Piping materials lhk

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About Piping Materials

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Piping materials lhk

  1. 1. PIPING MATERIALS INTRODUCTION Piping materials are of many types. The specific material to suit a design requirement is chosen on the basis of certain key factors.
  2. 2. FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF PIPING MATERIALS • Mechanical properties – tensile, yield, creep, rupture, fatigue and impact • Performance requirements and material reliability • Safety • Environmental conditions • Availability • Resistance to erosion and corrosion • Economic factors
  3. 3. VITAL CHARACTERISTICS REQUIRED Toughness Creep Strength Ductility Good surface finish Hardness
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF PIPING MATERIALS P IP IN G M A T E R IA L S M E T A L L IC N O N -M E T A L L IC L IN E D FERRO US N O N -F E R R O U S PVC M S R U B B E R L IN E D C A S T IR O N C O P P E R & IT S A L L O Y S HDPE M S PTFE, M S PVDF CAR BO N STEEL A L U M I N IU M & IT S A L L O Y S PTFE M S L E A D L IN E D ALLO Y STEEL N IC K E L A N D IT S A L L O Y S LDPE M S C E R A M IC L IN E D S T A IN L E S S S T E E L L E A D A N D IT S A L L O Y S G LASS M S G L A S S L IN E D C E R A M IC F R P P P L IN E D O T H E R S P E C IA L A L L O Y S CEM EN T
  5. 5. COMMONLY USED PIPING MATERIALS LOW CARBON STEEL, LOW ALLOY STEEL AND STAINLESS STEELS (used for high temperature services) WROUGHT IRON, CAST IRON, DUCTILE IRON, COPPER, BRASS, ALUMINIUM AND ITS ALLOYS AND NICKEL STEEL OTHER PLASTICS MATERIALS (PVC, polythene, polypropylene, asbestos cement, GR pipes, concrete, glass, rubber and some newer plastics)
  6. 6. TEMPERATURE LIMITATION OF PIPING MATERIALS SI NO 1 MATERIAL MAX WORKING TEMP OC Carbon Steel Yield stress decreases beyond this temp A106 GrB 427 API 5L GrB 2 230 Alloy Steel -do- A335 GrP11 570 A335 GrP22 600 A335 GrP91 3 REMARKS 650 Stainless Steel From –220 OC to 538 OC A312 GrTP304 -200 to 500 A312 GrTP316 -200 to 538 4 Aluminium 175 Loses strength beyond this temp 5 Titanium 400 -do- 6 Thermoplastics 260 Melts beyond this temp 7 Thermosetting plastics 260 Some epoxies can be used upto 290 OC 8 Concrete 290 Cannot be used for temp intensive services 9 Rubber Room Temp -do-
  7. 7. MATERIAL PROPERTIES MATERIAL YIELD STRENGTH (Mpa) UTS (MPa) Carbon Steels 260-1300 500-880 Cast Irons 220-1030 400-200 Low Alloy Steel 500-1980 680-2400 Mild Steel 220 430 Stainless Steel, austenitic 286-500 760-1280 Stainless Steel, ferritic 240-400 500-800 Nickel and its alloys 200-1600 400-2000 Titanium and its alloys 180-1320 300-1400 Copper 60 400 Cooper Alloys 60-960 250-1000 Brasses and Bronzes 70-640 230-890 Aluminium 40 200 Aluminium Alloys 100-627 300-700 Lead and its alloys 11-55 14-70 Tin and its alloys 7-45 14-60 Polypropylene 19-36 33-36 Polyurethene 26-31 58 Polyethylene HD 20-30 37 Polyethylene LD 6-20 20
  8. 8. FERROUS MATERIALS
  9. 9. CARBON STEELS Is an alloy of Iron and Carbon Contains 0.1 % to 1.5 % of Carbon Based on Carbon Content it can be classified into 1. Mild steel - 0.05 % - 0.30 % 2. Medium Carbon steel – 0.30 % - 0.70 % 3. High carbon Steel – 0.70 % - 1.5 % 4. It can withstand upto to a temperature of 450 C   General chemical composition of CS is C - 0.07, 1.56 %, Mn – 1.6 %, Si – 0.6 %, S – 0.1%, P – 0.1%.
