ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
Organized By:
Civil Engineering Department
S. N. Patel Institute of Technology & Research Centre,
...
BACK COVER OF WRITING PAD
National Conference:
“TRENDS & CHALLENGES OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN TODAY’S
TRANSFORMING WORLD”
Un...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
I
CHAIRMAN’S MESSAGE
...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
II
DIRECTOR’ S MESSAG...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
III
CAMPUS DIRECTOR’S...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
IV
COORDINATOR’S MESS...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
V
About Vidyabharti T...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
VI
About SNPIT & RC
T...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
VII
Vision:
 Attain ...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
VIII
About Civil Engi...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
IX
Department Resourc...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
X
ORGANIZING COMMITTE...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
XI
ADVISORY COMMITTEE...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
XII
REVIEW COMMITTEE
...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
XIII
STEERING COMMITT...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
XIV
REGISTRATION COMM...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
XV
STUDENT VOLUNTEER
...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World”...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World”...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World”...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World”...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World”...
S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
(A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION)
2014
XX
KEYNOTE ADDRESS
AB...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r ...
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Full paper  proceeding
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Full paper proceeding

2,852

Published on

S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH
SNPIT & RC, UMRAKH
National Conference : 2014
ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0
National Conference : “TRENDS & CHALLENGES OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN TODAY’S TRANSFORMING WORLD”

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,852
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Full paper proceeding"

  1. 1. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 Organized By: Civil Engineering Department S. N. Patel Institute of Technology & Research Centre, Vidyabharti Campus, At & Po Umrakh, Ta: Bardoli, Dist.: Surat, Gujarat, India, Pin: 394345 Ph.: +91-2622-224581, 220581 Fax: +91-2622-225458 Web site: www.snpitrc.ac.in National Conference: “TRENDS & CHALLENGES OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN TODAY’S TRANSFORMING WORLD” 29th March, 2014 CD Contains:  Key Note Address (PPT)  Full-Text Papers
  2. 2. BACK COVER OF WRITING PAD National Conference: “TRENDS & CHALLENGES OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN TODAY’S TRANSFORMING WORLD” Under the banner of ISTE Chapter In Association with Gujarat Technological University Saturday, March 29, 2014 Organized by, Civil Engineering Department, S. N. Patel Institute of Technology & Research Centre, Umrakh (A Vidyabharti Trust Institution) DISCLAIMER AS AN AUTHOR OF PAPER, AUTHOR(S) HAVE ASSURE THE INTEGRITY AND ORIGINALITY OF RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPER AND IF ANY PLAGIARISM FOUND, AUTHOR(S) SHALL BE RESPONSIBLE, WHERE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE OF CONFERENCE OR HOST INSTITUTE WILL NO WHERE RESPONSIBLE IN THIS REGARD.
  3. 3. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 I CHAIRMAN’S MESSAGE It gives me an immense pleasure to welcome you to the National conference on „TRENDS & CHALLENGES OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN TODAYS‟ TRANSFORMING WORLD‟ on 29th March, 2014, a national conference to be organized at the S. N. Patel Institute of Technology and Research Centre. I am sure that the present Conference will provide an opportunity for academicians, students, and researchers to meet and share their contributions to the Civil Engineering profession, guide the future of the profession and find out the latest industry breakthroughs. I would like to convey my thanks to all authors for their notable contributions and also to all persons involved with the National conference, for their effort put in the splendid accomplishment of the event. SHRI JAGDISHCHANDRA. N PATEL Chairman, Vidyabharti Trust
  4. 4. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 II DIRECTOR’ S MESSAGE There is growing realization that our expanding population and yearning for industrial and technological development has brought socio- economic transformation of our country during the last two decades. Civil engineering has played crucial role in bringing about a change in the infrastructure development and industrial growth. The biggest challenge today before civil engineers is to see how the best development can take place with the least amount of the negative impact on the environment creating and bring about sustainable development options – sustainable not only for the present generation but also to the emerging future generations. Civil engineering department is organizing the conference with the theme „TRENDS & CHALLENGES OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN TODAY‟S TRANSFORMING WORLD‟ with respect to shaping the future trends challenges. I express my best wishes to all the delegates; distinguish faculties and researchers for attending this conference. Dr. H. R. PATEL Director, S.N.P.I.T & R.C, Umrakh
  5. 5. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 III CAMPUS DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE Our National progress is not warranted by its stock of natural resources alone. On the other hand, deficiency of natural resources also does not close the gates of prosperity. The development status of a nation is determined by its technological wherewithal. We have to leverage our knowledge to develop growth-inducing technologies. I appeal the community of scientists and engineers to collaborate and provide the requisite technology. The aim of the conference is to bring academics, research workers, and professional engineers together to deliberate and provide solutions to the future challenges of civil engineering in particular. I convey my best wishes to all the authors; distinguish faculties and students for attending this conference. Dr. J. A. Shah Campus Director, Vidyabharti Trust, Umrakh
  6. 6. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 IV COORDINATOR’S MESSAGE I am delighted to co-ordinate the one day conference on “TRENDS & CHALLENGES OF CIVIL ENGINEERING IN TODAY'S TRANSFORMING WORLD”, to be organized and conducted by Civil Engineering Department on 29th March-2014 at S. N. Patel institute of Technology & Research Centre , Umrakh which is going to flash on various streams and their allied challenges of Civil Engineering. Such conference is an attempt to bring the technocrats of Civil Engineering on the platform of technical thinking and to prepare the mindsets ready in the direction of solutions. Conference has attempted to assemble the innovations from expert group of academicians as well as researchers. I heartily appreciate the Organizing Committee, Authors, Management of S.N. Patel Institute of Technology & Research Centre, for their kind co-operation during co-ordination of this conference. Dr. Neerajkumar D. Sharma Coordinator & Head, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC- Umrakh
  7. 7. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 V About Vidyabharti Trust About Trust The Vidyabharti Trust was registered as Public Education Trust under the Bombay Public Trust Act, 1950 in 18/09/1980, registration no. E-1852-Surat with a pious aim to impart quality education and training to the children from Jr. K.G. onwards to the terminal of higher education and allied research. The trust also received exemption under section 80(G) of the income-tax act for accepting donations. The Vidyabharti Trust campus is in the vicinity of Bardoli, the nucleus of the political activity during our freedom struggle and ship anchor of the well known Bardoli Satyagraha of Shri Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. The campus is situated in an area of 38 acres of land. It catalyses and manifests educational activities in a solitude natural places like Gurukuls. At Vidyabharti Trust, we believe that the greeneries can play a vital role in conducting the required educational activities qualitatively and quantitatively. The Vidyabharti Trust has fulfilled his many motives pertaining to education in the present arena. Currently, the Trust has obtained recognizable position in the society. Vision The Trust aspires to achieve best institute status with excellence in teaching, infrastructure and processes for delivering higher professional education. The Trust aspires to create campus environment conductive to effective learning and quality of life for all members of academic community. The Trust also wish to provide quality Technical Education to the young generation to make them an efficient technocrat with complete and matured human being who can attribute to development of the nation by knowledge, skills he/she acquired during his/her studies. Mission To equip young men and women with knowledge, skills and personal attributes consistent with the needs of a technologically advanced and globally competitive economy.
  8. 8. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 VI About SNPIT & RC The Vidyabharti Trust was registered as Public Education Trust under the Bombay Public Trust Act, 1950 in 18/09/1980 registration no. E-1852-Surat with a pious aim to impart quality education and training to the terminal of technical education and allied research. The trust also received exemption under section 80(G) of the income- tax act for accepting donations. in vicinity of Bardoli, the nucleus of the political activity during our freedom struggle and ship anchor of the well-known Bardoli Satyagraha of Shri Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.  S N Patel Institute of Technology & Research Centre (Degree College) is a premier institution imparting technical education offering various courses: 1) Mechanical Engineering, 2) Civil Engineering, 3) Electrical Engineering, 4) Computer Science & Engineering, 5) Electronics & Communication Engineering  Post-graduation course : 1) MBA with specialization in HR and Finance, 2) M.E. (Civil - Construction Management), 3) M.E. (EC - Signal Processing & Communication).  The Institute is approved by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi and affiliated with Gujarat Technological University (GTU), Gujarat. Mission:  To provide high quality, innovative and globally competitive learning experience in the major engineering disciplines in undergraduate through creative balance of academic, professional and extra curriculum programs.  To provide sustainable, resilient and forward looking technical education to meet ever changing spectrums of demand with human face.  To provide learning environment that celebrates ethnic and gender diversity, respects experiences, and encourages problem solving through team work.
  9. 9. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 VII Vision:  Attain regional and international recognition among peer institutions for excellence in both teaching and research.  Maintain state of the art laboratories and infrastructure to support the education and research for effective learning and research.  Assemble dynamic body of faculty who exemplify excellence and innovation in the pursuit and delivery of knowledge and will perpetuate the highest standards of engineering education for future generations.  Promote community synergy by providing a quality education for the students of diverse backgrounds by education and research cooperation with other college within Gujarat Technical University and maintain our ties to the community by emphasizing, accommodating and encouraging lifelong learning.
  10. 10. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 VIII About Civil Engineering Department About Department The Civil Engineering Department administers a Civil Engineering programme that will produce Graduates and Post Graduate Engineers with innovative, research based , skilled and hardworking qualities and professionalism in nature since the year of 2009 and achieved the admirable grip in the academic field of Civil Engineering. This branch imparts the wide range of technical education tracks starting from fundamentals to advanced methodologies of civil engineering field It offers a wide reach in bright and promising career opportunities and professional advancement. The department of Civil Engineering ensures that the students have the opportunity to work with latest technologies and equipments along with innovative thinking and to get exposed to prevailing civil engineering projects on field as well as in industries. The department conducts:  Undergraduate Programmes – B.E (Civil Engineering)  Postgraduate Programmes – M.E (Civil Engineering) with Specialization in Construction Management Department Activities 1. Imparting technical knowledge as per curriculum along with intentive focus on practical aspects of Civil Engineering 2. Vigorously associated with consultancy work of:  Civil Material Testing ( ISO Certified)  Environmental Audit Cell ( ISO Certified) 3. Continuous development of Department Staff with most advanced skills including Technical & Non-Technical. 4. Promoting the staff members for further study. 5. Promoting and encouraging the students to participate in National and Regional Technical Competitions 6. Providing exposure of computer science as applications.
