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User-Centric Design: How to Leverage Use Cases and User Scenarios to Design SharePoint Functionality by Seth Earley - SPTechCon

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  • Content Choreography: Speak to definition on Slide 2 – other points are background for Q&A onlyDefinition: Earley & Associate’s proprietary methodology for dynamic web content presentation and search result relevancyBusiness Value: Provides a repeatable set of processes and frameworks for ensuring that retrieved content is relevant, fresh, and interesting without requiring custom crafting and manual maintenance of web pagesKey Enablers: Taxonomy, metadata, semantic search, business logic, auto-classification

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  • 1. Centric Design: How to Leverage UseCases and User Scenarios to DesignSharePoint FunctionalitySharePoint Tech Con San FranciscoMarch 4th, 2013 users content Earley & Associates, Inc. | Classification: CONFIDENTIAL USE, NO REPRINTS Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Seth Earley, CEO, Earley & Associates • Co-author of Practical Knowledge Management from IBM Press • Editor IEEE Information Professional Magazine • 18 years experience building content and knowledge management systems, 20+ years experience in technology • Former Co-Chair, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Science and Technology Council Metadata Project Committee • Founder of the Boston Knowledge Management Forum • Former adjunct professor at Northeastern University • Guest speaker for US Strategic Command briefing on knowledge networks • Currently working with enterprises to develop knowledge and digital asset management systems, taxonomy and metadata governance strategies • Founder of Taxonomy Community of Practice – host monthly conference calls of case studies on taxonomy derivation and application. http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/TaxoCoP • Founder Information Architecture Experts Group on LinkedIn Follow on twitter: @sethearley Connect on LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/sethearley2 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Earley & Associates OverviewFounded - 1994 Headquarters - Boston, MAWhat we do – Design and deliver content management and search solutions forcompanies and their customersOur core team – 35 information and system architects, library scientists, processimprovement consultants, project managers and other information managementspecialists Our Unique Offering – Content Choreography™ Retail & Supply Chain Our clients include – Financial Services & Insurance Global 2000, major non- profits and government High Tech & Manufacturing entities Pharmaceuticals & Life Sciences Media & Entertainment3 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. Overview• Definitions• The User-Focused Approach (top down) observe identify define build use identify summarize conceive develop organize audiences tasks cases content• The Data-Focused Approach (bottom up) content site maps &content audit taxonomy metadata mental models wireframes models navigation4 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. Information architecture is… the structure and framework for our content-knowledge environment approaches for understanding user and business needs, and developing capabilities to meet those needs using information designing user experience by associating structured and unstructured data with the user’s intent about what’s not obvious5 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. Taxonomy, Metadata & Information Architecture• Metadata describe the nature of information, the is-ness and about-ness.• Taxonomies are the organizing principles behind metadata and metadata values.• Content models encompass the user’s understanding of something.• Information architecture is about translating business objectives and user needs into working systems for content management, search, and collaboration. Information architecture encourages and enables both information retrieval and knowledge discovery.6 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. Content Management Enterprise Website Search, Navigation, Collaboration Search & & Portals SEO Metadata, Digital Asset Taxonomy, Records Management & Information Management Architecture, Workflow Rights Management Management Security & Privacy Management7 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. Information Architecture Design Methodology Strategy,STRATEGY& VISIONN Current State Future Gap Heuristic Roadmap & Assessment State Vision Analysis Evaluation Recommendations& DISCOVER Requirements This is the challenging part:RESEARCH Content Audience Task Requirements & Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis Definition Findings Solution& DEVELOP Content Types gettingStore requirements to design. Term from Site Maps Use Cases, DESIGN Design & Site Column & Taxonomy & Wireframe Workflow & Documents Design Development Design Authoring& VALIDATE Test Plan User Tagging Auto TEST Taxonomy & Execution Interface Processes Categorization Governance /& ENHANCE MAINTAIN Governance Socialization Migration Metrics Maintenance Strategy Communication Strategy Development Processes & Guidelines & Adoption & Approach 8 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. Translating Abstract Concepts into Concrete Design Elements• Many organizations are trying to “make the information easier to use.” But what does this mean?  