  10. 10. CARBON STEEL – MATERIAL COMPOSITION MATERIAL CHEMICAL COMPOSTION DESCRIPTION C A106 GrB (1/2”-14”) API 5L GrB (1/2”-14”) A53 GrB (1/2”-14”) A105 (S.W.) (1/2”-1½”) A216GrWCB 2” & above Seamless, CS pipe for high Temp & Pr services Mn 0.3 0.29 - 1.06 Si 0.1 - P S 0.035 0.035 ERW ( E=0.85), CS pipe, Seamless 0.27 1.15 0.04 0.05 Seamless, CS pipe for low Temp services (Galv) 0.3 0.9 Forged CS for ambient and high Temp services 0.35 0.9 0.35 0.05 CS castings suitable for high Temp services 0.3 1 0.6 0.04 0.045 0.15 - 04 0.035 0.035 0.05
  11. 11. ALLOY STEELS • Adding of Alloying elements to improve the characteristics of the material is termed as Alloy Steel. • Commonly used Alloying elements are Silicon, Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum, Manganese, Vanadium, Titanium, Boron, Aluminium, Cobalt and Tungsten. • WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF ALLOYING?
  12. 12. PURPOSE OF ALLOYING 1. Improved Corrosion resistance 2. Better Hardenability 3. Improved Machinability High or low temperature Stability Ductility Toughness 4. Better Wear resistance
  13. 13. INFLUENCE OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS Alloying Aluminium (2 - 5 %) Chromium Manganese Molybdenum (0.15 – 0.6 %) Nickel (upto 5%) Titanium Tungsten Vanadium Advantage • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Resistance to heat and oxidation Improves scale resistance Imparts strength Increases wear resistance (carbides) Corrosion resistance Hardness & Strength If above 5% corrosion resistance is improved even at high temp Increases tensile strength & machinability Improves hardenability High temp strength & impact resistance Corrosion resistance especially to chloride solutions Machinability Decreases decomposition of austenite Increases resistance to oxidation at high temp Decreases critical temperature Prevents precipitaion of Cromium Carbides Imparts strength Wear resistance Abrasion resistance Increases red hardness (hot working) Powerful deoxidiser, forms strong carbides Wear resistance & strength Causes fine grain structure Disadvantage Increases brittleness Machinability, weldability Machinability
  14. 14. LOW ALLOY STEEL – MATERIAL COMPOSITION CHEMICAL COMPOSTION DESCRIPTION C Mn 0.05 - 0.15 0.3 - 0.6 Si 0.5 Cr SERVICE Mo 1.9 - 2.6 0.87 - 1.13 HP, superheated and hot reheat Steam Ferritic alloy steel pipe for high Temp services 0.08 - 0.12 0.3 - 0.6 0.2 - 0.5 8 - 9.5 Pipe fitting alloy steel for moderate and elevated 0.05 - 0.15 0.3 - 0.6 Temp Alloy steel castings for Pr containing parts suitable for 0.18 0.4 - 0.7 high Temp services 0.85 - 1.05 Superheated steam piping system 0.5 1.9 - 2.6 0.87 - 1.13 High Temp services 0.6 2 - 2.75 Valves for AS pipes 0.9 - 1.2
  15. 15. STAINLESS STEEL • • • • • Adding 11.5 % or greater chromium in iron,changes the microstructure and based on that its varieties are obtained. Posses greater percentage of chromium which forms a chromium oxide film exposed to air that prevents chemical attack of moist air on the material surface Nickel retains the austenitic structure of steel Greater resistance to corrosion than all types of steels Classified into three types based on its micro structure 1. Austenitic stainless steel 2. Ferritic stainless steel 3. Martensitic stainless steel