  11. 11. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 IX Department Resources  Fully equipped modern labs (Material testing lab, Applied Mechanics Lab, Fluid Mechanics Lab, Transportation Engg. Lab, Soil Mechanics)to enable the students for grasping ,analyzing and experiencing regarding knowledge.  A well facilitated and furnished computer/departmental research lab to provide the computational knowledge backbone in addition of civil engineering conventional fundamentals.  Full spaced drawing Hall.  ISO Certified Material Testing Laboratory with all modern equipments  ISO certified Environmental Engineering Laboratory for carrying out the analysis of Air, Water and Solid samples.
  12. 12. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 X ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Chief Patron Shri J. N. Patel Managing Trustee, Vidyabharti Trust, Umrakh Patrons Er. Kashyap J. Patel Trustee, Vidyabharti Trust, Umrakh Dr. H. R. Patel Director, S.N.P.I.T & R.C, Umrakh Dr. J. A. Shah Campus Director, Vidyabharti Trust, Umrakh Coordinator Dr. Neerajkumar D. Sharma Professor & Head of Civil Engineering Department, S.N.P.I.T & R.C, Umrakh Co-Coordinator Prof. Rushabh A. Shah Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Dept., S.N.P.I.T & R.C, Umrakh Prof. Bhavin K. Kashiyani Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Dept., S.N.P.I.T & R.C, Umrakh Prof. Hiren A. Rathod Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Dept., S.N.P.I.T & R.C, Umrakh
  13. 13. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 XI ADVISORY COMMITTEE Dr. J. N. Patel, Professor, Civil Engineering Department, SVNIT, Surat Dr. C. D. Modhera, Head, Applied Mechanics Department, SVNIT, Surat Dr. L. B. Zala, Head, Civil Engineering Department, BVM Engineering College, V. V. Nagar Prof. J. J. Bhavsar, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, BVM Engineering College, V. V. Nagar Dr. Indarajit N. Patel, EC Member, ISTE Dr. Jayesh A. Shah, EC Member, ISTE Prof. K. M. Bhavsar, EC Member, ISTE Dr. Dhiren Shah, Principal, Vidyabharti Trust College of Pharmacy, Umrakh Prof. B. V. Modi, Principal, B. V. Patel Institute of Technology, Umrakh Dr. A. V. Shah, Head, ASH Department, B. V. Patel Institute of Technology, Umrakh Dr. Anand Bhatt, Principal, B.Ed. College, Vidyabharti Trust, Umrakh
  14. 14. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 XII REVIEW COMMITTEE Dr. J. N. Patel, Professor, Civil Engineering Department, SVNIT, Surat Dr. C. D. Modhera, Head, Applied Mechanics Department, SVNIT, Surat Dr. L. B. Zala, Head, Civil Engineering Department, BVM Engineering College, V. V. Nagar Dr. Narendra Shrimali, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology, M.S. University, Vadodara Prof. J. J. Bhavsar, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, BVM Engineering College, V. V. Nagar Prof. Mehali Mehta, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, SCET, Surat Prof. Chetna Vyas, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, ADIT, New V. V. Nagar Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, BVM Engineering College V. V. Nagar Prof. Vinay Rana, Head, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.Patel Institute of Technology, Umrakh Dr. S. K. Dave, Head, Civil Engineering Department, BBIT, V. V. Nagar
  15. 15. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 XIII STEERING COMMITTEE Prof. R. J. Motiyani, Head, Electrical Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Dr. P. S. Jain, Head, Mechanical Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Dr. Y. C. Rotliwala, Head, Environmental Audit Cell, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Prof. P. J. Shah, Head, ASH Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Prof. Vinesh Kapadia, Head, Electronics & Communication Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Prof. D. J. Jadhav, Head, Computer Science & Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Prof. Axay Gupta, Head, Management Studies, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh EDITORIAL BOARD Prof. U. N. Barot, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Prof. V. B. Pathak, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Prof. B. R. Joshi, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Prof. H. B. Chaudhari, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Prof. K. P. Shah, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh
  16. 16. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 XIV REGISTRATION COMMITTEE Prof. S. K. Mistry, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Prof. G. N. Rana, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Mr. Jignesh Patel, Computer Science Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Miss Z. P. Shah, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Miss S. G. Javiya, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Mr. R. S. Khubchandani, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh Mr. J. M. Mistry, Civil Engineering Department, SNPIT&RC, Umrakh
  17. 17. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 XV STUDENT VOLUNTEER GAUD DIPAK DANGROCHIYA NENCY SHAH CHIRAG DHYEY SHAH TIJORE NIMITA GAJERA VISHALKUMAR GOPANI HARIKRISHNA KANANI MAYANKKUMAR PATEL HIRAL MADHAV KUSHALKUMAR KATARIYA BHAVESHKUMAR MISTRI PARESHKUMAR PATEL ABHIYAN MISTRY KRUNAL KACHA RAKESH MISTRY NISARG PATEL AJAYKUMAR MISTRY RAJENKUMAR VAGHANI MANTHANKUMAR NAIK MIHIRKUMAR YADAV NEETU PAREKH VARUNKUMAR PAGHDAR DHIREN PATEL RAVIKUMAR AGOLA JAYDEEP PATEL VIVEK BALAR KARM PONKIYA KRUSHIL
  18. 18. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World” XV 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department, S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh CONTENTS Group - A (Theme: Concrete) Sr No Paper ID Title Authors 1 14SNPIT03 MECHANICAL COMPACTION OF CONCRETE: A GOVERENING FACTOR FOR DURABILITY AND SERVICEABILITY OF THE CONCRETE Ranchhod Mata, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 2 14SNPIT04 SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE: QUALITATIVE GROWTH FOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Ronitkumar Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Prof. J.J. Bhavsar 3 14SNPIT06 READY MIX CONCRETE : ECONOMIC AND QUALITATIVE GROWTH FOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Abhishek Shah, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 4 14SNPIT10 CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES: A MAJOR ROLE IN MODERN CONCRETE MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES Darshan S. Shah, Meet P. Shah, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda 5 14SNPIT17 EFFECT OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT WITH CEMENT IN CONCRETE & MORTAR Chirag J. Shah, Vyom B. Pathak, Rushabh A. Shah 6 14SNPIT18 A STUDY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTAR BY UTILIZING MICRO SILICA Zalak P. Shah, Rushabh A. Shah 7 14SNPIT19 COMPARISON OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR CONVENTIONAL AND FLY ASH PERVIOUS CONCRETE Neetu B. Yadav, Jayesh A. Shah, Rushabh A. Shah 8 14SNPIT32 SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE BY USING MANUFACTURED SAND AND MINRAL ADMIXTURE Bhaveshkumar M. Kataria, Dr. Jayesh A. Shah, Vyom B. Pathak 9 14SNPIT52 A REVIEW PAPER: DURABILITY STUDY ON CONCRETE B. G. Patel, L. E. Mansuri 10 14SNPIT53 EXPERIMENTALLY OPTIMIZATION OF AGGREGATE GRADATION COMBINATIONS FOR SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE Bhavin G. Patel, Dr. Atul K Desai, Dr. Santosh G. Shah 11 14SNPIT58 STUDY ON EFECT OF RICE HUSK ASH ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE Rajesh S. Khubchandani 12 14SNPIT60 STUDIES ON CONCRETE CONTAINING CHINA CLAY WASTE Prof. Priyank D Bhimani, Prof. Chetna M Vyas 13 14SNPIT61 UTILIZATION OF USED FOUNDRY SAND FOR ECOFRIENDLY LOW COST CONCRETE Dushyant R.Bhimani, Bhavik K. Daxini 14 14SNPIT72 BEHIVOURAL ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE PROPERTY BY USING ADDITIVES Karm P. Balar 15 14SNPIT73 STUDY ON SMART TRANSPARENT CONCRETE Nency Dangrochiya 16 14SNPIT75 BACTERIAL CONCRETE: NEW ERA FOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Mayank A. Kanani 17 14SNPIT80 A TECHNO-ECONOMICAL STUDY ON GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Rajen B. Mistry 18 14SNPIT81 AN EXPERIMENTAL WORK TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF PASTE VOLUME ON FRESH AND HARDENING PROPERTY OF SCC Mihir B. Naik 19 14SNPIT85 EVALUATION OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE USING WASTE MATERIALS Gaud Dipak, Dr. Sharma Neeraj, Mr. Barot Urvesh 20 14SNPIT88 EFFECT OF FLY ASH (CLASS F AND CLASS C) AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT WITH CEMENT IN MORTAR Rakesh S. Kacha, Vyom B. Pathak, Rushabh A. Shah 21 14SNPIT90 EVALUATION OF PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE. Abhishek A. Sapre, Mr. Urvesh N. Barot and Mr. Keyur P. Shah
  19. 19. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World” XVI 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department, S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Group - B (Theme: Advanced Construction Techniques) Sr No Paper ID Title Authors 1 14SNPIT02 RIBLOC TECHNOLOGY: NEW ERA OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY AND POLLUTION FREE TECHNIQUE IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY Iliyaskapadiya, Prof. Jayeshkumarpitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 2 14SNPIT05 LASER SCREED TECHNOLOGY: AN OPPORTUNITY TO EASE IN CONSTRUCTION SECTOR Hardiklokhandwala, Prof. Jayeshkumarpitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 3 14SNPIT08 A STUDY ON TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY: ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR EXCAVATION Hemishkumar Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumarpitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 4 14SNPIT09 WELL-POINT SYSTEM AND FREEZING TECHNIQUES FOR DEWATERING Jigar Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumarpitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 5 14SNPIT13 A REVIEW ON TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY: STATE OF ART TECHNOLOGY FOR UNDERGROUND UTILITY SERVICES Darshbelani , Prof. Jayeshkumarpitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 6 14SNPIT15 INTELLIGENT BUILDING NEW ERA OF TODAY’S WORLD Darshbelani, Ashish H. Makwana, Jayeshkumarpitroda, Chetna M. Vyas 7 14SNPIT16 DEMOLITION OF BUILDINGS: INTEGRATED NOVEL APPROACH Hardik Patel, Ashish H. Makwana, Jayeshkumarpitroda, Chetna M. Vyas 8 14SNPIT23 ANTI-TERMITE TREATMENT: NEED OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Nareshkumarprajapati, Ashish H. Makwana, Jayeshkumarpitroda, Chetna M. Vyas 9 14SNPIT24 EXPANSION JOINT TREATMENT: MATERIAL & TECHNIQUES Farhana M. Saiyed , Ashish H. Makwana, Jayeshkumarpitroda, Chetna M. Vyas 10 14SNPIT35 STUDIO APARTMENTS: AFFORDABLE RESIDENTIAL ALTERNATE FOR LOW INCOME GROUP Lukman E. Mansuri 11 14SNPIT36 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LINEAR STATIC, DYNAMIC AND NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS (PUSHOVER ANALYSIS) ON HIGH RISE BUILDING USING SOFTWARE E-TABS. Dhavan D. Mehta 12 14SNPIT31 SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION: GREEN BUILDING CONCEPT – A CASE STUDY Mitali P. Makhania, Mazhar Y. Multani Prof. Mitali J. Shah 13 14SNPIT40 GREEN TECHNOLOGY- AN OVERVIEW Dhartisoni, Sowmiyaiyer, Devanshigosai 14 14SNPIT71 GREEN BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES AND ENVIRONMENT Agola Jaydeep 15 14SNPIT77 AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS IN CONSTRUCTION Mr. Paresh S. Mistri 16 14SNPIT79 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR ERECTION OF SPATIAL STRUCTURES Nisarg M. Mistry, Dhyey K. Shah 17 14SNPIT83 APPLICATION OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Ravi N Patel
