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HazMat Ch08
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  • Image: Courtesy of MIEMSS.
  • Image: Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
  • Image: Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
  • Image: Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.

Transcript

  • 1. 8Mission-Specific Competencies: TechnicalDecontamination
  • 2. 8 Objectives (1 of 5)• Plan a response by selecting a technical decontamination process that will minimize the hazard• Identify and describe the limitations and advantages of each of the technical decontamination methods
  • 3. 8 Objectives (2 of 5)• Describe the technical decontamination process• Identify the supplies and equipment needed for technical decontamination
  • 4. 8 Objectives (3 of 5)• Identify precautionary measures, equipment, and procedures for handling anything or anyone brought to the decontamination corridor• Identify role of operations level responder assigned to technical decontamination
  • 5. 8 Objectives (4 of 5)• Identify procedures for determining whether the items have been fully decontaminated• Identify the importance, steps, and requirements of maintaining records
  • 6. 8 Objectives (5 of 5)• Identify precautionary measures, equipment, and procedures for processing evidence during technical decontamination
  • 7. 8 Decontamination (1 of 2)• Physical or chemical process• Reduces and prevents spread of contaminants
  • 8. 8 Decontamination (2 of 2)• Spread of contaminants is by – People – Animals – The environment – Equipment
  • 9. 8 Emergency Decontamination• Used in potentially life-threatening situations• Mass decontamination is a way of performing
  • 10. 8 Gross Decontamination• Takes place within controlled decontamination corridor• Consists of pre-wash before technical decontamination
  • 11. 8 Technical Decontamination• More thorough process than gross decontamination• Often involves: – Cleaning solutions – Scrub brushes
  • 12. 8Special Decontamination Situations• It may be necessary to decontaminate: – Search canines – Criminal suspects – Firearms – Specialized equipment – Pieces of evidence
  • 13. 8Technical Decontamination Details (1 of 2)• More thorough than gross decontamination (its predecessor step)• Decontamination team – May use water or special cleaning solution – Dry decontamination removes and disposes of PPE
  • 14. 8 Technical Decontamination Details (2 of 2)Technical decontamination is a more thorough cleaning process that often involves the use of brushes and chemical-specific cleaning solutions.
  • 15. 8 Technical Decontamination Methods (1 of 3)• Physical techniques: – Absorption – Adsorption – Vacuuming – Washing
  • 16. 8 Technical Decontamination Methods (2 of 3)• Chemical degradation: – Dilution – Disinfection – Evaporation – Neutralization – Solidification – Sterilization
  • 17. 8 Technical Decontamination Methods (3 of 3)• Isolation and disposal
  • 18. 8 Absorption (1 of 4)• Spongy material – Natural soil – Sawdust – Synthetic loose absorbent• Mixes with liquid hazardous material
  • 19. 8 Absorption (2 of 4)Spongy materials are used to absorb liquid hazardous materials.
  • 20. 8 Absorption (3 of 4)• Effective only on flat surfaces• Absorbent materials must be disposed of after use• Limited application to decontaminating personnel – Shuffle pit to clean boots (next slide)
  • 21. 8 Absorption (4 of 4)Absorption can be used for decontaminating equipment and property.
  • 22. 8 Adsorption (1 of 2)• Contaminant adheres to surface of added material – Sand – Activated carbon• Does not combine with it as in absorption
  • 23. 8 Adsorption (2 of 2)Sand can be used as an adsorbent.
  • 24. 8 Vacuuming• Removal of dusts, particles, some liquids• Sucks them up into container• Filtering system prevents reentry into atmosphere
  • 25. 8 Washing• Effective, yet simple• Scrub with brush or sponge, and rinse• Removes solvents from: – PPE – Tools – Equipment
  • 26. 8 Chemical Degradation• Breaks down chemical substance• Natural or artificial process
  • 27. 8 Dilution• Generally uses plain water• Fast and economical• Preferred for – Gross decontamination – Technical decontamination – Mass decontamination
  • 28. 8 Disinfection• Destroys disease-carrying microorganisms• Will not destroy spores (like anthrax)• Requires expert advice
  • 29. 8 Evaporation• Natural form of chemical degradation• Lets substance evaporate on its own• No intervention by responders• Must be well-thought-out decision
  • 30. 8 Neutralization• Used to minimize corrosivity of acid or base – Weak base to neutralize acid – Weak acid to neutralize base• Never used for personnel decontamination
  • 31. 8 Solidification• Causes hazardous liquid to become solid• Usually cement-based products are used• Controls spill, but still must be disposed of
  • 32. 8 Sterilization• Decontaminates biological agents• Uses heat, chemical means, or radiation• Kills all microorganisms, including spores (anthrax)• Not intended for use on responders
  • 33. 8 Isolation and Disposal• Remove contaminated items from site• Transport to treatment, storage, or disposal facility• Use for items that cannot be properly decontaminated
  • 34. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (1 of 5)• Takes place within predesignated corridor• Located within the warm zone• Set up before entry team enters hot zone
  • 35. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (2 of 5)A decontamination corridor should be established prior to responders entering the hot zone.
  • 36. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (3 of 5)• PPE worn by decontamination team – No more than one level below what entry team wears – May be same level as entry team
  • 37. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (4 of 5)• Decontamination corridor may include – Collection devices to capture water used – Portable bug sprayers to apply water – Sponges and long-handled scrub brushes – Buckets – Tarps
  • 38. 8 Technical Decontamination Process (5 of 5)• No single “right way” to do everything• Try to keep experience unstressful for victims
  • 39. 8 Performing Technical Decontamination (1 of 3)• Leaving hot zone, place oversuits and tools in drop area• Proceed to gross decontamination• Technical decontamination – One to three wash-and-rinse stations – Only one responder in a station at a time
  • 40. 8 Performing Technical Decontamination (2 of 3)• After being scrubbed, chemical-protective equipment can be removed – SCBA face piece or respirator stays in place• Remove outer gloves• In different area – Remove helmets, respiratory protection
  • 41. 8 Performing Technical Decontamination (3 of 3)• Remove inner gloves• Don clean clothes – Disposable cotton coveralls – Hospital gowns – Hospital booties, slippers, flip-flops• Proceed to medical evaluation
  • 42. 8 Evaluating Effectiveness of Technical Decontamination• Done at end of decontamination line• Based on nature of contaminant• Examples: – pH paper to detect corrosive residue – Photo-ionization detector (PID) – Radiation detector
  • 43. 8 Reports and Documentation (1 of 2)• Completed by person responsible for decontamination corridor• Part of overall documentation process for incident
  • 44. 8 Reports and Documentation (2 of 2)• Include: – Names of all persons processed – Information on released substance – Potential health effects – Description of decontamination activities – Breaches of PPE noted
  • 45. 8 Summary (1 of 2)• Match decontamination to properties of released substance• Gross decontamination takes place before technical decontamination• Establish and use decontamination corridor in warm zone
  • 46. 8 Summary (2 of 2)• Remove PPE from person; don’t take person out of PPE• After decontamination, personnel should proceed to medical station for evaluation• Use detection techniques to evaluate effectiveness• Document the incident