  16. 16. STAINLESS STEEL – MATERIAL COMPOSITION MATERIAL DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSTION C A312 Gr.TP316L (1/2”-14”) A403 Gr.WP304 A351 Gr.CF8 A182 Gr.F304 (2” & above) Cr Mo 2 18-20 - 8 - 11 SERVICE Ni 0.04 A312 GrTP304 Mn Hydrocarbons, chemicals, etc. Welded & seamless austenitic stainless steel 0.27 1.15 0.08 2 18-20 - 8 - 11 Forged fittings 0.08 Wrought austenitic stainless steel pipe fittings 16-18 2-Mar 11 - 14 Corrosive process service 1.5 18-21 - 8 - 11 Valve castings 0.08 2 18-20 - 8 - 11 Flanges Castings
  17. 17. NON-FERROUS MATERIALS
  18. 18. COPPER AND ITS ALLOYS • • • • • • • Used when heat and electric conductivity are important Theraml conductivity is high Alloys are brasses, Bronzes (Cu-Sn) and Cupronickels (Cu-Ni) Upto 20% Zn in Brass gives good corrosion resistance Bronzes display good strength with corrsion resistance Cupronickels have highest corrosion resistance among Cu alloys Cupronickels are used for heat exchanger tubing
  19. 19. NICKEL AND ITS ALLOYS • • • • Easy machinability and weldability Chloromet and Hastelloy are widely used other than Monel 400 Not resistant to oxidising environments Monel 400 is used to handle dilute sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid • Alkalis and sea water do not affect Nickel
  20. 20. ALUMINIUM AND ITS ALLOYS • Good thermal conductivity • Most workable metal • Highly resistant to atmospheric conditions, industrial fumes, fresh brackish or salt water • Not resistant to corrosion • Loses strength rapidly at 1750C.
  21. 21. TITANIUM • Strong and medium weight • Titanium Oxide is formed which prevents corrosion • Resistant to Nitric acid of all concentrations except fuming nitric acid • Welding requires inert atmosphere • Loses strength above 4000C • Provides good resistance to hydrochloric acid when alloyed with 30% Molybdenum • Not affected by impingement and crevice corrosion
  22. 22. COMMON NON-FERROUS PIPING MATERIALS (METALS) ASTM Des. DESCRIPTION SERVICES SB42 Seamless Cu pipes Heat exchanger services SB43 Seamless red brass pipes Moderate corrosion resistance SB75 Seamless Cu tubes Heat exchanger tubing SB161 Ni seamless pipes & tubes Alkaline solution, sea water SB165 Ni-Cu alloy, seamless pipes & tubes Dilute sulphuric acid SB167 Ni-Cr-Fe alloy for seamless pipes & tubes Hydro fluoric acids SB171 Ni-Cr-Fe alloy for condenser tube plates Condenser tubing SB210 Al alloy drawn seamless tubes Cryogenic SB241 Al alloy extruded tubes & seamless pipes Cryogenic and low temp SB337 Seamless and welded Ti & Ti alloy pipes Nitric acid & sea water SB444 Ni-Cr-Mo-Columbium alloy, seamless pipes & tubes High concentration acid SB564 Ni alloy forgings Forged pipe fittings SB690 Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo alloys, seamless pipes & tubes Wear resistant services