  20. 20. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World” XVII 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department, S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Group – C (Theme: Water Resources/GIS/ GPS/Disaster Management) Sr No Paper ID Title Authors 1 14SNPIT11 WATER FILLED COFFERDAMS – A NEW ERA OF PORTABLE AND ENVIRONMENTFRIENDLY COFFERDAM Nareshkumar Prajapati, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 2 14SNPIT14 ANALYSIS OF FLOOD USING HEC-RAS: A CASE STUDY OF SURAT CITY D J. Mehta, Mrs. S. I. Waikhom 3 14SNPIT22 HYDRAULIC JUMP TYPE (HJT) STILLING BASIN AS AN ENERGY DISSIPATOR AND INTRODUCTION TO HYDRODYNAMIC DESIGN OF SPILLWAY FOR HJT STILLING BASIN Utkarsh Nigam, Kaoustubh Tiwari, Dr. S. M. Yadav 4 14SNPIT25 ANALYSIS OF CIRCULAR AND RECTANGULAR OVERHEAD WATERTANK Hemishkumar Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Dr. K. B. Parikh 5 14SNPIT26 ANALYSIS OF INTZE ELEVATED WATER TANKS Hemishkumar Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Dr. K. B. Parikh 6 14SNPIT39 ANALYSIS OF FLOOD USING HEC-RAS Mr.A.R.Patel, Dr.S.M.Yadav, Mr.R.B.Khasiya, Mrs.S.I.Waikhom 7 14SNPIT41 FUZZY LOGIC BASED OPERATION OF GATED SPILLWAY Utkarsh Nigam, Dr. S. M. Yadav 8 14SNPIT43 COMPARISON OF MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION FOR SUKHI RESERVOIR INFLOW Rahul Solanki, Dr. S. M. Yadav, Prof B. M. Vadher 9 14SNPIT47 DESALINATION – AS AN EFFECTIVE METHOD TO GET FRESH WATER FROM SEA Parth P. Desai, Jigna K. Patel, Prof. Mehali J. Mehta 10 14SNPIT51 DEVELOPMENT OF STAGE-DISCHARGE MODELS FOR DEHLI GAUGING STATION OF KIM RIVER USING ANN AND MLR TECHNIQUE T.Venkateswarlu, Dr. S.M.Yadav, Vijendra Kumar, Priyanka Zore, Dr. P.G.Agnihotri And Dr.V.L.Mankar 11 14SNPIT64 DIFFERENT METHODS FOR RESERVOIR OPERATING POLICY Balve Pranita N.,Patel J. N. 12 14SNPIT65 CANAL LINING AND ITS ECONOMICS Ms. K.D. Uchdadiya, Dr. J.N.Patel 13 14SNPIT66 MODERNIZATION OF KAKRAPAR RIGHT BANK MAIN CANAL B.J.Batliwala , J.N.Patel, P.D.Porey 14 14SNPIT68 COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT PIPE MATERIALS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK Ms. P.N.Sheth, Dr. J.N.Patel 15 14SNPIT92 AN EFFECTIVE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY USING COPPER POT AT POINT OF USE Darshana Patel , Dr. P.K.Shrivastava 16 14SNPIT44 SPATIAL MAPPING OF SHALLOW AQUIFER USING DRASTIC MODEL Mr. Bankim R Joshi, Dr. Neeraj D Sharma, Dr. H. R. Patel 17 14SNPIT70 MONITORING DISPLACEMENT OF BRIDGE DECK WITH THE USE OF GPS Nisarg M Mistry, Ritika U Srivastav 18 14SNPIT74 DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN INDIA: YEAR 2013: A CASE STUDY Dhyey K. Shah, Nisarg M Mistry, DR. H. R. Patel
  21. 21. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World” XVIII 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department, S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Group - D (Theme: Environment Engineering/ Transportation Engineering) Sr No Paper ID Title Authors 1 14SNPIT20 REMOVAL OF COPPER CU+2 FROM SYNTHETIC WASTEWATER USING SULPHURIC ACID TREATED SUGARCANE BAGASSE Kamal Rana, Mitali Shah 2 14SNPIT27 PRINCIPLE AND CONCEPT OF GREEN CHEMISTRY & CASE STUDY OF DYEING INDUSTRY Mazhar Y. Multani , Prof. Mitali J. Shah 3 14SNPIT28 CRITERIA FOR NON POTABLE WATER Kamal Rana, Mitali Shah 4 14SNPIT29 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SAFE AND ECONOMICAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL THROUGH VARIOUS DISPOSAL METHODS Sarika G. Javiya 5 14SNPIT38 VERMICOMPOSTING: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION TO KITCHEN WASTE KartikGonawala, KarishmaChorawala, Mehali Mehta, Sanjay Parekh 6 14SNPIT42 SIMULATION OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF SEDIMENTATION PROCESSES ON LOWER SIANG H.P PROJECT, ARUNACHAL PRADESH, INDIA KaoustubhTiwari , Dr.S.MYadav , Dr P.D Porey , Mrs. Neena Isaac 7 14SNPIT45 RECLAMATION OF WASTEWATER FOR INDUSTRIAL & DOMESTIC PURPOSES AND IT’S CASE STUDY Kiran G. Panchal, Ankita A. Parmar 8 14SNPIT48 DEVELOPMENT ON SALINE LAND BETWEEN SURAT–NAVSARI REGION IN CONTEXT TO THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NAVSARI AS A TWIN CITY Udit M. Patel, Krunal R. Savani, Sanket K. Solanki&Mrugesh J. Solanki 9 14SNPIT50 NEED FOR POPULATION PROJECTION APPROACH: THE SURAT CASE Naresh Batukbhai Rokad, Bhasker Vijaykumar Bhatt 10 14SNPIT54 UP FLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER Bansari M. Ribadiya, Mehali J. Shah 11 14SNPIT59 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACTINOMYCETES FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE TRANSFER STATION RanaGaurang N 12 14SNPIT69 MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO FIND SUSTAINABILITY RANKING OF ANY REGION Palak Shah, Sejal Bhagat 13 14SNPIT87 TREATABILITY STUDY FOR CHEMICALLY IMPROVED PRIMARY TREATMENT: CASE OF FINAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT, BEAIL, ANKLESHWAR Sandip Mistry 14 14SNPIT33 ANALYSIS OF BED LOAD FOR STEEP SLOPE CHANNEL Ms.P.R.Khokhar, Dr.S.M.Yadav, Mrs.S.I.Waikhom 15 14SNPIT34 URBAN ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE AND ITS AUDITORY HEALTH IMPACTS OF SURAT CITY Prof.Amita P Upadhyay, Reshang B Patel, Keyur M Patel 16 14SNPIT49 CRITICAL REVIEW OF PARKING COMPONENT IN TOWN PLANNING SCHEME - A CASE STUDY OF SURAT Sagar H. Vanparia, Jitesh C. Sapariya, Hemant N. Chaudhari, Vishal M. Tank 17 14SNPIT89 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF SEWAGE TREATEMENT PLANT Jenish Mistry, Dr. Neeraj Sharma
  22. 22. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming World” XIX 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department, S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Group - E (Theme: Construction management/Structural engineering/Material Management/Advance Construction Materials) Sr No Paper ID Title Authors 1 14SNPIT55 CRITERIA RANKING FOR SUPPLIER SELECTION PROCESS THROUGH ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS: CASE STUDY OF GUJARAT STATE OF INDIA Dr. Rajiv Bhatt, Prof. Vatsal Patel, Prof. Bhavik Daxini 2 14SNPIT67 RISK IDENTIFICATION IN CONSTRUCTION PHASE & MANAGEMENT PHASE: A CASE STUDY OF SURAT DISTRICT Nimitta A. Tijore, Dr. Neeraj D. Sharma 3 14SNPIT76 STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNICATION Kushal Madhav 4 14SNPIT84 A SEQUENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FACTOR FORCING TO PROJECT DELAYS USING R.I.I. TECHNIQUE Manthankumar K. Vaghani, Mr. Vyom B. Pathak, Mr. Keyur P.Shah 5 14SNPIT86 FEASIBILITY STUDY OF DRY WALL FOR A SURAT CITY: A VIEW POINT OF CONSULTANTS Paghdar Dhiren , Dr. Sharma Neeraj 6 14SNPIT91 COMPARISON OF COSTOVERRUNS CAUSES USING AHP AND RII TECHNIQUE Hiral H. Patel, Dr. Neeraj D. Sharma, Rushabh A. Shah 7 14SNPIT46 INFLUENCE OF MASONRY INFILLS ON SEISMIC RESPONSE OF RC FRAME WITH VARIOUS MODELING APPROACH H. S. Majmundar, J. A. Amin 8 14SNPIT57 ASSESSMENT OF STRENGTHENING SCHEMES OF RC FRAME USING NON-LINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS Darpan B. Doshi, J A. Amin, G.M. Tank 9 14SNPIT01 SLIP FORMING: THE NEW ERA OF FORMWORK OF UNUSUAL STRUCTURE Hardiksuthar, Prof. Jayeshkumarpitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 10 14SNPIT07 PLASTIC FORMWORK : NEW ERA FOR CONSTRUCTION SECTOR Rajuprajapati, Prof. Jayeshkumarpitroda, Prof.J.J.Bhavsar 11 14SNPIT12 SCAFFOLDING: SAFETY AND ECONOMICAL ASPECT FOR SCAFFOLDINGS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Jaydeep Desai, Prof. Jayeshkumarpitroda, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 12 14SNPIT30 MEMBRANE FILTRATION PROCESS – A CASE STUDY Swati A. Parekh, Mazhar Y. Multani, Prof. Mitali J. Shah 13 14SNPIT56 FLY ASH: 21ST CENTURY GREEN BUILDING MATERIAL D.K.Parmar, Dr. S.K.Dave 14 14SNPIT62 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY: UTILIZATION OF FLYASH & POND ASH OF UKAI THERMAL POWER STATION IN FLYASH BRICK Ajaykumar R. Patel , Dr. Hasmukh R. Patel 15 14SNPIT63 A STUDY ON CRITERIA REGARDING SAFETY IN FORMWORK MANAGEMENT FOR REAL ESTATE Abhiyan S Patel, Dr. Neeraj D Sharma , Bhavin K Kashiyani 16 14SNPIT21 APPLICATION OF NANOMATERIAL IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Sunil Kakwani, Visheshkakwani 17 14SNPIT37 BAGASSE ASH AS AN EFFECTIVE PARTIAL REPLACEMENT IN FLY ASH BRICKS Samruddha Raje, Apurva Kulkarni, Mamata Rajgor 18 14SNPIT78 A REVIEW ON NATURAL FIBRES: AN EMERGING MATERIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION Krunal V Mistry 19 14SNPIT82 A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON IMPORTANCES OF FLY-ASH BRICKS AND CLAY BRICKS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY THROUGH SPSS SOFTWARE Varunkumar Parekh
  23. 23. S. N. PATEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH CENTRE, UMRAKH (A VIDYABHARTI TRUST INSTITUTION) 2014 XX KEYNOTE ADDRESS ABSTRACT This presentation is about types of rocks and their anchoring as per the various needs of civil engineering, especially ground projects to satisfy the needs of transportation and surface means of communication of today’s rapidly growing and transforming world. The presentation is included with detail of installation and execution function and quality check. There is an explanation of supporting systems of soft ground, medium hard tunnelling and hard rock. There is various kind of rock defined by rock quality designation known as (rqd). Steel ribs, steel arches, Timber these are various types of supports. In tunnelling operation cycle there are eight sequential operations. First are investigation then, drilling, blasting, scaling, mucking, bolting, shotcreting and controlling. The presentation deals with all sequential. Er. H.M. Patel, Managing Partner, Dhorajia Construction Company, Ahmedabad (Specialized in Underground Civil Engineering Projects)
