The Paragraph
A paragraph is a basic unit of
organization in writing in which a group
of sentences develops one main idea....
Parts of a Paragraph
Three essential parts compose any paragraph: a
topic sentence, supporting sentences and a
concluding ...
•

•

Supporting Sentences: they come after the
topic sentence, making up the body of a
paragraph. they help develop the t...
In addition to the three parts of a paragraph, a
good paragraph also needs two important
elements: unity and coherence. Un...
How to Write a Paragraph
Prewriting a Paragraph
The prewriting stage is when you think carefully and
organize your ideas f...
4. Write down your own ideas. Ask yourself: What
other things can I include about this topic?
Why should people be interes...
Writing a Paragraph
The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into
sentences and you communicate them. Some
important ...
Editing a Paragraph
The editing stage is when you check your
paragraph for mistakes and correct them.
Do not forget to do ...
Transitional Signals
• Transition signals can be compared to traffic
signs. They are words that tell you to go forward,
to...
Words that Show Addition
They aid the writer when he or she wants to
present two or more ideas that continue
along the sam...
Words that Show Time
They indicate a time relationship. They tell
us when an specific event took place in
relation to anot...
Words that Show Contrast
They signal a change in the direction of the
writer's thought. They tell us a new idea will
be di...
Word that Show Comparison
These words are used when a writer wants
to point out a similarity between two
subjects. They te...
Words that Show Illustration
These words are used if you as a writer
want to provide one of more examples to
develop and c...
Words that Show Location
Location transitions show a relationship in
space. They tell us where something is in
relation to...
Words that Show Cause and Effect
These types of words are useful if an author
wants to describe a result of something.
The...
Words that Summarize or Conclude
These types of words are used when the
idea that follows will sum up the entire
writing o...
Punctuation Rules
One of the most important aspects to take into consideration when you write is
punctuation. It will tell...
• Comma
-Use a comma before a conjunction (and, or, so, but) that separates two
independent clauses.
She wanted to learn t...
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The paragraph

