9 Objectives (1 of 3)• Describe the steps required to perform mass decontamination on ambulatory and nonambulatory victims• Describe three ways to reduce or eliminate contamination on victims
9 Objectives (2 of 3)• Describe the reference sources available for responders charged with performing mass decontamination• Describe methods for crowd control• Describe how to evaluate effectiveness of a mass decontamination process
9 Objectives (3 of 3)• Describe the importance of completing reports and documentation of mass decontamination operations• Describe the importance of evidence preservation during mass decontamination
9 Mass Decontamination Is Like Emergency Decontamination• Important to identify contaminant• Proper level of PPE must be selected• Predetermined process to perform decontamination• Coordinated using Incident Command System (ICS)
9 Mass Decontamination Is Unlike Emergency Decontamination• Same tasks addressed much more quickly• Often without enough trained personnel• Inaccurate/incomplete information• People will be scared and looking for help – Complicates your situation – Effective communication is important
9 Priority for Both Emergency and Mass Decontamination• Life safety is number one priority
9 Mass Decontamination Overview (1 of 2)• Rapid assessment of situation• Rapid assessment of number of victims• Attempt to identify contaminant• Set up process• Wear proper type and level of PPE
9 Mass Decontamination Overview (2 of 2)• Can take place in: – Street – Parking lot• Extent required driven by contaminant – Efforts match properties
9 Mass Decontamination Procedure Example 1 (1 of 2)• Placing two vehicles side by side• Fog-type nozzles• Victims walk between the two vehicles
9 Mass Decontamination Procedure Example 1 (2 of 2)An example of a simple mass decontamination corridor using two fire engines.
9 Mass Decontamination Procedure Example 2 (1 of 2)• Aerial equipment can be used – Can be ladder device – Complete overhead spray pattern
9 Mass Decontamination Procedure Example 2 (2 of 2)Mass decontamination is often accomplished using fire apparatus.
9 Mass Decontamination Methods• Different for – Ambulatory victims (able to walk) – Nonambulatory victims (unable to walk)• Some jurisdictions set up separate areas
9 Nonambulatory Victims• Require significant number of emergency personnel to decontaminate• Slower process• Physically taxing on responders
9 Ambulatory Victims• Pre-plumbed, rapid-deploy shelters available
9 Three Ways to Eliminate Contamination• Dilution• Isolation• Washing
9 Dilution• Adds water (or other substance) to contaminant• Decreases concentration of contaminant• Fast and economical• Will not work for viscous, oily liquids and insoluble substances
9 Isolation and Disposal• Removes items that cannot be properly decontaminated• Isolates them in designated area• Tags them• Can be treated as evidence
9 Washing• Effective for most harmful substances• Simple• Douse victims with soap-and-water solution• Rinse with water
9 Reference Sources (1 of 2)• Information on released material can be obtained from: – Bystanders or witnesses – Placards – Normal occupancy of buildings at the scene – Types of containers involved
9 Reference Sources (2 of 2)Look carefully for indicators of a hazardous material.
9 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) (1 of 2)• Useful for basis of initial actions• Not primary source of information after first 15 minutes of response• For fire fighters, police, and emergency personnel• Evacuation distances, basic action plans
9Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) (2 of 2) The Emergency Response Guidebook.
9 Placards (1 of 2)• Diamond-shaped indicators• Must be placed on all four sides of vehicles containing hazardous materials – Highway transport vehicles – Railroad tank cars – Other forms of transportation
9 Placards (2 of 2)A placard identifies the broad hazard class for materials carried by a transport vehicle.
9 Labels• Relate to potential hazard inside particular package
9 Additional Reference Sources• Online databases, medical references• Poison control centers• Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)• CHEMTREC (U.S.), CANUTEC (Canada), or SETIQ (Mexico)
9 NFPA Marking System (1 of 2)• Labels designed for fixed-facility use• Found on: – Outsides of buildings – Doorways to chemical storage areas – Fixed storage tanks
9 NFPA Marking System (2 of 2)The NFPA 704 hazard identification system is designed for fixed- facility use.
9 Crowd Control (1 of 2)• Generally more frightened victims than calm responders• Responders must conduct themselves: – In a way that commands respect – In a way that establishes them as authority figures
9 Crowd Control (2 of 2)• Use naturally occurring barriers• Use uniformed officers to direct flow of victims• Use megaphone or fire engine’s external speaker for commands• Retain control
9 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mass Decontamination• At end of mass decontamination process• pH paper for corrosive material• Monitoring devices• Radiological detection devices• Health officials may assist
9 Reports and Documentation (1 of 3)• Prepared after incident has been terminated• Complete and accurate as possible• Legal account• Completed by person responsible for decontamination
9 Reports and Documentation (2 of 3)• Includes: – Names of those decontaminated (if possible) – Information about released substance – Level of protection worn by responders – Actions taken to limit responder exposure – Details of decontamination process – Evidence collected
9 Reports and Documentation (3 of 3)Record the information from the incident in a complete and accurate manner.
9 Evidence Preservation• Life safety is first priority• Preserve potential evidence• Attempt to track victims’ valuables and clothing• Consider using small, tagged bags• Follow incident plan for securing evidence
9 Summary (1 of 2)• Mass decontamination quickly performs emergency decontamination on large number of victims• Occurs in street, parking lot, other area• Nature of contaminant drives decontamination plan
9 Summary (2 of 2)• Use dilution, isolation and disposal, and washing• Perform crowd control• Evidence preservation, documentation, and reporting are important