  24. 24. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh SLIP FORMING: THE NEW ERA OF FORMWORK OF UNUSUAL STRUCTURE Hardik Suthar1 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2 , Prof. J. J. Bhavsar3 1 Student of first year M.E (Construction Engineering & Management), B.V.M Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 2 Assistant Professor and Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 3 Associate Professor, P.G. Coordinator of Construction Engineering & Management, B.V.M Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 1 hardik.suthar2312@gmail.com 2 jayesh.pitroda@bvmengineering.ac.in 3 jaydev_2004@yahoo.com Abstract: Slip forming is the best techniques which carried out fast and rapid construction in an unusual structure like cooling towers, chimneys, silo and also in roadway construction bridge construction. Slip formwork techniques carried out with more than 16 m height structure and its very rapid and time saving erection techniques and also economical. Slip forming considers mainly 7.2 m per day which is fastest erection procedure. They content various components and after the completion of curtain height concreting by the hydraulic jack it lifted up and further concreting could be done. Hence these methods are rapid, time saving; economical and less labor force is required. Keywords: Cooling Towers, Rapid Construction, Slip Forming I. INTRODUCTION Slip forming is an economical, rapid and accurate form of construction that can be used to build concrete, reinforced concrete, or pre-stressed concrete structures. Although slip forming is not suitable for all types of structures, it can be used to construct a wide variety of structures such as silos, chimneys, building cores, bridge piers, and cooling towers. Slip formwork used for vertical as well as horizontal continues structure. This type of formwork system is economical and also less labour work required in construction, it is totally depends upon automation eraction techniques.
  25. 25. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure 1: Slip Formwork Source: www.structuralsystem.com II. HISTORY OF SLIP FORMWORK  The slip forming technique was discovered by America in 1910 for building silos, grain elevators and cooling towers.  The first notable use of the slip formwork method in Skylon Tower near Niagara Falls, Ontario, which was completed in 1965.  Another unusual structure was constructed for the Sheraton Waikiki Hotel in, Hawaii, in 1969.  In 1990s in U.K. Slip forming has even been adopted for the paving of roadways, bicycle paths, and kerb with the introduction of slip form paving equipment. And further Slip form paving was also implemented in the paving of airport aprons, taxiways, and runways.
  26. 26. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure 2: History of Slip Formwork Source: Gomrco slip form system III. WHAT IS THE SLIP FORMWORK AND METHOD OF USE Slip forming consists of constructing a wall-shaped form approximately 1.0 to 1.2 meters high at the base of the structure. This type of formwork has a belt of forms, one for each surface, 1 to 1.5 meters wide usually about 1.2m (4ft) made of timber or steel. These surface forms placed on the internal and external surface of a wall, chimney and cooling towers etc. As the concrete is deposited, the form is slowly and continuously raised by jack screws, hydraulic jacks or pneumatic jacks. As the form is raised, it can be adjusted to vary the taper of the structure and the thickness of the wall as needed. The rate at which the form is raised is between 5 to 30 cm/hour as per
  27. 27. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh requirements. This around the clock operation results in a construction rate between 1.2 to 7.2 m/day, which cannot be attained by any other construction method. Figure 3: Constructing Wall-Shaped Slip Formwork IV. APPLICATIONS OF SLIP FORMWORK Chimney Slip Formwork
  28. 28. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Silo Slip Formwork Cooling Tower Slip Formwork Bridge Construction by Slip Formwork Road Construction by Slip Formwork Figure 4: Various Applications of Slip Formwork in Construction
  29. 29. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Source: - www.master builder.com, www.rexon.com V. COMPONENTS OF SLIP FORMWORK  Slip Form  Ribs  Yokes  Working platform or Deck  Suspended scaffolding  Lifting jacks Figure 5: Components of Slip Formwork Source: www.skilledforming system.com Advantages  Provision of a joint less structure.  A saving of shuttering material both initially as well as lesser wastage.  Scaffolding is not required.  Very rapid concreting. It is at least four times faster.  Better finishing of concrete.
  30. 30. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh  Reduced labour cost.  Slip form does not require the crane, minimizing crane use.  No plastering required.  Accuracy is more than regular formwork.  Strength is more than regular formwork.  Save formwork material.  Economical for structure above certain size. Disadvantages  Greater time required for arranging of various components.  Expert supervision and operations needed for uniform movement of the slip form system.  Stocking of material on the site is difficult.  Good coordination and site organization required.  Large quantities of equipment (e.g. Generators, lighting systems, and hoists) needed.  Labour force may require familiar with equipment and methods.  The operation must be continued in any weather  High initial expense.  Need 24-hour service facilities (e.g. Canteen, material supply, maintenance team, primary clinic). Safety features  Working platforms, guard rails, ladders and windshields should built into the completed system.  Completed formwork assembly is robust and strong enough.  Strength of concrete must be checked at certain time intervals.  Site operatives can quickly become familiar with health and safety aspects of their job site.  All parts should move in uniform rate, there should be no jam in formwork or jack.  Lateral support of forms must be provided. Economical consideration
  31. 31. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh  This type of form works only economical when the height of the structure is a minimum of 16m high.  The thickness of the wall should be a minimum 15cm.  This system is only suitable for a structure like silo, cooling towers, chimneys, tall building and piers. VI. CASE STUDY A.P.C. Herington company project (USA) was chosen as a case study in current seminar. It included Raw Meal Silos and towers with 6000-ton cement production per day. All silos and towers of the cement factory were constructed using a slip-form lifting system. The silo was designed to store raw material. This case study is to investigate the possibility of using slip forming in varying construction sectors. Figure 6: Various Structures of A. P. C. Herington Company
  32. 32. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Source: - www.efcoform.com, A.P.C. Herington VII. CONCLUSION  With the invention of slip forming technique and due to speedier completion of work by the technique, there are substantial savings in cost in terms of wages and interest. This technique has no comprises against quality control and Homogeneity of structure.  The cost saving will not appear automatically just because slip forming has been used. This technique has a lot of scope for improvement. But it can be adapted for tall structure.  Thus a slip form system involves:- ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Authors thankfully acknowledge to Dr. C. L. Patel, Chairman, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Er.V.M.Patel, Hon.Jt. Secretary, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Mr. Yatinbhai Desai, Jay Maharaj construction, Dr. F.S.Umrigar, Principal, B.V.M. Engineering College, Dr. L.B.Zala, Head and Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Dr. A. K. Verma, Head and Professor, Structural Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India for their motivations and infrastructural support to carry out this research. REFERENCES [1] Anon. 1978. “Key to courthouse puzzle.” Eng. News-Rec., 20021, 26–27. [2] Betterham R. G. 1980. Slip-form concrete, Longman, New York. [3] Halpin D. W. and Riggs L. S. 1992. Planning and analysis of construction operations, Wiley, New York [4] Hanna, A. S. 1998. Concrete formwork systems, Marcel Dekker, New York. [5] Peurifoy R. L., and Oberlander G. D. 1996. Formwork for concrete structures, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York [6] Pruitt R., Oberlander G. 2000. Concrete construction, 1st Ed., McGraw-Hill, April, 32(4):345-349. [7] www.Slipforminternational.com [8] www.rexon.com [9] www.neruformwork.com [10]www.dokaformwork.com [11]www.l&tskilledformingsystem.co.in
  33. 33. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh [12]www.masterbuilders.com [13]www.google.co.in [14]www.lagram.com [15]www.Wikipedia.com
