Intro Nonverbal Communication .2009

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COM510 Class meeting September 14, 2009

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Intro Nonverbal Communication .2009

  1. 1. Nonverbal Communication<br />Introduction<br />
  2. 2. What Is Nonverbal Communication?<br />Labeling and Defining<br />Limits of domain?<br />Conceptually dysfunctional?<br />Linkages of body movement & individual com system, and between interactants<br />Terminology for “covering label” (Knapp et al, 1978)<br />Body language<br />Kinesics<br />Pasimology—gestures (or sign language)<br />Coenesis or coenetics—encompassed all<br />Semiotics—”patterned communication in all modalities”<br />
  3. 3. Issues to Illuminate Study<br />Too much emphasis on deducing nature of field from covering label<br />Attend more to premises, assumptions, definitions; e.g. theoretical frameworks<br />
  4. 4. Issues to Illuminate Study<br />E.g., level of analysis—single NV cue, isolated display, non-interactive or episodic<br />Implications?<br />
  5. 5. Issues to Illuminate Study<br />Vs. multiple or sequenced NV cues, interactive/relational<br />Implications?<br />Hitch love expert stumbling (6:30)<br />
  6. 6. Issues to Illuminate Study<br />Can we distinguish NV behavior (NVB) vis-à-vis NV communication (NVC)? <br />Issues identified by theorists 1970, 1978<br />Communicator intent (Burgoon, source orientation)<br />Awareness (receiver orientation; conscious of message, ascribes intent)<br />Meaning—e.g. message orientation; publicly encoded, socially shared meaning; responded to in systematic fashion.<br />Units “counted as meaningful”<br />
  7. 7. Approaches to Study NVB<br />Each research thrust has own assumptions, methodologies<br />Variable-analytic tradition<br />Structural research—source, message, channel, or receiver capacities<br />Functional lines<br />Context<br />Nonverbal skills, abilities (competency)<br />
  8. 8. Research Approaches 1<br /><ul><li>Variable-analytic tradition
  9. 9. Examples: Ekman & Friesen’s (1972) analysis of hand gestures; Patterson’s (1974) analysis of space
  10. 10. Burgoon—3 general types
  11. 11. Usage patterns—gaze, conversational distance (proxemics), gestures, touch
  12. 12. As independent variables; e.g., environment on COM
  13. 13. As dependent variables; e.g., pupil reflex is sensitive measure of responsiveness to aversive and supportive COM (Hays & Plax), spacing behavior influenced by interpersonal attraction (Burgoon)</li></li></ul><li>Pupil Reflex<br />
  14. 14. Research Approaches 2 (& 4)<br />Structural Research Approach<br />Source and receiver capacities; can include NV competency<br />PONS Test (Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity)—see image right<br />Self-monitoring scale<br />Code properties<br />Kinesics—Birdwhistell<br />Proxemics—Hall<br />Facial expressions—Ekman, Ekman & Friesen<br />Code & channel comparisons<br />Cingular—mixed messages<br />Gestures & verbal output<br />
  15. 15. Research Approaches 3<br />Functional Perspectives<br />Ekman & Friesen (1969) five basic functions of NVB (links verbal-NV)<br />Repeat verbal<br />Substitute<br />Complement or clarify<br />Contradict<br />Emphasize<br />Criticism that treats NVB as subordinate or supplementary to verbal<br />Burgoon 1970 proposed “new” taxonomy:<br />Symbolic representations<br />Expressive communication<br />Structuring of interaction<br />Impression formation/mgt<br />Metacommunication<br />Social influence<br />
  16. 16. Research Approaches 3<br />Functional Perspective<br />Burgoon ~1985, 1996 offered different “new” taxonomy:<br />Producing & processing messages<br />Structuring interaction<br />Creating/managing identities<br />Forming/managing impressions<br />Expressing emotions<br />Defining/managing relationships<br />Regulating conversations<br />Influencing others<br />Deceiving others<br />
  17. 17. Research Approaches 4 & 5<br />Context(s)—much to uncover<br />Type—E.g., Intimate vs. impersonal; Task vs. social<br />Activity—love, work<br />Nonverbal skills, abilities (competency)<br />Decoding, encoding<br />Deception <br />Lie to Me clip Season 1 Feb. 18 (2:27)<br />
  18. 18. Origins & Development<br />Ontogeny? Phylogeny? Need to understand<br />How do we incorporate NVBs into communicative repertoire?<br />How do NVBs manifest throughout human lifespan?<br />Raises questions like<br />Universality<br />Innateness <br />Desmond Morris—The Human Zoo (49:12)<br />The Human Zoo Part 1 (10:13)<br />

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