Bldg Construction Chapter 04
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Bldg Construction Chapter 04

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Bldg Construction Chapter 04 Bldg Construction Chapter 04 Presentation Transcript

  • Building ConstructionRelated to the Fire ServiceChapter 4 — Building Systems
  • Learning Objective 1 Discuss the various types of stairs and the structural requirements related to each. Building Construction 4–2
  • Purpose of Stairs• Access various levels of structure• Basic component of building egress during emergency• Exit stairs• Convenience stairs• Buildings four + stories required to have one stairway that extends to roof Building Construction 4–3 View slide
  • Basic Components of Stairs• Requirements specified in applicable building code• Step – Run – Horizontal measurement of tread – Riser – Vertical distance between treads• Hand rails and guards (Continued) Building Construction 4–4 View slide
  • Basic Components of Stairs Building Construction 4–5
  • Types of Stairs Building Construction 4–6
  • Stairs as Part of theMeans of Egress• Protected stairs• Exterior stairs• Fire escapes Building Construction 4–7
  • Smokeproof Stair Enclosures• Codes require minimum of one for stairs serving five stories or higher and floor levels more than 30 feet (10 m) below level of exit discharge• Typically located on exterior perimeter of building and entered through ventilated vestibules or open exterior balconies Building Construction 4–8
  • Active Smokeproof Enclosures• Pressurize stairwells when building is in fire mode• Dedicated mechanical air-handling system is activated by automatic fire/smoke detection equipment• Pressurization system keeps stair enclosure free of smoke even when a door is open to the fire floor (Continued) Building Construction 4–9
  • Active Smokeproof Enclosures Building Construction 4–10
  • Passive SmokeproofEnclosures• Accessed through a vestibule or exterior balcony• Designed to provide means for smoke to be vented to outside before entering the stair enclosure (Continued) Building Construction 4–11
  • Passive SmokeproofEnclosures Building Construction 4–12
  • Open Stairs• Serve as path for fire and smoke spread• Codes typically allow use only when they connect no more than two adjacent floors above the basement level Building Construction 4–13
  • Learning Objective 2 Discuss the various types of elevators and their safety features. Building Construction 4–14
  • Safety Oversight• Stringently controlled and monitored by all levels of government• Most regulations based on ASME/ANSI A 17.1, Safety Code for Elevators Building Construction 4–15
  • Types of Elevators• Hydraulic• Electric – Drum – Traction Building Construction 4–16
  • Safety Features of Elevators• Terminal device• Buffers• Speed reducing switch• Overspeed switch• Car safeties Building Construction 4–17
  • Elevator Hoistways• Constructed of fire-resistive material and equipped with fire-rated door assemblies• Located in atrium not required to be enclosed• Enclosures usually required to have one- or two-hour fire rating• May be enclosed with concrete (Continued) Building Construction 4–18
  • Elevator Hoistways• Required to be vented at top• Fire-rated vestibules at each floor• Number required based on number of elevators• Express elevators• Single hoistways• Elevator zones (Continued) Building Construction 4–19
  • Elevator Hoistways Building Construction 4–20
  • Elevator Doors• Car and hoistway doors open together• Car door can be pushed open any time• Some types need to be reset before car will move again Building Construction 4–21
  • Access Panels• Emergency exits from car if stopped in a blind hoistway• Hinged access hatch through top of car or panels on sides of car• Top exits• Side exits Building Construction 4–22
  • Learning Objective 3 Discuss moving stairways, walkways, and conveyors as they relate to firefighting concerns. Building Construction 4–23
  • Moving Stairs (Escalators)• Electrically powered steps moving continuously in one direction• Standard – 100 ft. per min. (30 m/min)• Vertical opening needs to be protected if serving more than two floors (Continued) Building Construction 4–24
  • Moving Stairs (Escalators)• Partial enclosure uses separate fire rated enclosure for up and down escalators• Should be stopped and used as fixed stairs in emergency Building Construction 4–25
  • Moving Walkways• Move people horizontally• Operation – Attached metal plates in continuous pathway with moving handrails – Moving rubber-like belts over metal rollers Building Construction 4–26
  • Conveyor Systems• Manufacturing or storage occupancies• Transport items and material• Types• Often pass through fire barriers – Penetrations usually protected by fire door or shutter or water-spray method – Methods to prevent incomplete door closure Building Construction 4–27
  • Learning Objective 4 Describe the uses of vertical shafts and utility chases and their impact on firefighting. Building Construction 4–28
  • Vertical Shafts• Utility chase – Vertical pathway that contains utility services• Provide vertical path for smoke and fire and serve as area of origin for fires• Built using fire-rated construction but may contain combustible materials Building Construction 4–29