  34. 34. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh RIBLOC TECHNOLOGY: NEW ERA OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY AND POLLUTION FREE TECHNIQUE IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY Iliyas Kapadiya1 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2 , Prof. J. J. Bhavsar 3 1 Student of first year M.E (C.E & M), B.V.M Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 2 Assistant Professor and Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 3 Associate Professor and PG Coordinator (M.E C E & M), Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 1 iak_1401@yahoo.com 2 jayesh.pitroda@bvmengineering.ac.in 3 jaydev_2004@yahoo.co.in Abstract: Most of the Indian sewer lines in urban areas have been built over a period of 50 to 100 years using old generation materials such as brick, asbestos cement and low grade RCC etc. With the ageing of the material load imposed by the environment, corrosion due to water and gases these sewers get structurally damaged. Most of the Indian sewers have serious problems like silt deposit, which is due to the ingress of the excessive solid materials in the sewerage system. A number of major trunk sewers in India are silted to the extent of 60 to 70 percent thereby reducing their carrying capacity. Many sewers are structurally damaged causing leakages and polluting the ground water or infiltration of water into the sewer network. To solve all these problems, it is essential that the sewer pipes are rehabilitated with minimum surface disturbance and within minimum time. With the greater emphasis on infrastructure development projects for economic development in India, it is felt that the Trenchless technology is poised for increased adoption in our growing metropolitan cities. Cities and communities in India and the world over can no longer afford to disrupt traffic, delay Production in factories and disturb the public life and Commerce as hitherto. The roads in Indian cities are not well maintained. There are innumerable potholes. Rib Loc is an Australian patented spirally wound PVC lining process designed for the gravity sewer application. The Rib Loc installation process involves the continuous winding of PVC profile inside the existing sewer line through the manhole chamber without any excavation. This PVC profile can be additionally reinforced by stainless steel section wherever required. Keywords: Interlocking Edges, Pipelines, Rib loc Technology, Spirally Wound Lining, “T” Ribbed Plastic Liner
  35. 35. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh I. INTRODUCTION Expanda is a trenchless pipe rehabilitation technology, developed in Australia in 1983, as a revolutionary process by which the efficiency, reliability, and integrity of aging sewers, storm drains, and culverts can be quickly improved with minimal disruption and expense. To date it has been used to structurally rehabilitate more than three million linear feet of buried pipe in 30 countries around the world. Expanda provides a “close-fit” structural liner and is suitable for non-pressure applications. It is commonly used for drainage, sewer, and road culvert applications from diameters of six in. to 30 in. Rib Loc extrudes the pipe-grade PVC profiles in a factory environment where the quality of the process can be closely controlled and monitored. All seals required for the performance of the profile are also applied in the same environment. This ensures that Rib Loc is able to produce a product of high quality and consistency. Several different sizes and configurations of plastic profile are available to provide a structural liner that meets the size and load carrying requirements of the design. Installation is fast and easy. Multiple lines can be rehabilitated in a single day in lengths exceeding 500 ft. The mechanical installation process also allows the existing sewer to continue to function during the installation process. This eliminates the need for bypass pumping and the risks associated with sewerage spills during construction. Minimal on-site equipment, operating at noise levels less than 75 decibels, and the fact that no chemicals, hot water, or steam are used during the installation enables the Expanda process to be used in residential neighborhoods with little or no disruption to the people in the project area. The process uses a single truck set-up that can either be positioned at the manhole access point, or as far away as 300 ft should the manhole be in an inaccessible location. The spiral-winding machine, specially designed to fit through standard manhole openings, is lowered within the access chamber and is used to wind a liner at a constant diameter within the existing host pipe. This diameter is set to be smaller than the host pipe. After the liner is wound from one manhole to the next, the end of the liner is held in position and the radial expansion process commences. Through a patented process, the edges of the profile are then freed to slide relative to each other as the winding machine continues to wind more profile. It is this mechanical process that causes the liner to expand. Expansion continues until the liner contacts the wall of the host pipe. The lock contains a slow setting lubricating sealant that, until it sets, aids the expansion process by performing the function of a lubricant.
  36. 36. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh This process means that Expanda provides a maximized internal diameter liner, with a circular cross section and constant wall thickness irrespective of the size and shape of the deteriorated host pipe. A combination of expanding urethane chemical grout and sulfide resistant cement is used to create a watertight end seal at each end of the liner pipe. Lateral connections to the mains can be remotely cut, then, if required, sealed with polyurethane or other approved types of sealant. The end result is a seamless, watertight, full-bore structural liner, resistant to chemical attack and with a 50-year service life. Figure:1 Installation of machine Figure:2 Installation of Rib steel process Source: Trenchless inline Source: www. kuliczkowski3
  37. 37. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure: 3 Types of RIB LOC Technology Source: www.googleimages.com II. TYPES OF RIBLOC TECHNOLOGY: Expanda Process: This process is specially designed for Smaller diameter sewers (150 to 750mm) and produces liner which closely fits into the existing host pipe. This process uses a double lock (main lock and sacrificial assembly lock).The liner is wound into pipe at a smaller diameter than the host pipe and stainless wire is integrated with sacrificial with the sacrificial assembly lock. Once the winding is completed, the wire is pulled by releasing the sacrificial assembly lock and allowing the pipe to expand the tightly fit against host pipe. Ribsteel Process: The Ribsteel process method is used for larger diameter sewers (>900mm). This involves the production of new pipe slightly smaller than the existing Host pipe. A winding cage is lowered into the manhole chamber. The cage continuously Produces a liner pipe which is wound from manhole to manhole through The sewer. The annulus between the host pipe and the liner is then filled with grout. Where required for greater stiff -ness ,the profile is reinforced with a roll formed stainless steel section. The ends of the liner at both manhole chambers are sealed And rendered to make them smooth with the host pipe. This process allows the lining of the pipes from 900 to 2500mm and beyond and at over 10 meters below ground. Ribsteel liners can structurally rehabilitate brick, concrete; glass reinforced plastic or corrugated metal sewer and storm Water pipelines. It can also be used to provide a corrosion protection liner. Rotaloc Process: The latest generation rotaloc method uses a moving winding mechanism which winds the new pipe directly against the inner surface of the Host pipe.This allows the diameter of the lined to be maximized and also allows for adjustment in the diameter to suit deflections in the host pipe. The process can line pipe from 800 – 2500 mm in diameter. Table : 1 Rehabilitation and Renovation method Method Applications Diameter Range (mm) Maximum Installation (Meters) Liner materials CIPP: Inserted in Gravity and 100-2700 900 Thermoset resin/fabric
  38. 38. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh place pressure pipelines composite. Winched in place Gravity and pressure pipelines 100-1400 150 Thermoset resin/fabric composite. Slip Lining: Segmental Gravity and pressure pipelines 100-4000 300 PE,PP,PVC,GRP (EP & UP) Continuos Gravity and pressure pipelines 100-1600 300 PE,PP,PE/EPDM, PVC Spiral wound Gravity pipelines only 100-2500 300 PE,PVC,PP,PVDF In Line Replacement : pipe displacement Gravity and pressure pipelines 100-600 230 PE,PP,PVC,GRP Pipe Rremoval Gravity and pressure pipelines Up to 900 100 PE,PVC,PP,GRP Close Fit pipe: Modified cross section Gravity and pressure pipelines 100-400 210 HDPE,PVC Draw down Gravity and pressure pipelines 62-600 320 HDPE,PVC Roll Down Gravity and pressure pipelines 62-600 320 HDPE,MDPE Point source repair: Robotics structural repair Gravity 270-760 N/A Epoxy resin/cement Morter Grouting Any N/A N/A Link-seal Any 100-600 N/A
  39. 39. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Point CIPP Gravity 100-600 15 Spray-on lining Gravity and pressure piplines 76-4500 150 ADVANTAGES
  40. 40. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh III. CASE STUDY: Ribloc technology is used in many countries. In January 1994 Northridge earthquake severely damaged the trunk sewer system of Santa Monica, USA. This resulted in one of this largest sewer rehabilitation project in USA. Number of technologies including CIPP and Rib Loc were tried. After the tremendous success of Ribloc in numerous projects, the city council of Santa Monica decided award future projects to Ribloc on the basis of negotiations. IV. CONCLUSIONS Within a short span of 5 to 6 years, the awareness of Trenchless Technology in India is quite significant. With conch progressive adoption of Trenchless technology in India, new equipment and development of new materials will follow which will revolutionize the construction industry and benefit the society. However, many planners, designers and engineers are not yet accustomed to using them. Hence, there is a need for further technological refinement , better information dissemination, and greater public awareness and understanding regarding appropriate use of Trenchless technology and its contribution to environmentally sustainable urban development. It is hoped that seminars on this newer technology will be encouraged which will promote greater awareness in adoption of this new technology for the development and management of the underground utilities. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Authors thankfully acknowledge to Dr. C. L. Patel, Chairman, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Er.V.M.Patel, Hon. Jt. Secretary, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Mr. Yatinbhai Desai, Jay Maharaj construction, Dr. A. K. Verma, Head & Professor, Structural Engineering Department, Dr. B. K. Shah, Associate Professor, Structural Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India for their motivations and infrastructural support to carry out this research. REFERENCE [1] Magazine of Civil engineering & construction review. [2] Brig. D.K. Gunjal, (retd), consulting Engr, Banglore. [3] T. Shivaraman, Chief Executive – Technology & D. Arivalagan, G.M –Technology, Shriram PPR Technology Pvt. Ltd., Chennai. [4] International seminar on “Underground Utility Infrastructure - Development and Management “ held at Bangaloreaka, on February 10-11-2003, organized jointly by IndSTT, CIDC, BAI (Karnataka Centre) & Karnataka state.
