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Ism wpresentation Ism wpresentation Document Transcript

  • Collective intelligence is a shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making in bacteria, animals, humans and computer networks.<br />The idea emerged from the writings of Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy(1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003) and other theorists<br />Group intelligence refers to a process by which large numbers of people simultaneously converge upon the same point(s) of knowledge.<br />Pierre Lévy (Tunis, 1956) is a French media scholar, most notable for the "collective intelligence" concept he introduced in a 1994 book,anticipating discussions that became popular in the 2000s, such as Wikipedia, wikinomics and the power of diffuse collaboration.<br />COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE <br />In Collective Intelligence, Pierre Levy offers a compelling vision of the new 'knowledge space', <br />'deterritorialization' of knowledge, brought about by the ability of the net and the web to facilitate rapid many-to-many communication, <br />might enable broader participation in decision-making, new modes of citizenship and community, <br />and the reciprocal exchange of information. <br />Levy draws a productive distinction between organic social groups (families, clans, tribes), organized social groups (nations, institutions, religions, and corporations) and self-organized groups (such as the virtual communities of the web). He links the emergence of the new knowledge space to the breakdown of geographic constraints on communication, of the declining loyalty of individuals to organized groups, and of the diminished power of nation-states to command the exclusive loyalty of their citizens. <br />The new knowledge communities will be voluntary, temporary, and tactical affiliations, defined through common intellectual enterprises and emotional investments. Members may shift from one community to another as their interests and needs change and they may belong to more than one community at the same time. Yet, they are held together through the mutual production and reciprocal exchange of knowledge. As Levy explains, <br />Henry Jenkins III (born June 4, 1958 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an American media scholar and currently a Provost Professor of Communication, Journalism, and Cinematic Arts, a joint professorship at the USC Annenberg School for Communication and the USC School of Cinematic Arts.[1] Previously, he was the Peter de Florez Professor of Humanities and Co-Director of the MIT Comparative Media Studies program with William Uricchio. He is also author of several books, including Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture and What Made Pistachio Nuts?: Early Sound Comedy and the Vaudeville Aesthetic.<br />@sakaerka<br />Ways of participation<br />Affiliations Memberships<br />formal and informal, in online communities centered around various forms of media, such as Friendster, Facebook, MySpace, message boards, metagaming,<br />or game clans.<br />Expressions <br />Producing new creative forms, such as digital sampling,<br />skinning and modding, fan videos, fan fiction, zines, or<br />mash-ups.<br />Collaborative problem solving <br />Working together in teams, formal<br />and informal, to complete tasks and develop new knowledge,<br />such as through Wikipedia, alternative reality gaming, or<br />spoiling.<br />Circulations <br />Shaping the flow of media, such as podcasting or<br />blogging.<br />new media literacies: <br />a set of cultural competencies and social skills<br />that young people need in the new media landscape. Participatory culture shifts the focus of literacy from individual expression to community involvement. The new literacies almost all involve social skills developed through collaboration and networking.<br />The new skills include:<br />Play <br />The capacity to experiment with the surroundings as a<br />form of problem solving.<br />Performance<br /> The ability to adopt alternative identities for the<br />purpose of improvisation and discovery.<br />Simulation <br />The ability to interpret and construct dynamic<br />models of real-world processes.<br />Appropriation <br />The ability to meaningfully sample and remix<br />media content.<br />Multitasking<br /> The ability to scan the environment and shift<br />focus onto salient details.<br />Distributed cognition<br /> The ability to interact meaningfully with<br />tools that expand mental capacities.<br />Collective intelligence <br />The ability to pool knowledge and compare<br />notes with others toward a common goal.<br />Judgment <br />The ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility<br />of different information sources.<br />Transmedia navigation <br />The ability to follow the flow of stories<br />and information across multiple modalities.<br />Networking <br />The ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate<br />information.<br />Negotiation <br />The ability to travel across diverse communities,<br />discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping<br />and following alternative norms.<br />