What information?  For whom?  Accomplishing what task?  With what information?• Many information management projects fail because they are too broad, the project scope is ambiguous, and the outcome is not measurable.• Ambiguous problems can’t be solved. Information architecture starts with a focus on problems and processes.9 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. Information Architecture Process:User-Focused Approach(top down) Earley & Associates, Inc. | Classification: CONFIDENTIAL USE, NO REPRINTS Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. User-Focused IA (Top Down) observe• Observe and gather data points• Summarize into themes summarize• Translate themes into conceptual solutions• Develop scenarios that comprise solutions conceive• Identify audiences who are impacted by scenarios• Articulate tasks that audiences execute in scenarios develop• Build detailed use cases around tasks and audiences• Identify content needed by audiences in specific use cases identify audiences• Develop organizing principles for content define tasks build use cases identify content organize11 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. Observe and Gather Data Points observe• Identify problems through interviews, surveys, and working sessions.• In each forum, we are making observations about the current state: summarize  how people accomplish tasks,  bottlenecks in processes, conceive  problems with information access and findability,  challenges around inaccurate and incomplete information develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content• User-centric IA requires that we understand the mental model of the user: the tasks they need to execute, and how they go about accomplishing their work. organize12 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. Summarize Observations into Themes observe summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify• “It is difficult to find and collocate information about a specific subject” content organize13 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. Translate Themes into Conceptual Solutions observe summarize Wouldn’t it be great if we could…? conceive• “…access all policy and prior experience data across multiple systems using a single search query and return consistent results?” develop identify• Conceptualizing a future world in which these problems “went away” audiences provides a foundation for all future IA work: define  defining metrics for success, and collecting a baseline measurement tasks  engaging stakeholders and obtaining management buy-in build use  outlining a roadmap for short-term and long-term work cases  identifying necessary resources identify content organize14 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. Develop Scenarios That Comprise Solutions observe• Scenarios are a fixed set of interactions and events, helpful in expressing concepts. summarize• “How do underwriters go about their work in writing policies for specialty and high risk clients?” Describe a day-in-the-life. conceive• Examples: develop  New Product Introduction A new category of product is introduced, requiring updates to the print, web, and identify e-commerce sales channels. audiences  Translation of New Product Information The newly introduced product has all its content and metadata translated into a define tasks second supported language. build use cases identify content organize15 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. Identify Audiences Who Are Impacted by Scenarios observe• Although some scenarios are simple on their face, a single event can be the first step in a chain of events. summarize• “Risk managers, underwriters, sales personnel” conceive• Example: To Process a Activity Report Delivered by a Service Provider develop Possible stakeholders:  external contact at service organization (to send the report) identify  internal liaison to service provider (to confirm receipt of the report) audiences  compliance supervisor (to verify that the report meets requirements) define  business analyst (to compare long-term performance against benchmarks) tasks  strategy officer (to align provider performance with corporate goals) build use  PR specialist (to highlight notable activities for stockholders) cases  marketing and SEO specialists (to relate provider improvement following identify marketing initiatives) content  VP of provider services (to remain aware of all provider activities) organize• All of these stakeholders need to be engaged.16 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. Articulate Tasks That Audiences Execute in Scenarios observe• Once the stakeholders are identified (and engaged), collaborate with them to understand their day-to-day operations. Work to understand their current processes, current pain points, and idealized future environment. summarize• “Describe underwriting scenario tasks in detail: research options, review loss conceive history, locate supporting research, etc.” develop• These tasks become steps in use cases and workflows… identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize17 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. observe summarize conceive