  41. 41. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh MECHANICAL COMPACTION OF CONCRETE: A GOVERENING FACTOR FOR DURABILITY AND SERVICEABILITY OF THE CONCRETE Ranchhod Mata1 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2 , Prof. J. J. Bhavsar3 1 Student of first year M.E (C.E & M), B.V.M Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 2 Assistant Professor and Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 3 Associate Professor and PG Coordinator (M.E C E & M), Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 1 ranchod111@gmail.com 2 jayesh.pitroda@bvmengineering.ac.in 3 jaydev_2004@yahoo.co.in Abstract: Compaction is the governing factor for the strength, durability and serviceability of the concrete. During the placing of the concrete in the form air is likely to trap within the concrete body, hence the density of the concrete is decreasing; ultimately it affects the strength, durability and serviceability of the concrete body. Vibration is the best remedy for getting rid off the trapped air from the concrete. At earlier stages when advanced vibrators were not found generally hand compaction method were adopted, but nowadays is a trend to use mechanical compaction method for compaction of the concrete. According to the condition we can use immersion vibration, surface vibration, or from vibration. We must use such vibration method with certain precaution to avoid any damages. Keywords: Compaction, Durability, Strength, Serviceability, Vibration I. INTRODUCTION “Compaction is the process which expels entrapped air from freshly placed concrete and packs the aggregate particles together so as to increase the density of concrete.” The aggregate particles, although coated with mortar, tend to arch against one another and are prevented from slumping or consolidating by internal friction. Compaction of concrete is, therefore, a two-stage process. In first stage with the vibration, initial consolidation of the concrete can often be achieved relatively quickly. The concrete liquefies and the surface levels, giving the impression that the concrete is compacted, then after the second stage, entrapped air is expelled. Entrapped air takes a little longer to rise to the surface. Compaction must therefore be prolonged until
  42. 42. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh this is accomplished, i.e. until air bubbles no longer appear on the surface. Shown in Figure 1. Proper compaction also ensures that the formwork is completely filled – i.e. there are no pockets of honeycombed material – and that the required finish is obtained on vertical surfaces. Even air-entrained concrete needs to be compacted to get rid of entrapped air voids. The difference between air voids and entrained air bubbles should be noted at this stage. The air bubbles that are entrained are relatively small and spherical in shape, increase the workability of the mix, reduce bleeding, and increase frost resistance. Entrapped air on the other hand tends to be irregular in shape and is detrimental to the strength of the mix. It is to remove this air that the concrete must be properly compacted. There is little danger that compaction will remove the minute air bubbles that have been deliberately entrained, since they are so stable.
  43. 43. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh II. IMORTANCE OF COMPACTION OF CONCRETE It is important to compact the concrete fully because, Air voids reduce the strength of the concrete. For every 1% of entrapped air, the strength falls by somewhere between 5 and 7%. This means that concrete containing about 5% air voids due to incomplete compaction can lose as much as one third of its strength. Figure 2 Air voids increase concrete's permeability. That in turn reduces its durability. If the concrete is not dense and impermeable, it will not be watertight. It will be less able to withstand aggressive liquids and its exposed surfaces will weather badly. Moisture and air are more likely to penetrate to the reinforcement causing it to rust. Air voids impair contact between the mix and reinforcement (and, indeed, any other embedded metals). The required bond will not be achieved and the reinforced member will not be as strong as it should be. Air voids produce blemishes on struck surfaces. For instance, blowholes and honeycombing might occur. Summing up, fully compacted concrete is dense, strong and durable; badly compacted concrete will be porous, weak and prone to rapid deterioration. Sooner or later it will have to be repaired or replaced. It pays, therefore, to do the job properly in the first place.
  44. 44. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh III. METHODS OF MECHANICAL COMPACTION Figure 3: Methods of Mechanical Compaction IMMERSION VIBRATION Figure 4: Detail Sketch of Needle Vibrator In immersion vibration a mechanical device termed as needle vibrator is broadly used by many firms frequently referred to as ‘poker’ or ‘needle’ vibrators, immersion vibrators consist essentially of a tubular housing which contains a rotating eccentric weight. The out-
  45. 45. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh of-balance rotating weight causes the casing to vibrate. When immersed in concrete, the concrete itself. Depending on the diameter of the casing or head, and on the frequency and the amplitude of the vibration, an immersion vibrator may have a radius of action between 100 and 600 mm. The effectiveness of an immersion vibrator is dependent on its frequency and amplitude, the latter being dependent on the size of the head, the eccentric moment and the head weight – the larger the head, the larger the amplitude. As the water cement ratio of concrete decreasing the higher compactive effort required so we should use the larger diameter head for such kind of work. Immersion vibrators may be driven by: a flexible shaft connected to a petrol, diesel, or electric motor; or an electric motor situated within the tubular casing; or compressed air. But most commonly vibrators no the site are driven by a flexible shaft connected to a petrol, diesel, or electric motor as shown in Figure 4. IV.CASH STUDY FOR NEEDLE VIBRATOR: TABLE 1: Diameter of head (mm) Recommended Frequency (HZ) Average Amplitude (mm) Radius of Action (mm) Rate of Concreting (cmt/hour) 20–40 150–250 0.4–0.8 75–150 1–4 30–65 140–210 0.5–1.0 125–250 2–8 50–90 130–200 0.6–1.3 175–350 6–20 75–150 120–180 0.8–1.5 300–500 11–31 125–175 90–140 1.0–2.0 400–600 19–38 Source: Adapted from Table 5.1 ACI Committee Report: Guide for Consolidation of Concrete 309R-05 ACI Manual of Concrete Practice 2006 Part 2. Following care should be taken while using the immersion vibrator:  As a general rule, the radius of action of a given vibrator not only increases with the workability of the concrete (higher slump), but also with the diameter of the head
  46. 46. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh  Immersion vibrators should be inserted vertically into concrete, as quickly as possible, and then held stationary until air bubbles cease to rise to the surface, usually in about 15–20 seconds  The vibrator should then be slowly withdrawn and reinserted vertically in a fresh position adjacent to the first. These movements should be repeated in a regular pattern until all the concrete has been compacted  Random insertions are likely to leave areas of the concrete uncompacted.  The vibrator should not be used to cause concrete to flow horizontally in the forms, as this can lead to segregation the vibrator should not be dragged through the concrete as this leads to inadequate compaction and increases the risk of segregation.  In deep sections such as walls, footings and large columns, the concrete should be placed in layers about 300 mm thick  The vibrator should penetrate about 150 mm into the previous layer of fresh concrete to meld the two layers together and avoid ‘cold-pour’ lines on the finished surface  One should try overlap of this vibration circle should limited to allowed overlapping limits shown in figure. Because it leads to over vibration at the overlapped portion of the vibrating circle as shown in figure 5  The vibrator should not be allowed to touch the forms as this can cause ‘burn’ marks which will be reflected on the finished surface  Similarly, the vibrator should not be held against the reinforcement as this may cause its displacement.  Inclined forms are prone to trapping air. To minimize this tendency, the best technique is to place the concrete close to, but away from the side of the form and insert the immersion vibrator close to the leading edge of the concrete, forcing it to properly fill the corner, Void-formers are also prone to trapping air on their undersides if concrete is placed from both sides and then compacted. Concrete should be placed at one side and, maintaining a head, vibrated until it appears at the other side.
  47. 47. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure 5 : Pattern of compaction Surface vibration: Surface vibrators are applied to the top surface of concrete and act downwards from there. They are very useful for compacting slabs, industrial floors, road pavements, and similar flat surfaces. They also aid in levelling and finishing the surface. There are a number of types of surface vibrators including vibrating-roller screeds, vibrating-beam screeds. The most common type is the single or double vibrating-beam screed. or Roller screed. Or Plate vibrator as Shown below in Figure 6. Beam screed vibrator Roller screed vibrator Plate vibrator Fig. 6: Different Surface vibrators Source : Google Images Beam Screed vibrator: A vibrating-beam screed consists of either one or two beams, made from aluminium, steel or timber, to which is attached a form of vibrating unit to allow the beams to impart adequate vibration to the concrete. This may be a single unit, mounted centrally, or may consist of a
  48. 48. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh series of eccentric weights on a shaft driven from a motor on one end and supported on a trussed frame In general, the centrally-mounted units have a maximum span of about 6 m, but the trussed units may span up to 20 m. The intensity of vibration, and hence the amount of compaction achieved, decreases with depth because surface vibrators act from the top down. Therefore, the slab thickness for which compaction by surface vibrators is effective will vary (from 100 to 200 mm) depending on the size and operation of the unit used. As shown in Figure 7. Figure 7: Surface Vibrator With centrally-mounted vibration units, the degree of compaction achieved may vary across the width of the beam. It is generally desirable, therefore, to supplement vibrating-beam compaction by using immersion vibrators alongside edge forms. The effectiveness of vibration, and hence degree of compaction, increases with an increase in the beam weight, the amplitude and the frequency,As the forward speed of beam increases compaction decreases and vise versa. Speed of screed should be limited to between 0.5 and 1.0 m/min. for getting batter output. The lower speed should be used for thicker slabs and where reinforcement is close to the top face Roller Screed vibrator: Roller screed vibrator is same of that beam screed vibrators in mechanism. In this type of vibrator beam is replaced by long cylindrical roller. Here roller is given vibration through
  49. 49. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh internal rotating imbalanced weight. Vibration is occurred throughout the cross section is same. Plate Vibrator: Plate vibrator is generally used in laboratories. It is generally used for compaction of practical specification made in lab, It is not preferred on large scale of concreting done on big sites Vibrating table techniques are usually restricted to recasting operations ,Also reflection of the pressure waves against the concrete surface will influence the amplitude distribution. Table vibrators can give less consistent results even with careful operation. Form Vibration: Figure 8: Form Vibration In form vibration an external mechanical vibrating device is used and it is attached with the form work. Shown in Figure 8. Form vibrators are useful with complicated members or where the reinforcement is highly congested, This types of vibrator must used with smooth surface form work so it can allow easy flow of concrete over the surface. They are clamped to the outside of the formwork and vibrate it thus compacting the concrete in this type of vibration first vibration is transferred to the form work and then it is transferred to the concrete. Due to above reason it consumes more power than the ordinary vibrators. The formwork will need to be specially designed to resist the forces imposed on it. V.CONCLUSIONS Today’s rapid growing world Concrete is most essential material for construction. But the concrete properties like strength, durability, serviceability are the problem. But with complete compaction of concrete one can improve concrete property like strength, durability, serviceability with great extent.
