Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0209 Working for  Freedom from Hunger  in Harmony with Nature
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

0209 Working for Freedom from Hunger in Harmony with Nature

221
views

Published on

Consultation on Peace, Freedom from Hunger, and Sustainable Development: The Ethical Dimensions M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, MSRRF,Chennai, India

Consultation on Peace, Freedom from Hunger, and Sustainable Development: The Ethical Dimensions M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, MSRRF,Chennai, India

Published in: Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
221
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Working for Freedom from Hunger in Harmony with Nature Consultation on Peace, Freedom from Hunger, and Sustainable Development: The Ethical Dimensions M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation Chennai, December 2-4, 2002 Norman Uphoff, Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development
  • 2. Freedom from HUNGER -- like living in PEACE -- is an age-old dream
    • The Green Revolution in the latter third of the 20th century has contributed more to reducing hunger in the world than has any previous set of innovations
    • However, many still have not benefited from the Green Revolution -- and its methods pose environmental problems due to the use of agrochemicals and the heavy water requirements
  • 3. Achieving freedom from hunger in harmony with nature
    • will require that modern agriculture is:
    • More accessible to poor households , making the best use of their land and their labor so that they reap the benefits
    • Less dependent on external inputs to make agriculture more sustainable , and
    • Less water-demanding & more benign for the environment , particularly the soil
  • 4. Green Revolution technologies
    • Require purchases of improved seeds, also chemical fertilizers and agrochemical inputs -- pesticides, herbicides, etc.
    • They also need greater capital expenditures, with risk of crop failure & indebtedness
    • Irrigation demands are lowering water tables
    • Nitrogen fertilizers degrade water quality and agrochemicals are harming human health -- we see sharply diminishing returns to N use
    • We should be considering some alternatives
  • 5. How can we progress beyond the Green Revolution?
    • We will continue to need and use Green Revolution technologies, as world food needs continue to grow
    • Production must double over next 30-40 years: population growth is continuing, income growth causes higher demand , and large food-deficit population (800 m in absolute hunger) has unmet needs
  • 6. The 21st Century will be the Century of Biology
    • Much as the 20th century was a century for engineering & chemistry
    • In this new century, biotechnology (bioengineering) will be important
    • But broader biological innovation will make powerful contributions -- esp. agroecological innovations = WORKING WITH NATURE
  • 7. The System of Rice Intensification is an example of agroecological approaches
    • SRI is not a solution to all food needs --
    • It addresses only rice production, though rice is most important cereal
    • 34% of small farming systems are presently based on irrigated rice
    • Still a lot is not known about SRI -- until 1999 only known in Madagascar
    • Denies claim that low input = low output
  • 8. More tillers and more than 400 grains per panicle
  • 9. SRI is a METHODOLOGY rather than a TECHNOLOGY
    • SRI is a set of PRINCIPLES that are applied through a set of PRACTICES that farmers are encouraged to adapt to suit their local conditions -- farmer learning is important and part of SRI
    • Different paradigm for growing rice --
    • get different phenotypes from genotypes
  • 10.  
  • 11. Plant Physical Structure and Light Intensity Distribution at Heading Stage (CNRRI Research: Tao et al. 2002)
  • 12. “ Starting Points” for SRI
    • Transplant young seedlings , 8-15 days (2 leaves), quickly and very carefully
    • Single plants per hill with wide spacing in a square pattern, 25x25 cm or wider
    • Soil should be kept moist but not continuously saturated in growth phase
    • Use rotating hoe early and often (2-4x)
    • Application of compost is recommended
    • Farmers are invited/expected to experiment and assess variations of these practices
  • 13. OBSERVABLE BENEFITS
    • Average yields are about 8 t/ha --
    • twice present world average of 3.8 t/ha
    • Maximum yields can be twice this -- 15-16 t/ha, with some over 20 t/ha
    • Water required is reducible by 50%
    • Increased factor productivity from land, labor, capital and water (> yield)
    • Lower costs of production -- this is important consideration for farmers
  • 14. LESS OR NO NEED FOR:
    • Changing varieties , though best yields from high-yielding varieties and hybrids -- traditional varieties produce very well
    • Chemical fertilizers -- these give a good yield response with SRI methods, but best results are obtained from compost
    • Agrochemicals – plants more resistant to pests and diseases with SRI methods
  • 15. ADDITIONAL BENEFITS
    • Seeding rate is reduced as much as 90%, 5-10 kg/ha produces more than 50-100 kg
    • No lodging because of stronger roots
    • Environmentally friendly production due to water saving, no/fewer chemicals