  • Pipe Chases• Contain piping for various services• May use stacked mechanical equipment rooms instead of pipe chases• Plumbing pipes form pathways in walls and drain into vertical pipe which connects to sewer pipe and extends above roof to ventilate Building Construction 4–30
  • Refuse and Laundry Chutes• Have openings on each floor; often terminate at grade level or basement• Create frequent fire response• Material mostly combustible• Constructed of noncombustible material with rated doors, typically surrounded by fire-rated shaft enclosure (Continued) Building Construction 4–31
  • Refuse and Laundry Chutes• Sprinklers required at top of chute and termination room• Access must be in separate room from corridor Building Construction 4–32
  • Grease Ducts• Part of exhaust system for commercial cooking appliances• Travel vertically to carry grease vapors outside; often use in-line fans or roof fans• Must be enclosed in fire resistive construction Building Construction 4–33
  • Learning Objective 5 Describe the functions and components of HVAC systems and how they impact firefighting. Building Construction 4–34
  • HVAC Systems• Include heating, cooling, filtering, humidifying, and dehumidifying• Regulate the intake of outdoor air and recirculation of indoor air• Cooling systems past and present• Hydronic system• Forced air systems Building Construction 4–35
  • HVAC System Components• Outside air intakes• Fans• Air filtration• Air heating and cooling equipment Courtesy of Gregory Havel, Burlington, WI.• Air ducts Building Construction 4–36
  • Learning Objective 6 Distinguish between various smoke control methods. Building Construction 4–37
  • Smoke Control Systems• Mechanical equipment used to produce pressure differences across smoke barriers to inhibit smoke movement Building Construction 4–38
  • Automatic Smoke Control• Switch to fire operations can be accomplished by smoke detectors, sprinkler waterflow switches, or heat detectors• Fire operation opens or closes dampers to redirect air flow and exhaust smoke (Continued) Building Construction 4–39
  • Automatic Smoke Control• Pressure sandwich• Automatic operation is relatively fast• System detectors must be designed to eliminate possibility of detector outside fire area being activated first resulting in wrong dampers being operated Building Construction 4–40
  • Manual Smoke Control• Eliminates system disruption due to false alarms; gives specific system control• Can be controlled from various places• If equipped with both, manual takes priority over automatic• Slower than automatic• Firefighter’s smoke control station Building Construction 4–41
  • Smoke Control in Stairwells• Smokeproof tower – Vestibule between corridor and stairwell that is open to atmosphere• Pressurized stairwell – Uses blower or fan to provide slightly greater pressure in stairwell than corridor (Continued) Building Construction 4–42
  • Smoke Control in Stairwells• Methods to prevent loss of pressure when doors are opened to stairwell – Single injection – Multiple injection system – Compensated system – Modulating air supply – Overpressure relief Building Construction 4–43
  • Smoke and Heat Vents• Release smoke and heat from roof• Enable faster and safer interior Courtesy of Ed Prendergast attack; dissipate some thermal energy of fire (Continued) Building Construction 4–44
  • Smoke and Heat Vents• Individual small area hatchways with single- or double-leaf metal lids or plastic domes• Curtain boards increase effectiveness Building Construction 4–45
  • Learning Objective 7 Discuss the various types of electrical equipment found in building structures and the hazards posed by each. Building Construction 4–46
  • Voltage• High voltage – Operates at 600 volts or higher• Low voltage – Operates at less than 600 volts Building Construction 4–47
  • Transformers• Convert high voltage to appropriate voltage for use in buildings• Method of cooling transformer unit directly affects hazard presented• Air-cooled transformers• Oil-cooled transformers• 480/277 volt services (Continued) Building Construction 4–48
  • Transformers• Transformers located inside or outside building• Fires involving electrical equipment usually de-energize equipment early Building Construction 4–49
  • Emergency and StandbyPower Supplies• Generators• Lead-acid batteries Courtesy of McKinney (TX) Fire Department Building Construction 4–50
  • Summary• Building systems provide the ability for occupants to use the space efficiently, safely, and comfortably.• Many building systems must penetrate both vertical and horizontal fire-rated components providing the opportunity for fire and smoke to spread throughout the building. (Continued) Building Construction 4–51
  • Summary• Firefighters need to be aware of the potential for fire and smoke spread due to building systems and note any possible loss of integrity of vertical building elements during company inspections. Building Construction 4–52
  • Review Questions 1. What are the basic components common to all stair types? 2. Why are fire escapes no longer permitted in new construction? 3. Where are conveyor systems typically found? (Continued) Building Construction 4–53
  • Review Questions 4. In what ways do HVAC systems potentially affect fire events? 5. What are the potential hazards encountered with lead-acid batteries? Building Construction 4–54