  50. 50. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Authors thankfully acknowledge to Dr. C. L. Patel, Chairman, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Er.V.M.Patel, Hon. Jt. Secretary, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Mr. Yatinbhai Desai, Jay Maharaj construction, Dr. F.S.Umrigar, Principal, B.V.M. Engineering College, Dr. L.B.Zala, Head and Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Dr. A. K. Verma, Head and Professor, Structural Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India for their motivations and infrastructural support to carry out this research. REFERENCE [1] Concrete Technology by M.S.Shetty [2] Cement & Concrete Association of New Zealand Bulletin [3] Cement Concrete & Aggregate Australia Bulletin [4] www.concrete.net.au [5] www.wikipedia.org [6] www.google.co.in
  51. 51. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE: QUALITATIVE GROWTH FOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Ronitkumar Patel1 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2 , Prof. J.J. Bhavsar3 1 Student of first year M.E (C.E & M), B.V.M Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 2 Assistant Professor and Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 3 Associate Professor, PG coordinator (CE & M), Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar -Gujarat-India 1 ronit_becivil@gmail.com 2 jayesh.pitroda@bvmengineering.ac.in 3 jaydev_2004@yahoo.co.in Abstract: Self−compacting concrete is one of "the most revolutionary developments" in concrete investigate and it is also referred to as self-consolidating concrete, is able to flow and consolidate under its own weight and to fill the most restricted places of the form work without vibration. It is cohesive enough to fill the spaces of almost any size and shape without segregation or bleeding. In site there are difficulties to achieve dense concrete because the labour forces are traditional. To achieve the actual strength and honeycombing effect difficulty in concrete are by solve SCC. There are several methods for testing its properties in the fresh state: the most frequently used are slum−flow test, L−box, U-box and V−funnel. Keywords: Developments, Revolutionary, Self-Compacting Concrete I. INTRODUCTION Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. It is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction, even in the presence of congested reinforcement. The hardened concrete is dense, homogeneous and has the same engineering properties and durability as traditional vibrated concrete. This concrete was first developed in Japan in late 1980. After the development of SCC in Japan 1988, whole Europe started working on this unique noise free revolution in the field of construction industry. The first North American conference on design and use of self- consolidation concrete was organized in November 2002.
  52. 52. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh II. TYPES OF SSC There are three types of SCC. These types are following under table:- Table 1 Types of SSC Powder type of SCC Viscosity Modifying Admixture type SCC Combined type SCC This is proportioned to give the required self- compactability by reducing the water-powder (material<0.1mm) ratio and provide adequate segregation resistance. Super plasticizer and air entraining admixtures give the required deformability. This type is proportioned to provide self-compaction by the use of viscosity modifying admixture to provide segregation resistance. Super plasticizers and air entraining admixtures are used for obtaining the desired deformability. This type is proportioned so as to obtain self- compactability mainly by reducing the water powder ratio, as in the powder type, and a viscosity modifying admixture is added to reduce the quality fluctuations of the fresh concrete due to the variation of the surface moisture content of the aggregates and their gradations during the production. This facilitates the production control of the concrete. Advantages:  Faster construction  Safer working environment  Reduction in site manpower  Better surface finishes  Improved durability  Greater freedom in design  Thinner concrete sections  Reduced noise levels, absence of vibration
  53. 53. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure 1: Advantages of SCC Disadvantages:  The production of SCC places more stringent requirements on the selection of materials in comparison with conventional concrete.  An uncontrolled variation of even 1% moisture content in the fine aggregate will have a much bigger impact on the theology of SCC at very low W/C (~0.3) ratio.  The development of a SCC requires a large number of a trial batches. In addition to the laboratory trial batches, field size trial batches should be used to simulate the typical production conditions. Once a promising mixture has been established, further laboratory trial batches are required to quantify the characteristics of the mixture.  SCC is costlier than conventional concrete initially based on concrete materials cost due to higher dosage of chemical admixtures.
  54. 54. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh III. PROCESS OF SCC Figure 2: Process of SCC
  55. 55. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Applications Figure 3: Applications of SCC in Construction IV.TEST METHODS: Figure 4: Various Tests on SCC
  56. 56. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh  Slump Flow Test: The basic equipment used is the same as for the conventional Slump test. The test method differs from the conventional one by the fact that the concrete sample placed into the mold is not rodded and when the slump cone is removed the sample collapses (Ferraris, 1999).The diameter of the spread of the sample is measured, i.e. a horizontal distance is determined as opposed to the vertical distance in the conventional Slump test. The Slump Flow test can give an indication as to the consistency, filling ability and workability of SCC. The SCC is assumed of having a good filling ability and consistency if the diameter of the spread reaches values between650mm to 800mm. Figure 5: Slump-flow Test on SCC  L-Box Test : This test is used to assess the passing ability of SCC to flow through tight openings including spaces between reinforcing bars and other obstructions without segregation or blocking. L- box has arrangement and the dimensions as shown in Figure. Figure 6: L-Box Test on SCC  V-Funnel Test: Viscosity of the self-compacting concrete is obtained by using a V-funnel apparatus, which has certain dimensions, in order for a given amount of concrete to pass through an orifice
  57. 57. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh (Dietz and Ma, 2000). The amount of concrete needed is 12 litters and the maximum aggregate diameter is 20 mm. The time for the amount of concrete to flow through the orifice is being measured. If the concrete starts moving through the orifice, it means that the stress is higher than the yield stress; therefore, this test measures a value that is related to the viscosity. If the concrete does not move, it shows that the yield stress is larger the weight of the volume used. The same test using smaller funnels (side of only 5 mm) is used for cement paste as an empirical test to determine the effect of chemical admixtures on the flow of cement pastes. Figure 7: V-Funnel Test on SCC  U-Type Test: Of the many testing methods used for evaluating self-compactability, the U-type test proposed by the Taisei group is the most appropriate, due to the small amount of concrete used, compared to others (Ferraris, 1999). In this test, the degree of compactability can be indicated by the height that the concrete reaches after flowing through obstacles. Concrete with the filling height of over 300 mm can be judged as self-compacting. Some companies consider the concrete self-compacting if the filling height is more than 85% of the maximum height possible.
  58. 58. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure 8: U-Type Test on SCC  Orimet Test: The test is based on the principle of an orifice rheometer applied to fresh concrete (Bartos, 2000). The test involves recording of time that it takes for a concrete sample to flow out from a vertical casting pipe through an interchangeable orifice attached at its lower end. The shorter the Flow-Time, the higher is the filling ability of the fresh mix. The Orimet test also shows potential as a means of assessment of resistance to segregation on a site. Recommended value of taking for different test methods of SCC Table 2 Recommended value of taking for different test methods of SCC Sr. No. Methods Unit Typical range of values Minimum Maximum 1 Slump flow Test mm 600 800 2 V-funnel sec 6 12 3 L-box (h2/h1) 0.8 1 4 U-box h2-h1 0 30 Working Environment Table 3 Working environment Casting type Concrete type Measurements Horizontal Conventional Noise, vibration, videotaping (lifts, positions)Horizontal SCC Vertical Conventional Noise, vibration, videotaping
  59. 59. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Vertical SCC (lifts, positions) Load on human body – lifting, body position, etc. Evaluation of lifts by worker Figure 9: Load on human body – lifting, body position Table 4 Casting type v/s Un-healthy lifts Casting type Un-healthy lifts (1/hour) Conventional, Horizontal 30 SCC, Horizontal 30 Conventional, Vertical 116 SCC, Vertical 30 Major improvement!
  60. 60. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Noise Table 5 Casting type v/s Noise Casting type Noise Background (dB) Noise Pump (dB) Noise Vibration (dB) Noise Peak (dB) Conventional, Vertical 70 87 84-91 111 SCC, Vertical 70 87 - 87 Conventional, Precast 71 - 89-98 120 SCC, Precast 71 - - 79  Ear protection needed  No ear protection required using SCC at precast plant! Vibration Figure 10: Acceleration v/s Exposure Vertical casting of 115m2 using poker vibrator: • Acceleration exposure 6m/s2 equaling a maximum exposure time of 140 minutes. • No problem as the casting time was less than 120 minutes and 2-3 workers carried the vibration load.
  61. 61. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Horizontal casting of 100m3 slab using poker vibrator: • Acceleration exposure 3.4m/s2 equaling a maximum exposure time of roughly 8 hours. • No problem as the casting time was 7 hours and 46 minutes and 3-4 workers carried the vibration load. V. CONCLUSION  SCC with high workability, proper strength, and adequate durability can be produced using locally available materials.  Attention must be paid to formwork, segregation, the air-void system, and shrinkage.  Self-Compacting Concrete is considered to be the most hopeful building material for the expected innovative changes on the work site.  Alternative powders may be introduced without negative effect on concrete properties.  The reduction in number of un-healthy lifts is the most significant improvement to the working environment from using SCC- The noise and vibration reduction is also nice. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Authors thankfully acknowledge to Dr. C. L. Patel, Chairman, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Er.V.M.Patel, Hon. Jt. Secretary, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Mr. Yatinbhai Desai, Jay Maharaj construction, Dr. A. K. Verma, Head & Professor, Structural Engineering Department, Dr. B. K. Shah, Associate Professor, Structural Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India for their motivations and infrastructural support to carry out this research. REFERENCES [1] Byen.wikipedia.org [2] Hajime O. and Masahiro O. (2003) “Journal of Advanced Technology” [3] M.S. SHETTY “Concrete Technology”, S. Chand and company ltd. [4] www.google.com [5] www.yotube.com [6] www.wikipedia.com [7] Seminasprojects.com/s/SCC-ppt
  62. 62. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh LASER SCREED TECHNOLOGY: AN OPPORTUNITY TO EASE IN CONSRTUCTION SECTOR Hardik Lokhandwala1 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2 , Prof. J. J. Bhavsar3 1 Student of first year M.E (C.E & M), B.V.M Engineering College, Vallabh Vidhyanagar 2 Assistant Professor and Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 3 Associate Professor, P. G. Coordinator of Construction Engineering & Management, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 1 hardik.civil007@gmail.com 2 jayesh.pitroda@bvmengineering.ac.in 3 jaydev_2004@yahoo.co.in Abstract: Laser screed technology exhibits the opportunity for concrete floor slabs in its time-sensitive project and hence new standards in the regional construction industry has established. This is the latest technology for concrete flooring. This technology reduces the no. of joints as no form work is required in between to support the Surface Vibrators. Form work is done only on the periphery of the panel to stop the concrete from flowing outside panel. The Laser Screed technology offers much quicker turnaround than conventional concrete construction saving over 400 per cent in project execution time. As an estimate, a 1,000 square meter concrete floor slab can be completed in less than 24 hours with Laser Screed technology, while it would ideally take about three to four days in the conventional way. This technique also requires a minimum set-up time besides extending superior quality, safety and accuracy. On the other hand, in manual screeding, there are lots of forward bending causes awkward torso posture, Repetitive hand/arm activity, High hand forces are required to pull the rod to smoothen the concrete, Relatively slower than Laser screed machine. In this study, working of laser screed technology, different types of Laser screed machines used in construction industries, case study on this technology etc are discussed. Keywords: Copper Head, Hand Screeding, Laser Screeding,Plough
  63. 63. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh INTRODUCTION Screeding To explicate the meaning of Laser screed technology, first there should be acute knowledge of the word “Screed”. Screed is a flat board, or a aluminium tool, used to smooth concrete after it has been placed on a surface and also used to assist in levelling the application of plaster. Figure: 1 Screeding Figure: 2 Screeding Source: en.wikipedia.org Source:dictionary.reference.com INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCREED TECHNOLOGY The introduction of the Laser Screed machine coincided(happen simultaneously) with increased demands for flatter and more level industrial/warehouse floors. Laser screed technology produces slab-on-grade concrete floors that are flatter and stronger than any comparative floors produced by using conventional methods. They establish grade by laser, utilizing a 3D profiler system, disperse concrete by auger, and then vibrate and consolidate the concrete. Laser Screeds are setting new standards for concrete floors. In addition to being laser, this technology is precise and mechanically powerful, they are fast. It can accurately screed 240 square feet of concrete in just 60 seconds. That means more floor is placed daily and production schedules are satisfied or actually shortened.