develop identify audiencesThis is where the top-down approach meets the bottom-up approach. define tasks build use cases We’re going to race through these three boxes for now, identify knowing we’re going to see them again later. content organize18 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. Build Detailed Use Cases Around Tasks and Audiences observe• Use cases describe typical scenarios or interactions that an actor (or group of actors) has with the system. summarize• “Step 1: log on to claim system. Step 2: search for history on the coverage type in geography. Step 3: … “ conceiveNormal Flow 1. The User navigates to the source location of the content item in the document library on a Team Space (SharePoint(Team Site Approval) 2007). From the Edit Menu, the User selects the option to “Promote to PCL Connects” (Custom) from the dropdown that develop appears. 2. The System copies the document from the source library in the team site to a staging library in PCL Connects. 3. The System displays a form (in a new window) containing properties for the document and prompts the User to enter the following information (unless auto-populated based on pre-defined data): Title of the document; Purpose of the document identify (description); … audiences• Workflows are processes in which a set of tasks intended to be automated are completed. define tasks Most workflow steps are associated with user and system roles responsible for performing the task. build use cases identify content organize19 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. Identify Content Needed by Audiences in Specific Use Cases observe• Once the process has been defined, consider the content and metadata that are required for the processes to be performed correctly. summarize• “Claims data, policy information, underwriting standards, actuarial tables, fraud reports, etc.” conceive• Content needs usually can be determined through interviews, working develop sessions, and observation. Card sorts are an easy way to brainstorm critical ideas. identify audiences define tasks build use cases identify content organize20 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 21. Develop Organizing Principles for Content observe • Arrange things that people need according to process, task, or other organizing principle. summarize conceive develop identify audiences define tasks build use cases • “Begin with “is-ness.” What is the nature of the information? Then determine identify “about-ness,” the additional characteristics of the information. How would you content tell apart 100 documents of that type?” organize • These “organizing structures” become the foundation for taxonomy.21 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. Summary: User-Focused IA ProcessProcess Step Answer the Following Examples observeObserve and gather data What are the specific problems “We can’t locate information about policies for specialty coverage.”(pain) points and challenges that users are “We need to look in multiple systems to find prior experience data identifying? when underwriting new policies in high risk areas.” summarize “Different terminology is used in different systems, which makes queries difficult.”Summarize into themes What are the common elements inability to locate policy and underwriting information using common to observations? How can terminology conceive symptoms and pains be classified according to overarching themes?Translate themes into Wouldn’t it be great if we We could access all policy and prior experience data across developconceptual solutions could…? multiple systems using a single search query and return consistent results?Develop scenarios that What would a day in the life of a At a high level, describe how underwriters go about their work incomprise solutions user look like if this solution were writing policies for specialty and high risk clients. Describe each identify in place? potential situation and how they would go about their work audiencesIdentify audiences who are Who are the users that are risk managers, underwriters, sales personnelimpacted by scenarios impacted? defineArticulate tasks that What are the tasks that need to For a given scenario, articulate tasks (research options, review loss tasksaudiences execute in be executed in each scenario? history, locate supporting research, etc.)scenarios build useBuild detailed use cases What are the specific steps to For a single task, list the steps to execute (this level of detail is not casesaround tasks and audiences accomplish tasks? needed in all cases). Step 1: log on to claim system. Step 2: search for history on the coverage type in geography. Step 3: …Identify content needed by What content and information is Claims data, policy information, underwriting standards, actuarial identifyaudiences in specific use needed at each step in the tables, fraud reports, etc. contentcases process?Develop organizing principles Arrange the things they need Begin with “is-ness.” What is the nature of the information? Thenfor content according to process, task or determine “about-ness,” the additional characteristics of the organize other organizing principle information. How would you tell apart 100 documents of that type? 22 taxonomy Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 23. Information Architecture Process:Data-Focused Approach(bottom