        • When transplanting, just apply enough water to make mud sticky
        • As stalks grow, allow field to try during tillering — do NOT worry about cracks developing
      • Lightly flood field until milky phase of grain development (1-2 cm)
      • Keep field flooded only after panicles begin to develop
    •  
    • Himal-us (Guimaras) Rice Production System An Adaptation of SRI: A Case Documentation of Dionito Eñano
    • Farmer Profile: Dionito Eñano
      • 56 years old
      • General manager of the Mabini Limers and Farmers Multipurpose Cooperative
      • Father of 12 children
      • Practices nature farming
      • Had health complications and was recommended to adopt an organic-based diet
      • This influenced him to convert to organic agriculture
      • Lack of academic degree was not a setback for him to learn, adopt, adapt and innovate technologies
      • Own observations and lessons learned from experience were key factors
    • Farm Profile
      • 6,800 sq. m of land
      • Subdivided parcel of land into 28 smaller plots (kahon)
        • Done to make the management of farm easier
        • Works on farm 5-7 AM before breakfast and 5-6 PM before dinner
      • Staggered planting
        • Weekly planting, weekly harvest
      • Gmelina trees surround perimeter of fields
      • Has vegetables growing along canal and walkways
    • Conversion Process
      • Horizontal not vertical approach
      • Incorporate ash and charcoal from local lime factory
      • Incorporate peanut shells and coffee hulls from the farm
      • Collect/buy carabao and cow manure
      • Plow rice straw into the soil
    • Nursery
      • Container lids and basins are used as seed trays
      • Only 6-8 of seeds per hectare are used for planting
    • Pre-transplant
      • 7 day-old seedlings, or at two-leaf stage
      • As needed, hires 2 workers for ½ day work
      • Weekly planting, thus weekly harvest
    • Transplant
      • Spacing, 30 cm X 30 cm
      • Members of HUBON in action
    • Pest Management
      • Ducks eat insects (mostly mollusks)
      • Hand weeding and hand picking of snails
      • Gmelina trees and citronella leaves are used to repel insects
      • Weeding is done in less than ½ hour using the rotary weeder (considers this as a leisure time activity, as exercise)
    • Water Management
      • Water field one day before weeding
      • Use minimum water to allow oxygenation of plant roots
    • A look at the farm
    • A beautiful rice field……………...
    • Recommendations:
      • Incorporate N-fixing trees like Sebania rostrata and Gliricidia sepium
      • Introduce Azolla ferns
      • Modify fallowing techniques- integrate green manure
      • Plant rice varieties of similar maturity
      • Take leadership a step further, as perhaps the farm can become a learning centre or a demonstration farm
    • Is it worth it? A Comparative Analysis
    • Total Production Cost in Pesos Per Hectare Inputs Chemical Organic Tractor/land preparation 1,350 2,100 Seeds 900 30 Transplanting 1,500 630 Weeding 2,200 630 Pest managemt 0 Fertilization 1,440 (8 sacks) 480 Irrigation cost 2,520 840 Threshing and hauling 2,400 2,800 TOTAL 12,310 7,510
    • Comparative Analysis of Chemical and Organic Farming General Information Chemical Methods Organic Methods No. of years farming 19 5 Farm size 6,800 sq. m 6,800 sq. m Varieties used IR64, IR36 M8-1, Ka Luis, AG5, Malido, Pilit Pula Maturity period 105 ~110 days Yield/ha (palay) 1.8 T/ha 4.1 T/ha Gross Income P 9,000 (30 cav) 17,400 (58 c) Total production cost P 12,310 P 7,510 Net Income (P 3,310) P 9,890
    • Kahon chart Plot Number Total Area (m 2 ) Variety Date Planted Date Harvested Actual or Gross Yield (kg) Gross Yield (cavans) 1 206.37 M8-1 4/19/02 8/6/02 84 2 2 180.25 M8-1 4/19/02 8/6/02 84 2 3 184 Ka Luis 4/27/02 8/16/02 105 2.5 4 182 Ka Luis 4/27/02 8/16/02 105 2.5 5 162.37 Ka Luis 4/27/02 8/16/02 105 2.5 6 294 AG 5 6/7/02 9/28/02 105 2.5 7 236.25 AG 5 7/6/02 9/30/02 105 2.5 8 236.25 AG 5 5/26/02 9/14/02 105 2.5 9 294 AG 5 6/2/02 9/21/02 105 2.5 10 168 Ka Luis 5/11/02 8/29/02 105 2.5 11 135 AG 5 5/26/02 9/14/02 63 1.5 12 168 Ka Luis 5/11/02 8/3/02 84 2
    • Plot Number Total Area (m 2 ) Variety Date Planted Date Harvested Actual or Gross Yield (kg) Gross Yield (cavans) 13 135 Malido 5/19/02 9/7/02 63 1.5 14 280 Ka Luis 5/5/02 8/24/02 63 1.5 15 420 Malido 5/19/02 9/7/02 63 1.5 16 193.83 AG 5 5/26/02 9/14/02 84 2 17 250 Pilit Pula 5/26/02 9/14/02 84 2 18 270 Pilit Pula 5/26/02 9/14/02 63 1.5 19 168 Pilit Pula 6/16/02 10/5/02 84 2 20 210 Pilit Pula 6/16/02 10/5/02 105 2.5 21 294 Pilit Pula 6/9/02 9/28/02 105 2.5 22 273 AG 5 6/9/02 9/28/02 105 2.5 23 252 AG 5 6/9/02 9/28/02 105 2.5
    • Plot Number Total Area (m 2 ) Variety Date Planted Date Harvested Actual or Gross Yield (kg) Gross Yield (cavans) 24 147.17 Pilit Pula 6/9/02 9/28/02 84 2 25 109.09 Pilit Pula 6/9/02 8/29/02 105 2.5 26 145.32 Pilit Pula 4/10/02 7/30/02 84 2 27 206.37 Pilit Pula 5/26/02 9/14/02 42 1 28 140.19 Pilit Pula -- -- 42 1 Total 5,840.76 2,436 58
    • Natural Law of Parsimony: a qualitative maximum out of quantitative minimum LESS = MORE
    • Minimum no. of days after germination Maximum of vitality and of stalks Minimum use of water Maximum of root oxygenation Minimum no. of weeds Maximum nourishment for rice Minimum no. of seeds Maximum of light and vital space
    • Questions??????