PMP Exam Preparation Course: 05 Project Time Management


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PMP Exam Preparation Course: 05 Project Time Management

  1. 1. | contact@wizardea.comB. M. Shahrier Majumder, PMPPMP® Exam Preparation
  2. 2. Project Time Management
  3. 3. | contact@wizardea.comLearning ObjectivesUpon completion of this topic you will learn about– The processes, activities and documentation items for ProjectTime Management– Elements (and deliverables) for Project Time Management– Tools and techniques of the key activities of the Project TimeManagement3
  4. 4. | contact@wizardea.comTime ManagementProject Time Management includes the processes requiredto accomplish timely completion of the project.4
  5. 5. | contact@wizardea.comKey Activities of Time Management• Define Activities: The process of identifying the specificactions to be performed to produce the projectdeliverables.• Sequence Activities: The process of identifying anddocumenting relationships among the project activities.• Estimate Activity Resource: The process of estimating thetype and qualities of material, people, equipment, orsupplies required to perform each activities.5
  6. 6. | contact@wizardea.comKey Activities of Time Management• Estimate Activity Duration: The process of approximatingthe number of work periods needed to complete individualactivities with specific resources.• Develop Schedule: The process of analyzing activitysequences, durations, resource requirements, andschedule constrains to create the project schedule.• Control Schedule: The process of monitoring the status ofthe project to update project progress and managingchanges to the schedule baseline.6
  7. 7. | contact@wizardea.comDefine Activities | Data Flow Diagram77Diagram Source | PMBOK 4th Edition
  8. 8. | contact@wizardea.comDefine ActivitiesInputs Tools & Techniques OutputsScope baselineEnterprise environmentalfactorsOrganizational processassetsDecompositionRolling wave planningTemplatesExpert judgmentActivity listActivity attributesMilestone list88
  9. 9. | contact@wizardea.comDefine Activities > Tools and Techniques Rolling Wave Planning Rolling wave planning is a form of progressive elaboration planningwhere the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned indetail at a low level of WBS, while work far in the future is planned forthe WBS components that are at relatively high level of the WBS. Templates A standard activity list or a portion of activity list from aprevious project is often usable as a template for new project.9
  10. 10. | contact@wizardea.comDefine Activities > Outputs Activity List Activity list is a comprehensive list including all schedule activities required on theproject. Activity Attributes Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiplecomponents associated with each activity. The component of each activity evolve over time. During the initial stages of the project they include the Activity ID, WBS ID, andactivity name, and when completed may include activity codes, activity description,predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags,resource requirements, imposed dates, constrain and assumptions. Milestone List A milestone is a significant point or event in the project.10
  11. 11. | contact@wizardea.comSequence Activities | Data Flow Diagram1111Diagram Source | PMBOK 4th Edition
  12. 12. | contact@wizardea.comSequence ActivitiesInputs Tools & Techniques OutputsActivity listActivity attributesMilestone listProject scope statementOrganization processassetsPrecedence diagrammingmethod (PDM)Dependency determinationAppling leads and lagsSchedule network templateProject schedule networkdiagramProject document(updates)1212
  13. 13. | contact@wizardea.comSequence Activities > Tools and TechniquesActivityAActivityBFinish to Start (FS) RelationshipActivityAActivityBStart to Start (SS) RelationshipActivityAActivityBFinish to Finish (FF) RelationshipActivityAActivityBStart to Finish (SF) Relationship• Precedence diagramming method (PDM)• PDM is a method used in Critical Path Methodology (CPM) for constructing a projectschedule network diagram that uses boxes or rectangular, referred to as nodes, torepresent activities and connect them with arrows that show the logical relationshipsthat exists between them.13