  23. 23. NON-FERROUS MATERIALS COMPOSITION ASTM Des Si Cu Al Ni (Co) Pb Fe Zn Mn Ti P C Cr Others SB43 - 84.686 - - 0.5 max 0.5 max Rem. - - - - - SB75 - 99.9 min - - - - - - - 0.015 -0.45 - - SB161 0.35 max 0.25 max - 99 min - 0.4 max - 0.35 max - - 0.15 max - SB165 0.52 -3 0.30.5 0-2.4 45-72 - 6-25 - 0.51.5 0.050.1 0.02 max 0.05 0.25 1429 SB171 - 58-62 6-11 - 0.070.25 0.060.4 0.2-1 1-1.5 0.10.2 - - - SB241 0.20.6 0.050.4 - - - 0.350.7 0.050.25 0.031.5 0.050.2 - - 0.050.25 SB444 0.5 max - 0.4 max 58 - 5 max - 0.5 max - 0.015 max 0.1 max 2023 Cb, Ta, Co, Mo SB564 0.05 -1 0.240 0.10.5 20-99 - 0.2-50 - 1-3 0.1-2 0.04 max - 0.535 Mo SB690 1 max 0.75 max - 23.525.5 - Rem. - 2 max - 0.04 - 2022 Mo, N Sn
  24. 24. NON-METALLIC P IP ES
  25. 25. COMMONLY USED NON-METALLIC PIPING MATERIALS • • • • • • Plastics – Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics Concrete Ceramic Asbestos-Cement Glass Rubber
  26. 26. THERMOPLASTICS
  27. 27. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) • • • • Tough and exceptionally resistant to chemical attack Rigid unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride is thermoplastic material Pipes are manufactured by extrusion Fittings, flanges and valves are manufactured by injection moulding
  28. 28. TYPES OF PVC There are three types of PVC pipes, Type-I, “normal-impact” grade Type-II, “high-impact” grade Type-IV, newer grade
  29. 29. PVC MATERIAL PROPERTIES PROPERTIES TYPE – I TYPE – II TYPE - IV Hydrostatic design pressure 2000 psi 1000 psi 1600 psi Temperature 160 OF - - Grades available PVC 1120, PVC 1220 PVC, 2110, PVC 212, PVC 2116 PVC 4116
  30. 30. ADVANTAGES OF PVC PIPES • No physical or little deterioration when exposed to direct sunlight, unlike other plastics • Does not support combustion • No scales are formed over smooth inside surface
  31. 31. APPLICATIONS OF PVC • Extensively used in highly corrosive application involving acids, alkalis, salt solution, alsohols and many chemical • In oil fields as it can carry sour crude oil to which PVC is inert and paraffin built-up is minimum • Salt-water disposal in oil fields • Gas transmission service • Cold water line in Industry as it is non-toxic and doesn’t add any odour or taste to water • For vent piping for removal of acid fumes and corrosive gases
  32. 32. TETRAFLUROETHYLENE (TEFLON) • Unaffected by alkalis and acids except flourines and chlorines, molten metals at elevated temperatures (260 0C max) • TFE + Chlorine = CTFE, which is highly resistant to corrosion by acids and alkalis up to 180 0C • TFE components can be prepared only by powder metallurgy
  33. 33. POLYETHYLENE (PE) • Produced from hydrocarbons and ethylene under high temperature and extremely high temperature pressure • Types – Low, Medium and High Density • HDPE is not very flexible as LDPE • 2% Carbon black is added to increase weather resistance
  34. 34. APPLICATIONS OF PE • • • • • HDPE is used in jet wells and farm sprinklers Salt water disposal lines Chemical waste lines Gas gathering systems Conduit for power and telephone cables
  35. 35. ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE (ABS) • It produced by injection or compression moulding • Exhibit good toughness and tensile strength
  36. 36. APPLICATIONS OF PE • Service of inorganic acids, bases and salts • Sewage piping • Crude oil and gas piping
  37. 37. THERMOS ETTING P LAS TICS Generally produced by centrifugal casting, hand lay-up moulding and filament winding. Major resins are Epoxy and Polyester resins and generally reinforced with glass or blue asbestos fibre.