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The paragraph

  1. 1. The Paragraph A paragraph is a basic unit of organization in writing in which a group of sentences develops one main idea. The number of sentences a paragraph contains is not important. It can be as short as one sentence or as long as nine sentences, the most important thing is that the idea stated at the beginning is clearly developed.
  2. 2. Parts of a Paragraph Three essential parts compose any paragraph: a topic sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding sentence. • Topic Sentence: it states the main idea of the paragraph. It contains the name of the topic that is to be carried out. This sentence has to be precise, but avoid telling everything in the first sentence or your reader will lose interest. The topic sentence serves to limit the topic to one or two areas that will be discussed entirely in the space of one paragraph. The area is what we call the controling idea.
  3. 3. • • Supporting Sentences: they come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph. they help develop the topic sentence. It means that these sentences explain the topic by giving reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations. Closing Sentences: it´s the last sentence in a paragraph, it indicates that the paragraph is ending and sums up important points to remember or reprises the main idea. You write it restating the main idea of a paragraph but using different words.
  4. 4. In addition to the three parts of a paragraph, a good paragraph also needs two important elements: unity and coherence. Unity: it means that in your paragraph you discuss one and only one main idea which is stated in the topic sentence and then developed by the supporting sentences. Coherence: it means that your paragraph is easy to read and understand because: • your supporting sentences are in logical order • your ideas are connected by the use of a appropriate transition signals.
  5. 5. How to Write a Paragraph Prewriting a Paragraph The prewriting stage is when you think carefully and organize your ideas for your paragraph before you begin writing. There are six steps involved in this process. They are the following: 1. Think carefully about what you are going to write. Ask yourself: "What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay? How can I make this paragraph interesting? What facts can be stated to support this topic? 2. Write your answers to the above questions and do not need to spend a lot of time doing this. Just write enough to help you remember why and how you are writing. 3. Collect facts related to your topic. Write down facts that will help you answer your questions.
  6. 6. 4. Write down your own ideas. Ask yourself: What other things can I include about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important? 5. Find the main idea of your paragraph: Chose the most important point. If you cannot decide which is the most important one, just chose one and stick to it throughout your paragraph. 6. Organize your facts and ideas to develop your topic, find the best way to tell the reader about it. Decide which facts will support the main idea.
  7. 7. Writing a Paragraph The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences and you communicate them. Some important steps are the following: • Write a topic sentence, some supporting sentences, and one closing sentence • Make sure that the sentences are clear, simple, and they express what you really mean • Focus on the main idea of your paragraph • Re-read what you wrote and see if the idea is clear and you can read it with ease
  8. 8. Editing a Paragraph The editing stage is when you check your paragraph for mistakes and correct them. Do not forget to do the following: • Check your grammar and spelling • Read your text again and make sure each sentence makes sense • See if your paragraph is interesting to read
  9. 9. Transitional Signals • Transition signals can be compared to traffic signs. They are words that tell you to go forward, to turn, to slow down and to stop. Better said, they help the reader when to you are giving a similar idea, an opposite idea, an example, a result, or a conclusion. As a writer it is important to use these types of words to help you follow your ideas coherently. Types of Transitional Signals • Transition words can be classified taking into account they type of help they might offer a writer. They can be classified in the following types:
  10. 10. Words that Show Addition They aid the writer when he or she wants to present two or more ideas that continue along the same line of thought. Some common addition words are: and, also, another, in addition, moreover, first of all, second, third, furthermore, finally.
  11. 11. Words that Show Time They indicate a time relationship. They tell us when an specific event took place in relation to another. Some of these words are: First, then, often, since, next, before, after, soon, as, now, until, previously, while, during, immediately, frequently.
  12. 12. Words that Show Contrast They signal a change in the direction of the writer's thought. They tell us a new idea will be different in a significant way from the previous one. Some contrast words are: but, however, yet, although, in contrast, instead, still, in spite of, despite, on the other hand, on the contrary.
  13. 13. Word that Show Comparison These words are used when a writer wants to point out a similarity between two subjects. They tell us that the previous idea is similar to the next one in some way. Some words that show comparison are: like, as, just like, just as, in like manner, equally, similarly, in a similar fashion, in the same way.
  14. 14. Words that Show Illustration These words are used if you as a writer want to provide one of more examples to develop and clarify a given idea. They tell us that the second idea is an example of the first. Some illustration words are: for example, for instance, as an illustration, to illustrate, such as, to be specific, including.
  15. 15. Words that Show Location Location transitions show a relationship in space. They tell us where something is in relation to something else. Some of these words can be: next to, in front of, in back of, below, between, inside, outside, opposite, on top of, across, beneath, in the middle of, on the other side, at the end of, ahead of, over, under, behind, near, far.
  16. 16. Words that Show Cause and Effect These types of words are useful if an author wants to describe a result of something. They tell us what happened or will happen because something else happened. These type of words are: because, if... then, as a result, consequently, accordingly, therefore, since, so.
  17. 17. Words that Summarize or Conclude These types of words are used when the idea that follows will sum up the entire writing or a final statement will be written as a conclusion. These words are: in summary, in conclusion, in short, all in all, in brief, in other words, on the whole, to conclude, to sum up.
  18. 18. Punctuation Rules One of the most important aspects to take into consideration when you write is punctuation. It will tell your reader when to stop or when to change the interpretation of your paper. Speakers use intonation and writers use punctuation. Some of the most common marks in English are the following: • Period - Use a period after a statement or command. Turn on the television. We are studying English. - Use a period after most abbreviations. Mr. Ms. Dr. -Exceptions: UN NATO IBM AIDS • Question Mark -Use a question mark in an interrogative statement. In a direct quotation, the question mark goes before the quotation mark. He said, "Are you coming home?"
  19. 19. • Comma -Use a comma before a conjunction (and, or, so, but) that separates two independent clauses. She wanted to learn to cook, so she decided to buy herself a book. - Don't use a comma before a conjunction that separates two incomplete sentences. She worked in the library and studied at night. - Use a comma to separate interrupting expressions from the rest of the sentence. Do you know, by the way, what time it is? - Use a comma after yes and no in answers. Yes, my father is a doctor. - Use a comma to separate an apposite form the rest of the sentence. Mr. Smith, the new teacher, really knows how to teach. Would you like to try a taco, a traditional Mexican dish? • Quotation Marks - Use quotation marks at the beginning and at the end of exact quotations. He said, "I'm going to get married." - Use quotation marks before and after titles of stories, articles, songs, and TV shows. Do you want to watch "Friends" on TV? My favorite song is "Disappear" by INXS.

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