    • More accessible to poor households because few capital requirements -- mechanical hand weeder about $10
  • 16. DISADVANTAGES / COSTS
    • SRI is more labor-intensive , at least initially - although it gives higher returns to labor and can become labor-saving
    • SRI requires greater knowledge/skill from farmers  better decision-makers and managers, thus contributing to HRD
    • SRI requires good water control to get best results, making regular applications of smaller amounts of water -- this can be obtained through investments?
  • 17. SRI is COUNTERINTUITIVE
    • LESS CAN BECOME MORE -- utilize the potentials and dynamics of biology -- working with nature to increase food
    • Smaller, younger seedlings can give larger, more productive mature plants
    • Fewer plants per hill and per m 2 can give more yield under right conditions
    • Half the water can give higher yield
    • Using fewer (or no) external inputs is associated with greater output
  • 18. These are remarkable claims
    • They reflect experience on farms, more than from experiment stations -- which is the reverse of usual situation
    • SRI is the due entirely to the work of Fr. Henri de Laulanié, S.J . (1920-1995)
    • He studied at leading French agricultural university (INA) before World War II
    • He lived and worked with farmers in Madagascar 1961 to 1995 (SRI in 1983)
    • His work is carried on now by Tefy Saina demonstrating the power of altruism
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21. Spread beyond Madagascar
    • Nanjing Agric. University, China - 1999
    • Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesia - 1999-2000
    • Philippines, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Cuba, etc.
    • China Hybrid Rice Center - 2000-2001
    • International conference, Sanya, China, April 2001 -- 15 countries represented
  • 22. Reports from Sanya Conference
  • 23. Results Keep Coming In
    • West Timor, Indonesia : June 2002
    • Yield with farmer methods -- 4.4 t/ha
    • Yield with SRI methods -- 11.6 t/ha
    • Lampung, Indonesia -- 3 to 8 t/ha
    • Pucallpa, Peru (jungle): Oct 2002
    • Traditional yields -- 2 t/ha
    • SRI yields -- 8 t/ha
    • Ratoon crop -- 70% of first crop (+5.5 t/ha)
  • 24. TWO MAIN CONCLUSIONS:
    • (1) We should pay more attention to PLANT ROOTS
    • (2) We should also pay much more attention to SOIL MICROBIOLOGY
    • Both can benefit the poor and the environment
  • 25.  
  • 26. Dry Matter Distribution of Roots in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Plants at Heading Stage (CNRRI research: Tao et al. 2002) Root dry weight (g)
  • 27. Root Activity in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Rice (Nanjing Agr. Univ. research: Wang et al. 2002) (Wuxianggeng 9 variety)
  • 28.  
  • 29. The contributions to agriculture of soil microbial activity need to be taken much more seriously
    • “ The microbial flora causes a large number of biochemical changes in the soil that largely determine the fertility of the soil.” (DeDatta, 1981, p. 60, emphasis added)
  • 30. Microbiological Contributions
    • Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF)
    • Phosphorus (P) solubilization
    • Mycorrhizal fungi
    • Other examples and processes, e.g., rhizobia, need to be studied
    • Consider effects of root exudation -- plants are “two-way” streets
  • 31. Agroecological Perspective
    • Seeks to capitalize on biological potentials in plants and animals, respectively and collectively
    • Genetic improvements can make all resource inputs more productive
    • SRI performs best with HYVs and hybrid rice varieties (high tillering)
    • But does well with trad’l. varieties
  • 32. Genetic Improvement Can Be Beneficial for Poor
    • But remember: we eat phenotypes, not genotypes
    • Phenotypes are the result of GxE interactions (genetics x environmt)
    • ‘ Biological approach’ involves whole plants and their ecosystems as well as molecular analysis
  • 33. Seek to Work with Nature
    • Fr. de Laulanié (1993) wrote that “the rice plant is my teacher” ( mon mâitre )
    • Plants should be understood as more than little “biological machines”
    • We should draw on plants’ own capacities for growth and protection
    • Utilize symbiotic relationships with complex soil microbial communities
  • 34. Intensification Expected to Lead to Diversification
    • Goal is not to double world rice output -- not needed, would have bad effects
    • By raising productivity of land, labor, water and capital, enable households to redeploy resources to higher-value and more nutritious production
    • Diversification and modernization of agriculture is the objective -- FS view
  • 35. Optimistic Conclusion
    • Nature has significant powers that can be enlisted for curtailing hunger
    • Farmer knowledge, like scientific knowledge, is not always correct
    • Need to be open to new knowledge & experience from diverse sources
    • Appropriate for this consultation that SRI comes from the dedicated work of a person of strong spiritual beliefs
  • 36. THANK YOU
    • More information is available
    • on the SRI WEB PAGE :
    • http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/
    • including Sanya conference proceedings
    • E-MAIL ADDRESSES :
    • [email_address]
    • [email_address]
    • [email_address]