  38. 38. EPOXY • Used in transportation of acids, neutral or basic salt solutions, waste process water and sewage • Used in paper industries for pulp stock wastes and dyes • It resists fouling, salt atmosphere and marine organism • Used in food and beverage industry
  39. 39. CONCRETE P IP ES
  40. 40. CONCRETE PIPING MATERIALS • Types – reinforced and non-reinforced • Some non-reinforced concrete pipe material specifications are ASTM C14, AASHO M86, ASTM C412, etc. • Non-reinforced pipe sizes vary from 12” to 24” • Some reinforced concrete pipe material specifications are ASTM C76, AASHO M170, SS-P-375, etc. • Used for sewage and industrial waste, storm waste, culverts, water supply
  41. 41. ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPES • Not used very commonly • Some standard material specification are ASTM C296, AWWA C400, SS-P-331, etc. • Used for drains and industrial waste
  42. 42. P IP E LININGS
  43. 43. COMMONLY USED LINING MATERIALS • • • • • • Rubber Plastic Lead Glass Epoxy resin Synthetic resin
  44. 44. RUBBER LINED PIPES • Natural and Synthetic rubber linings are used to counteract corrosion • Generally used in the temperature range of –20 OC to 50 OC • Commonly used natural rubbers are soft rubber, semi-hard and hard rubbers • Commonly used synthetic rubbers are PolychloropreneNeoprene, Butyl rubber, Nitrile rubber and Thiokol • Cannot be used for strongly oxidising conditions or halogenated carbon
  45. 45. PLASTIC LINING • PTFE and PVC are important lining materials • Used for chemical resistance, corrosion protection, resist abrasion, non-toxic and smooth bore reduces friction • PTFE is chemically inert and used from –270 OC to 260 OC • Polyvinyl flouride, fluoroethylene propylene and polypropylene can be added to enhance the range of PTFE • PVC provides tough and heavy-duty finish resistant to most acid and marine growth
  46. 46. LEAD LININGS • Lead lining is useful for most corrosive fluids and sulphuric acid below 80% concentration • Should not be used for nitric acid, hydrochloric acids, hydrofluoric acids, organic acids and alkalis • Can be alloyed to improve mechanical properties
  47. 47. GLASS LININGS • Glass enamel (glass like) inorganic compositions are used as linings • Bonded to mild steel by fusion on metal surface above 750 OC • Provide good resistance against acid attack and abrasion • Cheap alternative in many situations • Temperature range of –20 OC to 250 OC
  48. 48. EPOXY RESIN LININGS • Good resistance to alkalis and most acids except strongly oxidising ones • Good resistance to abrasion by suspended particles due to glossy nature of lining • Used mostly in natural gas pipe lines
  49. 49. SYNTHETIC RESIN LININGS • Sprayed phenol formaldehyde can be used when expected corrosion is less • Cannot be used above 80 OC • Because of sterile and non-tainting properties it is used in food processing industries • Mostly used to line welded steel vessels
  50. 50. LINED PIPES SAMPLES
  51. 51. P IP ING MATERIAL S P ECIFICATION
  52. 52. What is a Material Specification? A Piping Material Specification is an engineering specification that contains requirements for the selection of materials to be used in the construction and fabrication for all process and utility piping.
  53. 53. FEATURES OF A MATERIAL SPECIFICATION • Material of construction, end construction, end connections and wall thicknesses for various ranges • Individual line class of the piping materials • Codes and standards relevant to the pipes and fittings of the specified material class • Line class coding system • Pressure-Temperature ratings for various fittings and limiting sizes of fittings • Other general notes and design criteria as applicable to the material class
  54. 54. CLASS SERVICE INDEX – IDEA STANDARDS SI NO CLASS MATERIAL MAX P (kg/cm2) T RANGE (OC) SERVICE 1 A1A CS 20 -29 to 300 Fuel oil, nitrogen liquid, fuel gas, NaOH, brine, steam tracing 2 A1AR CS 20 -29 to 300 Steam condensate, BFW 3 A1B CS 20 -45 to 400 Hydrocarbons, catalyst solutions, lube oil, flare, flue gas, caustic, hot nitrogen 4 A21A 304 SS 19.33 -29 to 300 Pure water(pump seal cooling) WPF, additive solutions, seal oil, antifoam, carbonate, brine II 5 A21B SS 19.33 -29 to 150 Demin. Water, other process 6 A37A Aluminium 1.4 100 Pneumatic conveying 7 B1C CS - - Chlorine vapour, chlorine liquid 8 B1EH CS 52 -29 to 260 Hydrocarbons for HDPE only (Dupont B1E) 9 D21A 304 SS 101.25 -200 Liquid ethylene (Cryogenic) 10 S5A CS polypropylene lined 10.55 -29 to 80 Chemical sewer, regeneration wastes (H2SO4 and NaOH)
  55. 55. SOME MATERIAL COMPARISONS
  56. 56. GENERAL DES IGN CONS IDERATIONS • Seamless pipes are mostly preferred in power piping, butt welded may also be used • API 5L pipes are not permitted by IBR for design pr.>20 kgcm2 and temp>260 OC • Most projects require multinational specification • Economy precedes the choice of code for material specification, after design requirements
  57. 57. THANK YOU FOR YOUR P ATIENCE

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