up) Earley & Associates, Inc. | Classification: CONFIDENTIAL USE, NO REPRINTS Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. ACME Consulting Enterprises Site Map What exactly do these represent? Is “Sales” a site collection? A site? A library? A list? A content type? A metadata field? A value?24 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. Building Taxonomy from Bottom Up Taxonomy starts as a collection of terms… …that becomes translated into design elements through a structured process.25 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 26. Data-Focused IA (Bottom Up) content• Audit and inventory existing content audit• Build taxonomy by finding patterns in the content• Figure out the metadata you need taxonomy• Develop content models• Fit metadata models to the users’ mental models• Build site maps (and site navigation) metadata• Construct wireframes content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes26 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 27. Audit and Inventory Existing Content content audit Initial • Discuss with users determination of • Brainstorm on locations • Determine how and where people access content content taxonomy Sample content • Determine amounts metadata • Determine types from across • Determine conditionrepositories (audit) • Amount of redundant, outdated and trivial content content models • Use automated processes to itemize all content Inventory all • Look for reusable organizing principles mental content in scope • Look for patterns models • Determine ownership site maps & navigation • Remove outdated content Clean up and • Determine migration approach triage • Identify highest value information wireframes 27 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 28. Content Audit Example content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes28 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 29. Finding Patterns in the Content content • Locate content: Where is the content now? audit • Identify all creators, sources, consumers Determine • Determine quantities taxonomy Basics • Verify importance (quantity and value) metadata • Name the content type (press release, case file, product description, etc.)Name, describe • Assign an ID content & prioritize • Deduce any internal structure models mental models • Are the element names and types consistent? • Are your types mutually exclusive? Consolidate • Do they cover the bulk of the content available? site maps & navigation across types • What is the nature of any exceptions? wireframes 29 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 30. Taxonomy: The Foundation for Information Architecture content• Taxonomy is a system for organizing concepts and categorizing content audit  Expresses hierarchical relationships (parent/child)  Arranged in a tree-like structure, with top level categories that branch out to reveal sub- taxonomy categories and terms in varying levels of depth  Dictionary of preferred terminology metadata Products Preferred term Action Games Car content models figures SYN: Automobile Synonyms Vehicle Board games Card games mental models fr-CA: Voiture Translations en-UK: Auto and regional es-CO: Carro Brands variants site maps & navigation Sample taxonomy record Disney Hasbro wireframes Battleship Scrabble30 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 31. Types of Taxonomy Relationships content audit taxonomy Increasing complexity metadata Equivalence Hierarchical Associative Used in thesauri. Purist definition of Things that are related content models a taxonomy – conceptually. Also called terms have parent/child “entry types” of terms. relationship. Associative relation types are context and audience mental models Synonyms. specific. This is how we might relate multiple taxonomies. site maps & navigation wireframes31 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 32. Types of Taxonomy Relationships (example) Relationship Types content audit E Equivalence Computer H Hierarchical Manufacturers taxonomy A Associative H metadata International Business E IBM E Big Blue content models Machines ? H ? mental models site maps & Hardware ? Software Group A Software navigation wireframes A32 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 33. What Are Metadata? content auditMetadata are data that articulate context & meaningabout something. taxonomy• Implicit Metadata:  System generated properties about the piece of content (e.g. file format, file metadata size, created date, created by, modified date, modified by)• Explicit Metadata: content  Metadata created to add context to a piece of content and applied through auto- models classification, folksonomy and/or taxonomy. (e.g. subject/topic, document type, publishing status, mental models• Metadata is essential for enriching context on unstructured content. It must have a purpose, and it must be able to be acted upon in order to satisfy a specific information need. site maps & navigation wireframes33 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 34. Taxonomy & Metadata content audit Taxonomy Product Product taxonomy categories names DR Series DC Series Phones Dispatch metadata DC-100 Logging Dispatch content recorders consoles models mental models Date created May-15-2011 Product SKU 10985702889 site maps & Product category Dispatch consoles navigation Product