  14. 14. | contact@wizardea.comSequence Activities > Tools and Techniques Dependency Determination Mandatory dependency Discretionary dependency External dependency Appling Leads and Lags A lead allows an acceleration of a successor activity A lag directs a delay in the successor activity14ActivityAActivityBL=3FS Relationship: The Start of B must lag (L)the Finish of A by 3 daysActivityAActivityBL=4SS Relationship: The Start of B must lag (L)the Start of A by 4 daysActivityAActivityBL=5FF Relationship: The Finish of B must lag (L)the Finish of A by 5 daysActivityAActivityBL=6SF Relationship: The Finish of B must lag (L)the Start of A by 6 days
  15. 15. | contact@wizardea.comSequence Activities > Outputs Network DiagramAny schematic display of the logical relationships of Project Activities.Always drawn from left to right to reflect project chronology. Oftenincorrectly referred to as a “PERT Chart”. Network Diagram Rules of ThumbsThere is a starting pointThere is an ending pointThere are predecessors for all activitiesThere are successors for all activities (no hangers!)There are no loops15
  16. 16. | contact@wizardea.comEstimate Activity Resources | Data Flow Diagram1616Diagram Source | PMBOK 4th Edition
  17. 17. | contact@wizardea.comEstimate Activity ResourceInputs Tools & Techniques OutputsActivity listsActivity attributesResource calendarsEnterprise environmentalfactorsOrganizational processassetsExpert judgmentAlternative analysisPublished estimation dataBottom-up estimatingProject managementsoftwareActivity resourcerequirementsResource breakdownstructureProject document updates17
  18. 18. | contact@wizardea.comEstimate Activity Resource > Inputs• Resource Calendars• A calendar that documents the working and nonworking days thatdetermine the dates that a resource is available or not.18
  19. 19. | contact@wizardea.comEstimate Activity Resource > Outputs• Activity Resource Requirement• An identification and description of the types of quantities ofresources required for each schedule activity in a work package• Resource Breakdown Structure• A hierarchical structure of identified resources by resource categoryand type19
  20. 20. | contact@wizardea.comEstimate Activity Duration | Data Flow Diagram20Diagram Source | PMBOK 4th Edition
  21. 21. | contact@wizardea.comEstimate Activity DurationsInputs Tools & Techniques OutputsActivity listsActivity attributesActivity resourcerequirementResource calendarProject scope statementEnterprise environmentalfactorsOrganizational processassetsExpert judgmentAnalogous estimationParametric estimatingThree point estimatesReserve analysisActivity duration estimatesProject document updates2121
  22. 22. | contact@wizardea.comEstimate Activity Durations• Activity Effort and DurationTotal Time = DurationNot working Time on TasksActual Working on Tasks = Effort2222
  23. 23. | contact@wizardea.comEstimate Activity Durations > Tools andTechniques Analogous Estimating Top down estimating, uses actual duration of activities from previous projects Parametric Estimating Top down estimating, activity duration can be uses a mathematical model todetermine estimates Estimating the basis for activity duration can be quantitatively determine by multiplythe quantity of work to be performed by the productivity rate. e.g. Function PointEstimation, Use Case Estimation. Three Point Estimating Estimating an average of the most likely, optimistic, pessimistic estimated duration.23
  24. 24. | contact@wizardea.comEstimate Activity Durations > Tools andTechniques Multi Point Estimating (PERT)Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)Calculation: Mean = (P + 4M + O)/6 Standard Deviation = (P-O)/6 Variance = ((P-O)/6)2Here, P = Pessimistic Estimation, O = Optimistic Estimation and M = Most likely Estimation Reserve AnalysisCalled time reserve, contingency, or bufferPurpose – To add time to individual activities or the overall projectduration for schedule risksAccumulated for the project and included in the project contingencyfund or management reserveNote: Authors discourage adding time to individual activities since this is a form of padding24
