Psychology: Historical, Social, and Scientific Foundations
Overview• How did psychology become a science?•What is the science like today?•What about the Nature vs. Nurture debate?
Brief History of Psychology•What is psychology?•Early psychologists: •Socrates (philosopher) •Aristotle (more data driven) •Descartes (mind-body dichotomy) •Locke (blank slate)
Structuralism and Functionalism 4 Wundt (1832-1920) James (1842-1910)Wundt and Titchner studied Influenced by Darwin,the elements (atoms) of the William James established mind by conducting the school of experiments at Leipzig, functionalism, opposing Germany in 1879. structuralism.
The Unconscious Mind Freud (1856-1939) 5 http://loeillet.chez-alice.fr Jung (1875-1961) http://ot.re.kr Sigmund Freud and his followers emphasized theimportance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior.
Humanistic Psychology 6 Maslow (1908-1970) http://facultyweb.cortland.edu Rogers (1902-1987) http://www.carlrogers.dk Maslow and Rogers emphasized currentenvironmental influences on our growth potential and our needs for love and acceptance.
Contemporary Psychology 7 Nature versus Nurture Darwin (1809-1882) Darwin states that nature selects those traits thatbest enable the organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Nature vs. Nurture? Is any one trait the result of genes or environment alone? How do genes work? Then, are all behaviors the result of genes being “turned on?”
Nature and Nurture Genes set the stage Experience places you on the continuum. Homosexuality as an example IQ as an example
Psychology’s Current PerspectivesPerspective Focus Sample QuestionsNeuroscience How the body and brain How are messages enables emotions. transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?Evolutionary How the natural selection How does evolution influence of traits the promotes the behavior tendencies? perpetuation of one’s genes.Behavior genetics How much our genes and To what extent are our environments psychological traits such as influence our individual intelligence, personality, differences. sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment? 10
Psychology’s Current PerspectivesPerspective Focus Sample QuestionsPsychodynamic How behavior springs How can someone’s from unconscious drives personality traits and and conflicts. disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?Behavioral How we learn observable How do we learn to fear responses. particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say lose weight or quit smoking? 11
Psychology’s Current PerspectivesPerspective Focus Sample QuestionsCognitive How we encode, process, How do we use information store and retrieve in remembering? Reasoning? information. Problem solving?Social-cultural How behavior and How are we --- as Africans, thinking vary across Asians, Australian or North situations and cultures. American – alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ? 12
Psychology’s Subfields ResearchPsychologist What s/he does Explores the links between brain and Biological mind. Studies changing abilities from womb toDevelopmental tomb. Studies how we perceive, think, and solve Cognitive problems. Personality Investigates our persistent traits. explore how we view and affect one Social another. 13
Psychology’s Subfields: Research 14 Biological Other 11.5% 9.9% Experimental 14.1% Developmental 24.6% Psychometrics 5.5% Cognitive 8.0% Social 21.6% Personality 4.8%Data: APA 1997
Psychology’s Subfields AppliedPsychologist What s/he does Industrial/ Studies and advise on behavior in theOrganizational workplace. Helps people cope with academic, Counseling vocational, and marital challenges. Study, assess, and treat people with Clinical psychological disorders 15
Psychology’s Subfields: Applied 16 Industrial 6% Other Educational 3% 9% Counseling 15% Clinical 67%Data: APA 1997
Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry 17A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies, assesses, and treats troubled people with psychotherapy. Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like drugsand psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients.