8 Objectives (1 of 5)• Plan a response by selecting a technical decontamination process that will minimize the hazard• Identify and describe the limitations and advantages of each of the technical decontamination methods
8 Objectives (2 of 5)• Describe the technical decontamination process• Identify the supplies and equipment needed for technical decontamination
8 Objectives (3 of 5)• Identify precautionary measures, equipment, and procedures for handling anything or anyone brought to the decontamination corridor• Identify role of operations level responder assigned to technical decontamination
8 Objectives (4 of 5)• Identify procedures for determining whether the items have been fully decontaminated• Identify the importance, steps, and requirements of maintaining records
8 Objectives (5 of 5)• Identify precautionary measures, equipment, and procedures for processing evidence during technical decontamination
8 Decontamination (1 of 2)• Physical or chemical process• Reduces and prevents spread of contaminants
8 Decontamination (2 of 2)• Spread of contaminants is by – People – Animals – The environment – Equipment
8 Emergency Decontamination• Used in potentially life-threatening situations• Mass decontamination is a way of performing
8 Gross Decontamination• Takes place within controlled decontamination corridor• Consists of pre-wash before technical decontamination
8 Technical Decontamination• More thorough process than gross decontamination• Often involves: – Cleaning solutions – Scrub brushes
8Special Decontamination Situations• It may be necessary to decontaminate: – Search canines – Criminal suspects – Firearms – Specialized equipment – Pieces of evidence
8Technical Decontamination Details (1 of 2)• More thorough than gross decontamination (its predecessor step)• Decontamination team – May use water or special cleaning solution – Dry decontamination removes and disposes of PPE
8 Technical Decontamination Details (2 of 2)Technical decontamination is a more thorough cleaning process that often involves the use of brushes and chemical-specific cleaning solutions.
8 Technical Decontamination Methods (3 of 3)• Isolation and disposal
8 Absorption (1 of 4)• Spongy material – Natural soil – Sawdust – Synthetic loose absorbent• Mixes with liquid hazardous material
8 Absorption (2 of 4)Spongy materials are used to absorb liquid hazardous materials.
8 Absorption (3 of 4)• Effective only on flat surfaces• Absorbent materials must be disposed of after use• Limited application to decontaminating personnel – Shuffle pit to clean boots (next slide)
8 Absorption (4 of 4)Absorption can be used for decontaminating equipment and property.
8 Adsorption (1 of 2)• Contaminant adheres to surface of added material – Sand – Activated carbon• Does not combine with it as in absorption
8 Adsorption (2 of 2)Sand can be used as an adsorbent.
8 Vacuuming• Removal of dusts, particles, some liquids• Sucks them up into container• Filtering system prevents reentry into atmosphere
8 Washing• Effective, yet simple• Scrub with brush or sponge, and rinse• Removes solvents from: – PPE – Tools – Equipment
8 Chemical Degradation• Breaks down chemical substance• Natural or artificial process
8 Dilution• Generally uses plain water• Fast and economical• Preferred for – Gross decontamination – Technical decontamination – Mass decontamination
8 Disinfection• Destroys disease-carrying microorganisms• Will not destroy spores (like anthrax)• Requires expert advice
8 Evaporation• Natural form of chemical degradation• Lets substance evaporate on its own• No intervention by responders• Must be well-thought-out decision
8 Neutralization• Used to minimize corrosivity of acid or base – Weak base to neutralize acid – Weak acid to neutralize base• Never used for personnel decontamination
8 Solidification• Causes hazardous liquid to become solid• Usually cement-based products are used• Controls spill, but still must be disposed of
8 Sterilization• Decontaminates biological agents• Uses heat, chemical means, or radiation• Kills all microorganisms, including spores (anthrax)• Not intended for use on responders
8 Isolation and Disposal• Remove contaminated items from site• Transport to treatment, storage, or disposal facility• Use for items that cannot be properly decontaminated
8 Technical Decontamination Process (1 of 5)• Takes place within predesignated corridor• Located within the warm zone• Set up before entry team enters hot zone
8 Technical Decontamination Process (2 of 5)A decontamination corridor should be established prior to responders entering the hot zone.
8 Technical Decontamination Process (3 of 5)• PPE worn by decontamination team – No more than one level below what entry team wears – May be same level as entry team
8 Technical Decontamination Process (4 of 5)• Decontamination corridor may include – Collection devices to capture water used – Portable bug sprayers to apply water – Sponges and long-handled scrub brushes – Buckets – Tarps
8 Technical Decontamination Process (5 of 5)• No single “right way” to do everything• Try to keep experience unstressful for victims
8 Performing Technical Decontamination (1 of 3)• Leaving hot zone, place oversuits and tools in drop area• Proceed to gross decontamination• Technical decontamination – One to three wash-and-rinse stations – Only one responder in a station at a time
8 Performing Technical Decontamination (2 of 3)• After being scrubbed, chemical-protective equipment can be removed – SCBA face piece or respirator stays in place• Remove outer gloves• In different area – Remove helmets, respiratory protection
8 Performing Technical Decontamination (3 of 3)• Remove inner gloves• Don clean clothes – Disposable cotton coveralls – Hospital gowns – Hospital booties, slippers, flip-flops• Proceed to medical evaluation
8 Evaluating Effectiveness of Technical Decontamination• Done at end of decontamination line• Based on nature of contaminant• Examples: – pH paper to detect corrosive residue – Photo-ionization detector (PID) – Radiation detector
8 Reports and Documentation (1 of 2)• Completed by person responsible for decontamination corridor• Part of overall documentation process for incident
8 Reports and Documentation (2 of 2)• Include: – Names of all persons processed – Information on released substance – Potential health effects – Description of decontamination activities – Breaches of PPE noted
8 Summary (1 of 2)• Match decontamination to properties of released substance• Gross decontamination takes place before technical decontamination• Establish and use decontamination corridor in warm zone
8 Summary (2 of 2)• Remove PPE from person; don’t take person out of PPE• After decontamination, personnel should proceed to medical station for evaluation• Use detection techniques to evaluate effectiveness• Document the incident
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.