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Speech disorders by DR,ARSHAD
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Speech disorders by DR,ARSHAD

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  • 1. DISORDERS OF SPEECHAND LANGUAGE
  • 2. Aphasia or dysphasia Loss or impairment of the production or comprehension of spoken or written language because of an acquired lesion of the brain.
  • 3. Dysarthria and anarthria A defect in articulation with intact mental functions and comprehension of spoken and written language and normal syntax (grammatical construction of sentences). pure motor disorder of the muscles of articulation and may be a result of flaccid or spastic paralysis, rigidity, repetitive spasms (stuttering), or ataxia.
  • 4. Aphonia or dysphoniaAn alteration or loss of voice because of a disorder of the larynx or its innervation Articulation and language are unaffected
  • 5. APHASIA
  • 6. Receptive aphasia (Wernickesaphasia), lesion in the receptive language area, notably in Wernickes area. auditory and visual comprehension of language, naming of objects, and repetition of a sentence spoken by the examiner are all defective
  • 7. Anomic aphasia (isolationsyndrome), Infarcts that isolate the sensory language area from surrounding parietal and temporal cortex characterized by fluent but circumlocutory speech caused by word-finding difficulties. Some authorities doubt the existence of anomic aphasia as a distinct clinical entity because most patients with lesions in the left parietal lobe have difficulty with naming
  • 8. Transcortical aphasia of thereceptive (or sensory) type Some patients cannot understand words and sentences or produce intelligible speech, but they can correctly repeat what the examiner says. associated with destruction of cortex in the middle temporal gyrus, inferior and posterior to Wernickes receptive language area.
  • 9. Alexia loss of the ability to read common accompaniment of aphasia caused by temporal or parietal lobe lesions. In most cases, accompanied by agraphia, the inability to write.
  • 10. Pure alexia without agraphia and with normal comprehension of spoken wordsFrom single lesion lateral to the occipital horn of the left lateral ventricle or combination of two lesions, one in the left occipital lobe and the other in the splenium of the corpus callosum.
  • 11.  Such lesions sever connections between both visual cortices and the unilaterally located language areas
  • 12. Dyslexia incomplete alexia characterized by an inability to read more than a few lines with understanding. Developmental dyslexia is a common condition in children of normal intelligence who have difficulty learning to read. MRI examination reveals that some such children lack the usual anatomical asymmetry in the size of the planum temporale on the left and right sides.
  • 13. Expressive aphasia (Brocas aphasia), lesion in Brocas area of the frontal lobe, hesitant and distorted speech with relatively good comprehension. patient with Brocas aphasia can hear that he or she is talking nonsense patient with receptive aphasia talks fluently without being aware of the failure to produce meaningful words.
  • 14. causes transcortical aphasia of theexpressive (or motor) type cortical lesion anterior to Brocas expressive speech area. The impairment of spontaneous speech is similar to Brocas aphasia, but the patient can accurately repeat words or phrases spoken by someone else.
  • 15. Global aphasia virtually complete loss of the ability to communicate after destruction of the cortex on both sides of the lateral sulcus. one of the consequences of occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery
  • 16. Conduction aphasia Interruption of the arcuate fasciculus connecting Wernickes and Brocas areas patient has poor repetition of a sentence spoken by the examiner but relatively good comprehension and spontaneous speech

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