Image: Courtesy of Dr. Saeed Keshavarz/RCCI (Research Center of Chemical Injuries)/IRAN
Image: Courtesy of U.S. Department of Homeland Security
6 Objectives (1 of 4)• Describe the threat posed by terrorism• Understand the definition of terrorism from a broad perspective• Describe various types of potential terrorist targets
6 Objectives (2 of 4)• Understand the dangers posed by explosive devices and secondary explosive devices• Define weapons of mass destruction
6 Objectives (3 of 4)• Understand the basic differences and indicators of chemical, biological, and radiological threats• Describe operations considerations at a terrorism event, including initial actions, interagency coordination, decontamination, mass casualties, and triage
6 Objectives (4 of 4)• Identify the different levels distinguished in the Homeland Security Threat Level chart
6 Terrorism Basics• Response based on hazardous materials response• Terrorism’s goal: Produce feelings of fear• Domestic terrorism• International terrorism
6 Responding to Terrorist Incidents• Same procedure as in other emergencies• Differences – Landscape where incident is handled – Numerous agencies are involved – Training and working together are important
6 Targets and Tactics• Symbolic targets often chosen• Often possible to predict likely targets• Methods of attack vary
6 Types of Targets (1 of 6)• Infrastructure targets, including: – Bridges – Tunnels – Subways – Hospitals
6 Types of Targets (2 of 6) Subways, airports, bridges, and hospitals are all vulnerable toattack by terrorists who seek to interrupt a country’s infrastructure.
6 Types of Targets (3 of 6)• Symbolic targets – Symbols of national pride – Military bases – Embassies – Religious institutions
6 Types of Targets (4 of 6)Terrorists might attempt to destroy visible national icons.
6 Types of Targets (5 of 6)• Civilian targets – Shopping malls – Airports – Schools – Sports stadiums
6 Types of Targets (6 of 6)By attacking civilian targets such as a crowded stadium, terrorists might make citizens feel vulnerable in their everyday lives.
6 Ecoterrorism• Committed by groups supporting environmental causes• Examples: – Spiking trees to disrupt logging – Vandalizing animal research laboratories – Firebombing store that sells fur coats
6 Agroterrorism (1 of 2)• Uses chemical or biological agents• Attacks agricultural industry or food supply
6 Agroterrorism (2 of 2)Agroterrorism affects food supply or the agricultural industry.
6 Cyberterrorism• Electronically disrupting computer systems – Government computer systems – Private computer systems – The Internet
6 Types of Devices (1 of 2)• Ordinary objects can become powerful weapons – Gasoline tankers – Commercial airliners• Bombs are most frequent
6 Types of Devices (2 of 2)• Shooting into a crowd• Release of biological agent• Computer virus
6 Explosives• Thousands of pounds stolen each year• Can also be created with commonly available materials: – Improvised explosive device (IED) – Ammonium nitrate fertilizer and fuel oil (ANFO)
6 Pipe Bombs (1 of 2)• Pipe bombs are most common IED• Length of pipe filled with explosive substance• Chemical/biological agents can be added• Nails can be added• Detonator like a hobby fuse
6 Pipe Bombs (2 of 2)Pipe bombs come in many shapes and sizes.
6 Secondary Devices• Placed in area where initial event occurred• Intended to kill: – Emergency responders – Law enforcement personnel – Spectators – News reporters
6 Potentially Explosive Device• A device that has not yet exploded• Remove civilians from area• Establish perimeter at safe distance• Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel handle
6 Actions Following an Explosion• Ensure your own safety• Ensure safety of scene• Follow departmental procedures• Consider possibility of secondary device• Qualified personnel should check for other contaminants (biological, radiological)
6 Work with Other Agencies Following Explosion• Local, state, and federal agencies• FBI• Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives• Military EOD units
6 Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)• Chemical agents• Biological agents• Radiological agents• NFPA 472 annex provides specific information about terrorist attack agents
6 Chemical Agents (1 of 3)• Kill or injure large numbers of people• Readily available• Can be distributed in different ways: – Releasing gas from storage tank – Adding to explosive device – Crop-dusting aircraft
6 Chemical Agents (2 of 3)Crop-dusting equipment could be used to distribute chemical agents.
6 Chemical Agents (3 of 3)• Include: – Nerve agents – Blistering agents – Pulmonary agents – Blood agents
6 Nerve Agents (1 of 2)• Toxic chemical agents• Attack nervous system• Examples: Sarin, V-agent (VX)• Antidotes exist
6 Nerve Agents (2 of 2)When a person is exposed to a nerve agent, the symptoms of exposure will become evident within minutes.
6 Blistering Agents (1 of 2)• Contact causes skin to blister• Examples: – Sulfur mustard – Lewisite
6Blistering Agents (2 of 2)Typical effects of blistering agents.
6 Blood Agents• Interfere with use of oxygen by cells• Example: Cyanide• Can be inhaled or ingested
6 Protection from Chemical Agents (1 of 2)• Use PPE• Use self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
6 Protection from Chemical Agents (2 of 2)If an unusual odor is reported at the scene, responders must don full PPE including SCBA.
6 Biological Agents• Organisms that cause disease• Examples – Anthrax – Plague – Smallpox
6 Protection from Biological Agents (1 of 2)• Responders unlikely to recognize signs – Due to incubation period• Recognition likely to come from – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – Area hospitals
6 Protection from Biological Agents (2 of 2)• Once threat recognized, wear appropriate: – Gloves – Masks with HEPA filters – Eye protection – Surgical gowns when treating patients• Seek medical care for flu-like symptoms
6 Radiological Agents• Different threat from nuclear detonation• Energy released in form of waves or particles: – Alpha particles – Beta particles – Gamma radiation
6 Protection from Radiological Agents• Limit exposure time• Stay as far away as possible• Personal dosimeter• Appropriate PPE• Shielding
6 Dirty Bomb• Radiation dispersal device (RDD)• Dissemination of radioactive material• No nuclear detonation
6 Operations• Initial actions – Approach like hazardous materials incident• Interagency coordination• Decontamination• Mass casualties
6 Mass Decontamination• Master stream devices from engine companies• Aerial apparatus to create showers• Allows rapid decontamination
6 Mass Casualties• Special mass-casualty plan essential• Decontamination must be addressed• Triage
6 Additional Resources• FBI• FEMA• Department of Homeland Security
6 Department of Homeland Security (1 of 2)• Homeland Security Threat Advisories• Homeland Security Information Bulletins• Color-coded threat-level system
6Department of Homeland Security (2 of 2) Color-coded threat-level system.
6 Summary (1 of 3)• Goal of terrorism is to produce fear• Terrorism can occur in any community• Ordinary objects can be turned into weapons• Secondary devices explode after initial device
6 Summary (2 of 3)• Weapons of mass destruction include: – Chemical agents – Biological agents – Radiological agents – Conventional weapons and explosives
6 Summary (3 of 3)• Important to identify type of agent• Establish staging area at safe distance• Interagency coordination important part of response