0330 The System of Rice Intensification: What More Needs to be Known about SRI?


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Presented by: Norman Uphoff

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  • I had pursued my Master about System of Rice Intensification and I am very interested in that because stable food of my country is rice so we have to grow more rice and quality rice. Thank you very much for sharing valuable information and I hope I will give valuable information about SRI one day.
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0330 The System of Rice Intensification: What More Needs to be Known about SRI?

  1. 1. The System of Rice Intensification: What More Needs to be Known about SRI? Norman Uphoff Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development
  2. 2. MANY QUESTIONS <ul><li>Some of these can be evaluated and answered by FARMERS, possibly with the cooperation of RESEARCHERS </li></ul><ul><li>Others will have to be studied by RESEARCHERS, where possible with FARMERS’ participation </li></ul>
  3. 3. SRI is not a technology to be applied the same way everywhere <ul><li>SRI should always be varied and adapted to different conditions </li></ul><ul><li>These variations and innovations should be evaluated systematically -- by farmers and by researchers </li></ul><ul><li>The following questions have arisen about SRI practices -- many could be answered by farmer experiments </li></ul>
  4. 4. WATER MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Is alternate flooding and draining of fields as beneficial as daily small applications of water -- with short periods of drying? </li></ul><ul><li>If alternation of flooding and draining is good, for PERIODS of how many days ? </li></ul><ul><li>How should SCHEDULES be changed according to different soil conditions ? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the soil be kept AERATED also during the reproductive period of growth? </li></ul><ul><li>How to deal with MONSOON FLOODING ? </li></ul>
  5. 5. PLANT DENSITY <ul><li>For what soil or other conditions may two seedlings be better than single seedlings ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the optimum spacing of plants for different soil and water conditions? For different varieties? </li></ul><ul><li>How may optimum spacing INCREASE over time as SRI improves soil quality? </li></ul><ul><li>What variations on grid pattern may work, e.g., “triangular” system developed in China </li></ul>
  6. 6. WEEDING / SOIL AERATION <ul><li>How much can a 3rd, 4th, or 5th weeding improve yield beyond the 2nd weeding ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are economic returns to additional weedings beyond the minimum of two ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best schedule to follow with weeding? Start how many DAT? What time between weedings? How affected by soil? </li></ul><ul><li>What are best methods and best designs of weeders? </li></ul>
  7. 7. COMPOST / ORGANIC MATTER <ul><li>What are the best timings for compost application? How much? How long before planting rice crop? On previous crop? </li></ul><ul><li>What are best methods for making compost? </li></ul><ul><li>How can available biomass be increased? </li></ul><ul><li>What utilization of animal wastes with SRI? </li></ul><ul><li>What benefits can be obtained from mulches and green manures with SRI? </li></ul><ul><li>What benefits from zero tillage with SRI? </li></ul>
  8. 8. SEEDLING AGE <ul><li>What is the best age of seedlings for various different conditions? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the youngest age that is beneficial and also practical? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we determine the start of the fourth phyllochron under different conditions? </li></ul><ul><li>What methods can make transplanting of young seedlings easier? </li></ul>
  9. 9. YOUNG SEEDLINGS <ul><li>What is the mortality of young seedlings? For what reasons? How can this be reduced? </li></ul><ul><li>How can young seedlings be protected against flooding and insect and pest damage ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the possibilities for a ratoon crop ? Reports of 70% yield </li></ul>
  10. 10. VARIETIES <ul><li>What are best varieties -- best improved varieties and best local varieties -- for different soil and other conditions? Is there a difference in Indica/Japonica response? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the best practices for different varieties? Water management? Weeding? Nutrient applications? Timing of planting? </li></ul><ul><li>What advantages for short vs. medium vs. long term varieties with SRI? For photosensitive vs. insensitive varieties? </li></ul>
  11. 11. SOIL VARIATIONS <ul><li>What modifications in SRI practices to be made for clay vs. sand vs. loam ? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes in water management and other practices should be made for soils that are water-retaining or very porous ? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes in soil nutrient applications are appropriate for different types of soil? e.g., sandy soils with high SOM can be quite productive with SRI practices </li></ul>
  12. 12. SEEDBED / SEEDLING MGMT <ul><li>What are best design and management of nurseries? Size? Location? Best soil medium? Watering practices? </li></ul><ul><li>What are best practices for removing seedlings from seedbed and transferring them to the field for transplanting? </li></ul><ul><li>What are best techniques for transplanting young seedlings? How to avoid/minimize trauma? How to do spacing ? Rake? String? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we use DIRECT SEEDING instead? </li></ul>
  13. 13. CROP / PLANT PROTECTION <ul><li>What problems arise because of pests ? -- crickets, snails, root grubs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>What can be done to control these pests? </li></ul><ul><li>How does drier field affect plant diseases ? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes in the ratio of beneficial: pest insect populations with SRI practices? </li></ul>
  14. 14. LABOR REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>How much more or less labor does SRI require, compared to usual methods? </li></ul><ul><li>Any gender differences between men and women in labor requirements with SRI? </li></ul><ul><li>Can there be reduction in labor required for SRI? By modifications of practices? Of schedules? Different tools? </li></ul><ul><li>What can be done in the training for SRI that will speed up learning and make doing SRI easier and quicker? </li></ul>
  15. 15. FARMING SYSTEMS <ul><li>How can SRI methods and practice fit more productively into farmers’ existing and evolving systems of production ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects of other crops on SRI results? And of SRI on other crops? </li></ul><ul><li>How can SRI concepts/practices contribute to improving other crop practices and to the diversification of farming systems? </li></ul><ul><li>How can farmer organizations support the process of spreading and utilizing SRI? </li></ul>
  16. 16. GRAIN QUALITY <ul><li>Are there any changes in the nutritional quality of SRI rice? Is it better nutritionally? Poorer ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any changes in the cooking/eating characteristics of SRI rice? </li></ul>
  17. 17. SOIL MICROBIOLOGY <ul><li>What are the contributions of: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased root exudation? </li></ul><ul><li>Biological nitrogen fixation? </li></ul><ul><li>P solubilization? </li></ul><ul><li>Mycorrhizal associations? </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizobia in the rhizosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>Other microbiological effects? </li></ul>