name DC-100 Asset Asset Metadata fields Metadata wireframes (Content Model) values34 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 35. Example: Metadata Controlled by Taxonomy content audit taxonomy metadatabefore Battery type NiMH n/a n/a content models Battery chemistry n/a Nickel Metal Hydrate n/a Battery n/a n/a NiMh mental modelsafter site maps & navigation Battery type NiMH NiMH NiMH wireframes 35 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 36. Three Flavors of Metadata content audit Descriptive Administrative Structural taxonomySubject Date_created Is_part_of metadataTitle File_type RequiresDocument_type Review_type Parent-object content modelsDescription Publication_status mental models site maps & navigation Explicit Metadata Can Apply in Any Category wireframes36 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 37. Figure Out the Metadata You Need (and then build taxonomy) content audit1. Identify a core set of metadata attributes common to all types of content. These can include Title, Created By Date, Owner, Document Type, etc. taxonomy2. Conduct a content audit to understand what various types of content exist. With each type discovered, note any unique characteristics. metadata3. Think about different ways to describe each type: 1. Content lifecycle 2. Inherent nature of content itself content models 3. When used (created or accessed) 4. Audience tasks (when needed) mental modelsNOTE: The final step requires stakeholder involvement (both authors & consumers). site maps & navigation wireframes37 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 38. Content Models (Content Types) content Date created audit Product SKU Product category taxonomy Product name metadata• Content is structured with body information and a wrapper that formats and tags that information (metadata). content• Metadata are the is-ness and about-ness of a piece of content. models mental modelsDefinitions• Content object model refers to a specific model for a set of document types.• Content model is the overall framework that describes content and its site maps & navigation associated properties. (In other words, a content model includes multiple content object models.)• Sometimes these terms are used interchangeably. wireframes38 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 39. Content Models (Content Types) content audit• Web pages are assembled from items of content types, which are comprised of metadata elements. taxonomy Product Page Taxonomy title doc_id doc_type FAQ standard header metadata author date Product Press release Specification Promotion content models product name content ID date Antenna product features product content type Bluetooth ® mental product category Camera models GPS Navigation promotion ID content ID date site maps & navigation promotion content type promotion type related products related product content ID date wireframes content type39 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 40. Content Models Are Built Upon a Core Content Type content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes40 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 41. Deriving a Content Model content audit• Determine the means to access content.• Understand the target process: What capability is being developed? taxonomy• Determine information sources and uses for the target process. metadata• Define content lifecycle for each type of information in your process. content• Identify the structure of each type of information – how will one class of models information differ from another? mental• How is content used? Who is using the content? models• Given 1000 documents of the same type of information, site maps & how would you tell them apart? navigation• How will content review processes differ according to the needs of the organization? wireframes41 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 42. Metadata Models content audit• Knowledge about metadata can be modeled in a spreadsheet. taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation• This level of detail may be required for implementation. wireframes42 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 43. content audit taxonomy metadataThis is where the bottom-up approach meets the top-down approach… content modelsMental modeling includes:• requirements analysis• personas mental models• task analysis• use cases site maps &• scenarios navigation• personalization design …and here is where construction begins. wireframes43 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 44. How Well Do the Data Fit the Users’ Mental Model? content audit• Steps to modeling people and tasks:  identify audiences (user roles and groups)  model individual users (personas) taxonomy  determine tasks (processes and interactions)  determine content required to support tasks metadata• Many different methods for understanding users:  interviews  surveys content models  working sessions  observation/shadowing  search log analysis mental  content review models  content/task/audience analysis site maps & navigation wireframes44 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 45. Requirements Analysis content audit• Data and observations from multiple sources can be summarized into key themes. taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation• AHEM: This should look