  25. 25. |• Complete the table using the formulas of PERT25Activity O M P ExpectedDurationActivityStandarddeviationRange of theEstimatesA 14 27 47B 41 60 89C 39 44 48D 29 37 42
  26. 26. |• What do you need before you try to develop a schedulefor your project?26
  27. 27. | contact@wizardea.comDevelop Schedule | Data Flow Diagram27Diagram Source | PMBOK 4th Edition
  28. 28. | contact@wizardea.comDevelop ScheduleInputs Tools & Techniques OutputsActivity listsActivity attributesProject schedule networkdiagramsActivity resourcerequirementResource calendarActivity duration estimatesProject scope statementEnterprise environmentalfactorsOrganizational processassetsSchedule network analysisCritical path methodCritical chain methodResource levelingWhat-if scenario analysisAdjusting leads and lagsSchedule compressionSchedule modelProject scheduleSchedule baselineSchedule dataProject document updates2828
  29. 29. | contact@wizardea.comDevelop Schedule > Tools and Techniques• Critical Path Method (CPM)• Critical Path Method (CPM), is a procedure for using network analysisto identify those tasks which are on the critical path: ie where any delayin the completion of these tasks will lengthen the project timescale,unless action is taken.• For all tasks off the critical path, a degree of tolerance is possible (eg.late start, late completion, early start, etc.).• Network charts and CPM analysis used to be carried out by hand.• Software is now available which requires the user only to enter thetasks, duration of each task and dependencies upon other tasks; anetwork chart and CPM is then automatically created.29
  30. 30. | contact@wizardea.comDevelop Schedule > Tools and Techniques• Why Critical Path Method (CPM)• The CPM formally identifies tasks which must be completed on timefor the whole project to be completed on time• Identifies which tasks can be delayed for a while if resource needs tobe reallocated to catch up on missed tasks• It helps you to identify the minimum length of time needed tocomplete a project• The CPM determines both the early start and the late start date foreach activity in the schedule.30
  31. 31. | contact@wizardea.comDevelop Schedule > Tools and Techniques• How to Use CPMSAMPLETask ID Duration DependencyA 7B 3C 6 AD 3 BE 3 D, FF 2 BG 3 CH 2 E, G3131
  32. 32. | contact@wizardea.comDevelop Schedule > Tools and Techniques• Calculating the Forward Pass3232
  33. 33. | contact@wizardea.comSchedule Development >> Tools andTechniques• Calculating the Backward Pass3333
  34. 34. | contact@wizardea.comDevelop Schedule >> Tools and Techniques• Calculating the Critical Path3434
  35. 35. | contact@wizardea.comDevelop Schedule > Tools and Techniques• Critical Chain Method (CCM)• Critical Chain Method (CCM), is a schedule network analysistechniques that modifies the project schedule to account for limitedresources.• Initially, the project schedule network diagram is built using durationestimates with required dependencies and defined constrains as input.The critical path is then calculated. After the critical path is designed,resource availability is entered and the resource-limited schedule resultis determined. The resulting schedule often has an altered critical path.35
  36. 36. | contact@wizardea.comControl Schedule | Data Flow Diagram36Diagram Source | PMBOK 4th Edition
  37. 37. | contact@wizardea.comControl ScheduleInputs Tools & Techniques OutputsSchedule managementplanProject ScheduleWork performanceinformationOrganization processassetsPerformance reviewsVariance analysisProject managementsoftwareResource levelingWhat-if scenario analysisAdjusting leads and lagsProgress reportingSchedule compressionScheduling toolWork performancemeasurementsOrganizational process assetsupdatesChange requestsProject management planupdatesProject document updates3737
  38. 38. | contact@wizardea.comControl Schedule > Tools and Techniques• Progress reporting• Actual Start and Finish Dates• Remaining duration for unfinished tasks• Percent completion (from Earned Value Analysis)• Schedule Change Control System• Part of Integrated Change Control• Performance Measurements• Schedule Variance (SV), Schedule Performance Index (SPI) (fromEarned Value Analysis)• Schedule Comparison Bar Charts• Tracking
  39. 39. | contact@wizardea.comQuestions39• []•