HazMat Ch06

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  • Images: (top left) © Arthur S. Aubry/Photodisc/Getty Images; (top right) © Steve Allen/Brand X Pictures/Alamy Images; (bottom left) © AbleStock
  • Image: © James P. Blair/Photodisc/Getty Images
  • Image: © Photodisc/Getty Images
  • Image: © Larry Rana/USDA
  • Image: Courtesy of Captain David Jackson, Saginaw Township Fire Department
  • Image: © Tim McCabe/USDA
  • Image: Courtesy of Dr. Saeed Keshavarz/RCCI (Research Center of Chemical Injuries)/IRAN
  • Image: Courtesy of U.S. Department of Homeland Security
  • HazMat Ch06

    1. 1. 6Terrorism
    2. 2. 6 Objectives (1 of 4)• Describe the threat posed by terrorism• Understand the definition of terrorism from a broad perspective• Describe various types of potential terrorist targets
    3. 3. 6 Objectives (2 of 4)• Understand the dangers posed by explosive devices and secondary explosive devices• Define weapons of mass destruction
    4. 4. 6 Objectives (3 of 4)• Understand the basic differences and indicators of chemical, biological, and radiological threats• Describe operations considerations at a terrorism event, including initial actions, interagency coordination, decontamination, mass casualties, and triage
    5. 5. 6 Objectives (4 of 4)• Identify the different levels distinguished in the Homeland Security Threat Level chart
    6. 6. 6 Terrorism Basics• Response based on hazardous materials response• Terrorism’s goal: Produce feelings of fear• Domestic terrorism• International terrorism
    7. 7. 6 Responding to Terrorist Incidents• Same procedure as in other emergencies• Differences – Landscape where incident is handled – Numerous agencies are involved – Training and working together are important
    8. 8. 6 Targets and Tactics• Symbolic targets often chosen• Often possible to predict likely targets• Methods of attack vary
    9. 9. 6 Types of Targets (1 of 6)• Infrastructure targets, including: – Bridges – Tunnels – Subways – Hospitals
    10. 10. 6 Types of Targets (2 of 6) Subways, airports, bridges, and hospitals are all vulnerable toattack by terrorists who seek to interrupt a country’s infrastructure.
    11. 11. 6 Types of Targets (3 of 6)• Symbolic targets – Symbols of national pride – Military bases – Embassies – Religious institutions
    12. 12. 6 Types of Targets (4 of 6)Terrorists might attempt to destroy visible national icons.
    13. 13. 6 Types of Targets (5 of 6)• Civilian targets – Shopping malls – Airports – Schools – Sports stadiums
    14. 14. 6 Types of Targets (6 of 6)By attacking civilian targets such as a crowded stadium, terrorists might make citizens feel vulnerable in their everyday lives.
    15. 15. 6 Ecoterrorism• Committed by groups supporting environmental causes• Examples: – Spiking trees to disrupt logging – Vandalizing animal research laboratories – Firebombing store that sells fur coats
    16. 16. 6 Agroterrorism (1 of 2)• Uses chemical or biological agents• Attacks agricultural industry or food supply
    17. 17. 6 Agroterrorism (2 of 2)Agroterrorism affects food supply or the agricultural industry.
    18. 18. 6 Cyberterrorism• Electronically disrupting computer systems – Government computer systems – Private computer systems – The Internet
    19. 19. 6 Types of Devices (1 of 2)• Ordinary objects can become powerful weapons – Gasoline tankers – Commercial airliners• Bombs are most frequent
    20. 20. 6 Types of Devices (2 of 2)• Shooting into a crowd• Release of biological agent• Computer virus
    21. 21. 6 Explosives• Thousands of pounds stolen each year• Can also be created with commonly available materials: – Improvised explosive device (IED) – Ammonium nitrate fertilizer and fuel oil (ANFO)
    22. 22. 6 Pipe Bombs (1 of 2)• Pipe bombs are most common IED• Length of pipe filled with explosive substance• Chemical/biological agents can be added• Nails can be added• Detonator like a hobby fuse
    23. 23. 6 Pipe Bombs (2 of 2)Pipe bombs come in many shapes and sizes.
    24. 24. 6 Secondary Devices• Placed in area where initial event occurred• Intended to kill: – Emergency responders – Law enforcement personnel – Spectators – News reporters
    25. 25. 6 Potentially Explosive Device• A device that has not yet exploded• Remove civilians from area• Establish perimeter at safe distance• Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel handle