familiar! See slide “Observe and Gather Data Points.” wireframes With the user-focused approach to IA, we started here!45 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 46. Gap Analysis Desired Capability Gap Current State Assessment Preliminary Gap Closing Actions content audit People have access to restricted 27. Information is secure and Ensure that access control lists and Major information (electronic and paper), access only available to people with permissions align with information sensitivity Gap permissions are not aligned with sensitivity authorized access. policies. policies. taxonomy Develop clear and effective version control No consistent processes, methods and policies, procedures, and methods, and 28. Trust in the currency and Major controls for versioning documents, document lifecycle metadata. Configure and integrity of a record. Gap removing duplicate copies, and managing utilize ECM version control and lifecycle document lifecycle state. mechanisms. Educate employees. metadataContent Architecture No common language or framework for Develop a mapping / ontology of data across 29. Master Data is harmonized Gap describing data across various systems to systems that need to be aggregated for across systems enable aggregating and analyzing data. analysis (BI), reporting, dashboards. Compare user requirements with the data model to measure current state. a master metadata schema (mapped Develop content 30. Documents have the to content types) that can be used for both models necessary metadata to physical records and electronic content. facilitate access control, Gap Inconsistent definition and use of metadata. Configure and utilize ECM application (DL, retrieval, retention, and SharePoint) mechanisms to populate destruction. metadata. Use authoritative sources to populate metadata. mental models 31. We do not recreate content Implement DAM. Implement Web Content Video and photos are repurposed on an ad for different media or Major Management. Redesign content creation hoc basis. Sites are locally created and publications - we create Gap processes to facilitate content reuse. Develop managed. once and reuse. reuse metrics and monitor performance site maps & Develop KPMs for physical and electronic navigation 32. Able to predict and control storage and archive. Identify key areas of Major the growth of electronic and No measurements or metrics in place. need and develop countermeasures. Target Gap physical storage. areas of major growth fn physical storage for movement to electronic solutions. wireframes 46 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 47. Personas content audit• Personas are representations of users  Fictitious archetype of a person  Embodies various characteristic, attitudes and quirks taxonomy  Includes lifestyle, education, demographics  Can have multiple personas for a particular role or user type metadata• Apply knowledge about personas to the taxonomy:  differences in terminology and controlled vocabulary  differences in categorization (within a uniform collection) content models  differences in association, relatedness  differences overall approaches mental• Taking the long view: models  multiple audience-driven entry points  anticipatory navigation, suggestion site maps &  building up the It thinks how I think impression navigation wireframes47 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 48. Personas Audience: Consumer Ben Armstrong Domestic Consumer Featured Scenario: Country: USA Ben finds and uses the abc.com website to Language: English learn about his family insurance needs Scenario• Personal Profile “I want technology to Although he’d been trying to avoid it, Ben has come to the realization that he really• Ben Armstrong knows he’s a lucky enhance, not define, needs to research his family’s insurance needs. This is mostly due to the fact that his guy, since most of his life he’s been able to get by without a larger “life my life.” friend Todd, the owner of the gallery where Ben works, was shocked when Ben told him that he didn’t have life insurance. “How can you not have life insurance,” Todd plan” in place. asked. “You’ve got two kids!” During some downtime in the afternoon, Ben uses the• When it came time to select a gallery’s computer to see what he can find out about financial planning in college, Ben chose the arts program at general, and life insurance in particular. NYU not because of its reputation, but because it was relatively close by and background he liked art. He wasn’t sure if he Behavior wanted to make it his career, but he • 27-year-old, married, man, 2 young children, Democrat was willing to give it a shot. • BFA in Art from NYU. Works as a gallery manager in • Ben does a Google search on “life insurance” Manhattan; owns a 2BR apartment in Hoboken. Does not • Among the returned links are insurance information sites and providers; primary• It was a savvy choice, not for what it among them is ABC taught him, but for the two people he own a car. met while he was there. The first was • Wife works in publishing • He clicks on the link to abc.com his friend Todd, the other was his • Ben types “life insurance” in the Search field • $150K combined income / $160K net worth ($100K in future wife Sandy. Ken realized that • Site presents Ben with life stages information and a “total insurance and financial while Todd