  64. 64. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure: 3 Pavement work by Laser Screeding Figure: 4 Industrial floor by Laser Screeding Figure: 3 Laser Screeding WORKING OF LASER SCREED TECHNOLOGY The laser screed machine has four wheel drives, four wheel steer and is operated by one person seated at a point of maximum visibility. It utilizes a 360° rotating platform with a telescopic boom. The end of the boom is a screed head that is a plough and auger that cuts the concrete to level and a vibrating beam to compact the material. The screed head boasts a laser-guided, automatic control system. This system allows the machine to accurately place and finish concrete to the exact level and finish specified. There are 2 receivers on the screed head that receive signals from the static laser transmitter which provides a constant reference to the datum level. This transmitted signal functions to automatically adjust the hydraulic cylinders that guide the screed head. The following are the process steps of working f Lasser Screed Technology.
  65. 65. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Process Step 1 Process Step 2 Process Step 3 The laser transmitter casts the beam over the entire foyer. The beam axis the electronic stream line continuously monitored by the laser transmitters on CopperHead (Laser screed machine) The CopperHead receives the Laser beam continuously and maintain the fixed distance from where the beam strikes the transmitter to the bottom of the plough. Process Step 4 Process Step 5 Process Step 6 As the CopperHead ploughs itself to the freshly placed concrete, it encounters various subgrade conditions that cause the chassis to ride up-down . The CopperHead compensate by continuously and automatically raising or lowering a plough to maintain the correct relationship to the laser. This regulated flow of concrete is now at grade. The vibrator plate is so smooth to precisely level concrete. Here it can be seen the plough moving up-down continuously or vibrator plate states on grade. The lower frame and upper frame are connected in a manner that isolates lower frame real movement from the upper frame.
  66. 66. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Process Step 7 Process Step 8 Process Step 9 It is to be noted that wheels encounters various subgrade conditions but the plate has state level. Machine Allows free movement when it is screeding. It is easy for the operator to control the machine. There is a horizontal pin connection allowing the side to side of the wheels. DIFFERENT KINDS OF LASER SCREED MACHINES AVAILABLE IN MARKET Many types of Laser Screeding machine were developed by several industrial companies in the mid-1980s based on patented technology to provide a highly accurate, mechanical method of screeding concrete for slab-on-grade floors. Different types of Laser Screed products which are enlisted below. Figure: 12 S-15m LASER SCREED Figure: 13 S-840 LASER SCREED concrete leveling equipment
  67. 67. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure: 14 SXP®-D LASER SCREED concrete leveling equipment Figure: 15 Mini Screed Figure: 16 STS-132 Topping Spreader Figure: 17 Mini Screed C Figure: 18 3-D Profiler System Figure: 19 Copper Head
  68. 68. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure: 20 PowerRake Figure: 21 HoseHog DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANUAL SCREEDING AND LASER SCREEDING
  69. 69. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh Figure: 22 Manual Screeding Figure: 23 Laser Screeding THE BENEFITS OF LASER SCREED TECHNOLOGY  Faster placement - Laser Screed machines can accurately level 240 square feet of concrete in less than one minute. It easily moves around obstacles on the job site and eliminates most frameworks, meaning more floors or paving is placed daily and production schedules are satisfied or actually shortened. Fast-track production, high quality, and cost effectiveness are all direct benefits of utilizing Laser Screed.  Flatter floors – we can achieve laser-precise flatness and levelness every time. Floors are routinely flatter, stronger, and more level than floors produced by any other conventional method.  Fewer workers – The Laser Screed equipment’s does the tough, strenuous (effortful) work, so we simply get more work done with less manual effort, allowing to make larger daily placements with fewer workers.  Produces floors of unequalled flatness & levelness  Reduces labour costs due to faster placing times and reduced form work  Increases productivity & efficiency  Assures greater accuracy through Laser Technology  Easily places 3”-4” slump concrete, larger aggregate mixes, and fibrous concrete  Concrete is levelled and compacted in one operation,  Producing high strength, dense, durable floors  Improves floor quality andincreases profits
  70. 70. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh LIMITATIONS OF LASER SCREED TECHNOLOGY  The most significant limitation to using the laser screed is that it is only practical for larger jobs (more than 50,000 ft²)  Other limitations are primarily related to the laser screed’s size and weight. A fairly large door is needed, and light reinforcement will not carry up to the machine’s weight. CASE STUDY A report was presented by GLENN A. SHEPHARD on “LASER TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATION TO CONSTRUCTION” to the Graduate Committee of the Department Civil Engineering in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Civil Engineering, University of Florida,Summer 1999. In this case study, the application of Laser screed technology was described briefly and its comparison to hand Screeding was also notified in the report given by GLENN A. SHEPHARD Research includes Figures 1 and 2 illustrate floor flatness (FF) measured in inches over the plane surface in yards. While the floor profile deviations of 1/2-inch over 10 yards for a hand screed floor appear to be insignificant. Figure: 20 Hand Screed Floor Profile - deviation in inches over plane measurement in yards. (Laser Screed Ltd., 1999) Figure: 21. Laser Screed Floor Profile - deviation in inches over plane measurement in yards. (Laser Screed Ltd., 1999)
  71. 71. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh CONCLUSIONS The following are the conclusion drawn from the study of Laser screed technology.Laser Screeding consistently outperforms hand Screeding for precision and speed of flooring and paving. Lower costs, reduced manpower, increased mobility and greater accuracy guarantee the skilled teams will be 'on' and 'off' site with exceptional efficiency - allowing early access for following trade and delivering improved customer satisfaction.The laser screed machines have screed heads up to 3.6 m wide and the engine and hydraulic drive system, located in the lower frame, significantly reduces noise and improves ease of maintenance.Moreover, Simplified controls and an ergonomic design make the machines easy to operate, while a low head height improves access in restricted areas. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Authors thankfully acknowledge to Dr. C. L. Patel, Chairman, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Er.V.M.Patel, Hon. Jt. Secretary, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Mr. Yatinbhai Desai, Jay Maharaj construction, Dr. F.S.Umrigar, Principal, B.V.M. Engineering College, Dr. L. B. Zala, Head and Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Dr. A. K. Verma, Head and Professor, Structural Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India for their motivations and infrastructural support to carry out this research. REFERENCES [1] en.wikipedia.org [2] GLENN A. SHEPHARD, 'LASER TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATION TO CONSTRUCTION'A Report Presented to the Graduate Committee of the Department Civil Engineering in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Civil Engineering, University of Florida,Summer 1999 [3] pmallam.dns-systems.net [4] Ravindra K Dhir, Peter C. Hewlett “Concrete in the Service of Mankind: Radical concrete technology, Volume 4” E & FN SPON Publication, pp-535. [5] techniconconstruction.com [6] www.amanabuildings.com [7] www.aquariustech.net [8] www.cogriasia.com [9] www.engineeringnews.co.za [10]www.somero.com
  72. 72. ISBN: 978-81-929339-0-0 National Conference on: “Trends and Challenges of Civil Engineering in Today’s Transforming W o r l d ” 29th March, 2014, Civil Engineering Department S.N.P.I.T. & R.C., Umrakh READY MIX CONCRETE : ECONOMIC AND QUALITATIVE GROWTH FOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Abhishek shah1 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2 , Prof. J. J. Bhavsar3 1 Student of first year M.E (C.E & M), B.V.M Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 2 Assistant Professor and Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 3 Associate Professor and PG Coordinator (M.E C E & M), Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar-Gujarat-India 1 abhishekshah51@gmail.com 2 jayesh.pitroda@bvmengineering.ac.in 3 jaydev_2004@yahoo.co.in Abstract: Ready Mix Concrete is a ready-to-use material which is a mixture of Cement, Sand, Aggregate and Water. RMC is a type of Concrete which is mixed in a batching plant according to the specification of the customer and delivered to the site by the use of transit mixer as it is away from the construction site. RMC is a new concreting concept in the Indian Construction industry introduced before one decade. It was initially not adopted by the contractors because it is costly due to its large equipments and machineries and also due to high tax on RMC and easy availability of manpower at cheaper rate but as time elapsed they understood that in large or medium scale project it is cheaper as it requires less time, less manpower and high strength as compared to Site mix concrete. So, ultimately it is time saving and cheaper. RMC is also eco-friendly as it reduces the noise and air pollution because mixing is done in closed chamber as compare to site mix concrete. Keywords : Cost, Pollution, Ready Mix Concrete (RMC), site mix concrete, utilization INTRODUCTION : As per the Indian Standard SpecificationIS 4926:2003,”Concrete mixed in a stationary mixer in a central batching and mixing plant or in a truck-mixer and supplied in fresh condition to the purchaser either at the site or into the purchaser’s vehicles.” Ready-mix concrete (RMC) is a ready-to-use material, with a predetermined mixture of cement, sand, aggregates and water. RMC is a type of concrete manufactured in a factory according to a set recipe or as per specifications of the customer, at a centrally located batching plant. Most of ready mixed concrete is currently manufactured under computer-

×