    26. 26. 6 Actions Following an Explosion• Ensure your own safety• Ensure safety of scene• Follow departmental procedures• Consider possibility of secondary device• Qualified personnel should check for other contaminants (biological, radiological)
    27. 27. 6 Work with Other Agencies Following Explosion• Local, state, and federal agencies• FBI• Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives• Military EOD units
    28. 28. 6 Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)• Chemical agents• Biological agents• Radiological agents• NFPA 472 annex provides specific information about terrorist attack agents
    29. 29. 6 Chemical Agents (1 of 3)• Kill or injure large numbers of people• Readily available• Can be distributed in different ways: – Releasing gas from storage tank – Adding to explosive device – Crop-dusting aircraft
    30. 30. 6 Chemical Agents (2 of 3)Crop-dusting equipment could be used to distribute chemical agents.
    31. 31. 6 Chemical Agents (3 of 3)• Include: – Nerve agents – Blistering agents – Pulmonary agents – Blood agents
    32. 32. 6 Nerve Agents (1 of 2)• Toxic chemical agents• Attack nervous system• Examples: Sarin, V-agent (VX)• Antidotes exist
    33. 33. 6 Nerve Agents (2 of 2)When a person is exposed to a nerve agent, the symptoms of exposure will become evident within minutes.
    34. 34. 6 Blistering Agents (1 of 2)• Contact causes skin to blister• Examples: – Sulfur mustard – Lewisite
    35. 35. 6Blistering Agents (2 of 2)Typical effects of blistering agents.
    36. 36. 6 Pulmonary Agents• Choking agents• Examples: – Phosgene – Chlorine
    37. 37. 6 Blood Agents• Interfere with use of oxygen by cells• Example: Cyanide• Can be inhaled or ingested
    38. 38. 6 Protection from Chemical Agents (1 of 2)• Use PPE• Use self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
    39. 39. 6 Protection from Chemical Agents (2 of 2)If an unusual odor is reported at the scene, responders must don full PPE including SCBA.
    40. 40. 6 Biological Agents• Organisms that cause disease• Examples – Anthrax – Plague – Smallpox
    41. 41. 6 Protection from Biological Agents (1 of 2)• Responders unlikely to recognize signs – Due to incubation period• Recognition likely to come from – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – Area hospitals
    42. 42. 6 Protection from Biological Agents (2 of 2)• Once threat recognized, wear appropriate: – Gloves – Masks with HEPA filters – Eye protection – Surgical gowns when treating patients• Seek medical care for flu-like symptoms
    43. 43. 6 Radiological Agents• Different threat from nuclear detonation• Energy released in form of waves or particles: – Alpha particles – Beta particles – Gamma radiation
    44. 44. 6 Protection from Radiological Agents• Limit exposure time• Stay as far away as possible• Personal dosimeter• Appropriate PPE• Shielding
    45. 45. 6 Dirty Bomb• Radiation dispersal device (RDD)• Dissemination of radioactive material• No nuclear detonation
    46. 46. 6 Operations• Initial actions – Approach like hazardous materials incident• Interagency coordination• Decontamination• Mass casualties
    47. 47. 6 Mass Decontamination• Master stream devices from engine companies• Aerial apparatus to create showers• Allows rapid decontamination
    48. 48. 6 Mass Casualties• Special mass-casualty plan essential• Decontamination must be addressed• Triage
    49. 49. 6 Additional Resources• FBI• FEMA• Department of Homeland Security
    50. 50. 6 Department of Homeland Security (1 of 2)• Homeland Security Threat Advisories• Homeland Security Information Bulletins• Color-coded threat-level system
    51. 51. 6Department of Homeland Security (2 of 2) Color-coded threat-level system.
    52. 52. 6 Summary (1 of 3)• Goal of terrorism is to produce fear• Terrorism can occur in any community• Ordinary objects can be turned into weapons• Secondary devices explode after initial device
    53. 53. 6 Summary (2 of 3)• Weapons of mass destruction include: – Chemical agents – Biological agents – Radiological agents – Conventional weapons and explosives
    54. 54. 6 Summary (3 of 3)• Important to identify type of agent• Establish staging area at safe distance• Interagency coordination important part of response

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