wasn’t much of a home equity) plan.” Ben prints these so that he can show Ken. painter, he had a fantastic eye for • Hobbies: High-end audio, fan of new music and vinyl • On a lark, Ben performs a Google search on “ABC agent” and notes that one has an emerging talent. When Todd offered him a position managing his new • Favorite Web sites: Salon, Food Network, Yahoo! e-mail address. He quickly shoots an e-mail to that broker with a request for info. gallery, Ben didn’t even think twice. Ticker, Gorp.com, Bank of New York. Has a PayPal • Ben runs his info by Todd to validate he is on the right track. He also phones and Turns out that Todd was right, and the account. picks the brain of the agent he e-mailed, though he has no intention of purchasing gallery has been growing increasingly insurance at that time. more successful. • Three months later, while watching Trading Spaces, Ben sees an ABC attributes commercial, reminds himself of his needs for Insurance, and calls his broker back the• Despite the gallery’s growing success, Sandy is definitely the • Somewhat afraid of risk; can be impulsive if sure of next day! breadwinner of the Armstrong something Feature household. Since she is usually either • Investigates only a few competing web service options involved with her career or the • Persistent information children, Sandy has ceded control of • Prefers human rather than online experiences • Has own “account,” like he has with his bank the family’s finances to Ben, which • Audience segmentation, well-managed content he’s handled capably, if not entirely intuitively. He’s wary of site needs • Easy access to offline resources overspending, but will occasionally • Values an aesthetic user experience • Optimized search splurge on “fun” items such as toys for • Value-added calculators & other widgets the kids or a Calphalon pot for the • Sophisticated back-end functionality that minimizes the kitchen. need for further research • Informative, relevant information that quickly explains Alternative Scenarios• Although technologically facile, Ben only uses the family computer when and defines his needs • Ben decides to get started on a comprehensive financial plan he has to. He doesn’t delve very • Appreciates highly personalized on-line experience • Ben, in a follow-up visit to abc.com, is cross-sold homeowners insurance deeply into search results, preferring • Ben is already a customer to settle on something that’s “good • Unaware of privacy and security issues • Ben has an auto policy with ABC, and needs to make a claim enough” to match most of what he’s • Ability for site to grow as his relationship with it matures looking for. “Understand, educate and transact on the customer’s terms” 48 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 49. Task Analysis content audit• Audiences need content to support their tasks. taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes49 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 50. Task Analysis content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models Approximately 100 tasks plus several not covered site maps & navigation wireframes50 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 51. Task Analysis content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes51 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 52. Use Cases and User Scenarios content audit• Users can be identified by their characteristics, tendencies, preferences, and aptitudes through the development of user profiles and personas. taxonomy• A profile is a description of a user role based on their job tasks and objectives.• A persona is a description of their personality and details of their lifestyle. metadata• Use cases are specific, step-by-step interactions with a system. content models• A scenario is a day-in-the-life, higher-level description of the things that users need to accomplish. mental models site maps & navigation wireframes52 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 53. Workflow and Process content audit• Use cases provide step-by-step instructions. They describe how each type of user interacts with an application. They are also depicted as diagrams that visualize the steps and paths needed to complete a task... taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation• Use cases can be used to test the ability to locate specific content through labeling, hierarchy, and faceted keyword search. wireframes53 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 54. Example Scenario content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes54 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 55. Example Use Case content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes55 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 56. Audience Analysis & Personalization content audit• Active personalization design (by role): Pull of content to users based on personal preference taxonomy• Passive personalization design (by role): Push of predefined content targeted to users based on audience metadata content models Matrix included: • Role Mapping • Applicable Systems • Preferred Content Types mental models • Topical Interests • Required Content • Related Roles site maps & navigation wireframes56 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 57. Example of Active Personalization content audit User Selected Preferences taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes57 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 58. Step Approach Output Design Artifact content audit1. Arrange and cluster Post it note exercise, term Navigational representation of Site map*terms generation, card sort and content clustering2. Contextualize terms Link scenarios to terms Conceptual representation of Annotated site map taxonomy terms3. Create concept map Mind mapping Conceptual representation of Mind maparound scenarios themes and attributes metadata4. Translate overarching Determine central theme Mock up of user interaction Storyboardtheme into design and questions that a user and flowconstructs seeks to answer5. Condense story Arrange themes into Search, Navigation and Wireframe contentboards into wireframes pages and attributes as Attribute interaction models search/navigational elements mental models site maps & navigation Construction begins. wireframes 58 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 59. Term Generation, Clustering and Card Sorting content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes59 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 60. Clustering/Grouping content audit taxonomy metadata content models Goal is to have users group like types of content together in meaningful ways. mental models site maps & navigation Provide an intuitive, unambiguous and meaningful name for the group of content wireframes60 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 61. Site Map Design & Global Navigation content• Site maps provide a visual illustration of the logical organization of site content. audit• They can also serve as the basis for global navigation (and global context). taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation Named Cluster wireframes61 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 62. Wireframes content audit• Wireframes are a visual representation of how features, functionality, and content will appear in the user interface.  Common elements taxonomy  Navigation  Taxonomy integration  Libraries and views metadata  Search experience content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes62 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 63. Wireframes content audit• Wireframes are a visual representation of how features, functionality, and content will appear in the user interface (e.g., page templates).  common elements taxonomy  navigation  taxonomy integration  libraries and views metadata  search experience content models mental modelsThere are many different site maps & navigationways to create wireframes,because the primary goalis idea communication. wireframes63 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 64. Concept Modeling content audit taxonomy metadata content models mental models site maps & navigation wireframes64 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 65. Summary content audit• Taxonomy and metadata provide the foundation for user experience• User experience is at the intersection of content models and user intent taxonomy• Use cases and user scenarios help to define the mental model of our audience metadata• Site maps are the physical representation of navigation content• Wireframes illustrate where all of the elements come together to present content models in context supporting user tasks mental• Starting with the correct foundation will allow for meaningful development of the models user experience site maps & navigation wireframes65 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 66. SharePoint Information Architecture Updated for 2013 • The Information Architecture Process  User Research & Requirements Gathering 3-Day Hands-on Course  Audience and Process Analysis  Roles, Responsibilities, Use cases, Personas and scenario development • Managed Metadata and the Term Store  Metadata Schemas and Taxonomy Development  Creating Managing and Term Sets Location Date  Using the Term Store for Navigation  Term Driven Pages Arlington, VA March 13-15 • Creating and Leveraging Content Types Boston (Metro) May 8-10  Properties (Site Columns, Workflow, IM Policies)  Content Modeling  Document Library Construction • Wireframes and the User Experience  Aligning Use Cases with Content  Developing Wireframes for Navigation and Search • Designing Search Based Applications  Result sources, Query rules, Result templates  Linguistic Processing  Search Metrics66 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 67. Whitepapers Get it here: http://info.earley.com/what-is-the-business- value-of-taxonomy/ Other Whitepaper Topics Digital Asset Management http://info.earley.com/download-whitepaper- critical-success-for-dam-project/ Information Supply Chain http://info.earley.com/retail-whitepaper-use- taxonomy-to-optimize-retail-information-supply- chain/ The Role of Taxonomy & Metadata in Search http://info.earley.com/taxonomy-metadata- search-whitepaper-request-download/67 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 68. Contact Seth Earley CEO _____________________________ EARLEY & ASSOCIATES, Inc. Cell: 781-820-8080 Email: seth@earley.com Web: www.earley.com Follow me on twitter: @sethearley Connect with me on LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/sethearley68 Copyright © 2013 Earley & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.